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L9 Machinic Assemblages

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CRITICAL THEORY / PHILOSOPHY OF TECHNOLOGY Guattari extends the concept of the machine beyond its usual sense to see all the diverse forces that produce a technical object as themselves machinic. This difficult but rewarding reading begins by referring to a number of philosophical readings of technology, and progresses to develop an extended definition of the machine.

Guattari, Felix (1995) “Machinic Heterogenesis” in Chaosmosis: an ethico-aesthetic paradigm Sydney:Power, pp 33-57.

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L9 Machinic Assemblages

  1. 1. Technological Assemblages ARIN2600 Technocultures Week 10, Session 1, 2009 Chris Chesher
  2. 2. Recent weeks
  3. 3. Recent weeks • Components in the UoS assemblage
  4. 4. Recent weeks • Components in the UoS assemblage • control / freedom
  5. 5. Recent weeks • Components in the UoS assemblage • control / freedom • media as message
  6. 6. Recent weeks • Components in the UoS assemblage • control / freedom • media as message • cyborgs
  7. 7. Recent weeks • Components in the UoS assemblage • control / freedom • media as message • cyborgs • social actors and forces
  8. 8. Recent weeks • Components in the UoS assemblage • control / freedom • media as message • cyborgs • social actors and forces • class relations
  9. 9. Recent weeks • Components in the UoS assemblage • control / freedom • media as message • cyborgs • social actors and forces • class relations • space
  10. 10. Recent weeks • Components in the UoS assemblage • control / freedom • media as message • cyborgs • social actors and forces • class relations • space • actor-networks
  11. 11. Connecting these components…
  12. 12. Connecting these components… • Transversality: crosswise • Movements across the social, psychological, technological, biological
  13. 13. Connecting these components… • Transversality: crosswise • Movements across the social, psychological, technological, biological • Objects are constituted by processes • emergence; events • isolating foreground from background
  14. 14. Connecting these components…
  15. 15. Connecting these components… • Deleuze and Guattari • French philosophers writing 1960s–1990s • Translated into English since 1980s
  16. 16. Connecting these components… • Deleuze and Guattari • French philosophers writing 1960s–1990s • Translated into English since 1980s • Manuel de Landa • War in the age of intelligent machines • Deleuzo-Guattarian theorist
  17. 17. ‘Machinic Heterogenesis’ What is Guattari doing?
  18. 18. What is Guattari doing?
  19. 19. What is Guattari doing? • Critiquing established systems of thought • psychoanalysis; structuralism; capitalism
  20. 20. What is Guattari doing? • Critiquing established systems of thought • psychoanalysis; structuralism; capitalism • Creating new concepts • generative processes producing technologies, individuals, societies & other assemblages
  21. 21. What is Guattari doing? • Critiquing established systems of thought • psychoanalysis; structuralism; capitalism • Creating new concepts • generative processes producing technologies, individuals, societies & other assemblages • Developing an ethics • affirms the untiring renewal of machinic assemblages
  22. 22. Guattari’s Critiques • Theories of technology • mechanistic; vitalist; cybernetic; Heideggerean • Psychoanalysis • Not Lacan’s Oedipal lack, but Desiring machines • Structuralism • Not all semiotics work as significations (presignifying/asignifying systems: the point sign) • Capitalism • not (only) exploitation / alienation, but closes off heterogeneous becomings
  23. 23. Guattari’s Examples
  24. 24. Guattari’s Examples • The material apparatus (p34)
  25. 25. Guattari’s Examples • The material energy components apparatus (p34) •material and
  26. 26. Guattari’s Examples • The material energy components apparatus (p34) •material and • semiotic, diagrammatic, algorithmic components
  27. 27. Guattari’s Examples • The material energy components apparatus (p34) •material and • semiotic, diagrammatic, algorithmic components • individual & collective mental representations and information
  28. 28. Guattari’s Examples • The material energy components apparatus (p34) •material and • semiotic, diagrammatic, algorithmic components • individual & collective mental representations and information • investments of desiring machines producing a subjectivity adjacent to these components
  29. 29. Guattari’s Examples • The material energy components apparatus (p34) •material and • semiotic, diagrammatic, algorithmic components • individual & collective mental representations and information • investments of desiring machines producing a subjectivity adjacent to these components • abstract machines installing themselves transversally to the machinic levels previously considered (material, cognitive, affectual & social)
  30. 30. Guattari’s Examples
  31. 31. Guattari’s Examples • Concorde
  32. 32. Guattari’s Examples • Concorde • diagrammatic universe with plans of theoretical feasibility;
  33. 33. Guattari’s Examples • Concorde • diagrammatic universe with plans of theoretical feasibility; • technological universes transposing this ‘feasibility’ into material terms;
  34. 34. Guattari’s Examples • Concorde • diagrammatic universe with plans of theoretical feasibility; • technological universes transposing this ‘feasibility’ into material terms; • industrial universes… producing it;
  35. 35. Guattari’s Examples • Concorde • diagrammatic universe with plans of theoretical feasibility; • technological universes transposing this ‘feasibility’ into material terms; • industrial universes… producing it; • collective Imaginary Universes corresponding to a desire sufficient to make it see the light of day
  36. 36. Guattari’s Examples • Concorde • diagrammatic universe with plans of theoretical feasibility; • technological universes transposing this ‘feasibility’ into material terms; • industrial universes… producing it; • collective Imaginary Universes corresponding to a desire sufficient to make it see the light of day • political & economic universes… credit
  37. 37. Guattari’s Examples http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/maa/Interview_with_the_Minotaur/Luzzanas.gif
  38. 38. Guattari’s Examples • Machinic universes (p41) http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/maa/Interview_with_the_Minotaur/Luzzanas.gif
  39. 39. Guattari’s Examples • Machinic universes (p41) • Neololithic machines http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/maa/Interview_with_the_Minotaur/Luzzanas.gif
  40. 40. Guattari’s Examples • Machinic universes (p41) • Neololithic machines •machine of spoken language http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/maa/Interview_with_the_Minotaur/Luzzanas.gif
  41. 41. Guattari’s Examples • Machinic universes (p41) • Neololithic machines •machine of spoken language •machines of hewn stone http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/maa/Interview_with_the_Minotaur/Luzzanas.gif
  42. 42. Guattari’s Examples • Machinic universes (p41) • Neololithic machines •machine of spoken language •machines of hewn stone •agrarian machines http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/maa/Interview_with_the_Minotaur/Luzzanas.gif
  43. 43. Guattari’s Examples • Machinic universes (p41) • Neololithic machines •machine of spoken language •machines of hewn stone •agrarian machines • Writing machine http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/maa/Interview_with_the_Minotaur/Luzzanas.gif
  44. 44. Guattari’s Examples • Machinic universes (p41) • Neololithic machines • machine of spoken language • machines of hewn stone • agrarian machines • Writing machine • Urban megamachines http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/maa/Interview_with_the_Minotaur/Luzzanas.gif
  45. 45. Guattari’s Examples • Machinic universes (p41) • Neololithic machines • machine of spoken language • machines of hewn stone • agrarian machines • Writing machine • Urban megamachines • Capitalistic machines http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/maa/Interview_with_the_Minotaur/Luzzanas.gif
  46. 46. Guattari’s Examples • Machinic universes (p41) • Neololithic machines • machine of spoken language • machines of hewn stone • agrarian machines • Writing machine • Urban megamachines • Capitalistic machines • urban state / Royal / commercial / navigation… http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/maa/Interview_with_the_Minotaur/Luzzanas.gif
  47. 47. Building concepts
  48. 48. Building concepts • Deterritorialisation something from one •any process that extracts territory and reconstitutes in another
  49. 49. Building concepts • Deterritorialisation something from one • any process that extracts territory and reconstitutes in another • Universes of reference • deterritorialisations of different varieties establish and operate according to different universes of reference
  50. 50. Building concepts • Deterritorialisation something from one • any process that extracts territory and reconstitutes in another • Universes of reference • deterritorialisations of different varieties establish and operate according to different universes of reference • Abstract machinediagram of relations between • a distinctive map or forces by which reterritorialisations are produced
  51. 51. Building concepts • Deterritorialisation something from one • any process that extracts territory and reconstitutes in another • Universes of reference • deterritorialisations of different varieties establish and operate according to different universes of reference • Abstract machinediagram of relations between • a distinctive map or forces by which reterritorialisations are produced • Machinic assemblages connecting universes of • components that transversally reference that maintain a consistency based on an abstract machine
  52. 52. Developing concepts
  53. 53. Developing concepts • Ontogenesis and phylogenesis
  54. 54. Developing concepts • Ontogenesis and phylogenesis • Enunciative consistency
  55. 55. Developing concepts • Ontogenesis and phylogenesis • Enunciative consistency • Assemblages of subjectivation
  56. 56. Developing concepts • Ontogenesis and phylogenesis • Enunciative consistency • Assemblages of subjectivation • Asignifying semiotics
  57. 57. Developing concepts • Ontogenesis and phylogenesis • Enunciative consistency • Assemblages of subjectivation • Asignifying semiotics • Point sign
  58. 58. Developing concepts • Ontogenesis and phylogenesis • Enunciative consistency • Assemblages of subjectivation • Asignifying semiotics • Point sign • Alterity (alterification)
  59. 59. Developing concepts • Ontogenesis and phylogenesis • Enunciative consistency • Assemblages of subjectivation • Asignifying semiotics • Point sign • Alterity (alterification) • Structure / machine
  60. 60. Aesthetics and ethics
  61. 61. Aesthetics and ethics • Ontological relativity
  62. 62. Aesthetics and ethics • Ontological relativity • Heterogenising force of the abstract machine • ‘untiring renewal of the consistency of machinic assemblages of valorisation’
  63. 63. Aesthetics and ethics • Ontological relativity • Heterogenising force of the abstract machine • ‘untiring renewal of the consistency of machinic assemblages of valorisation’ • This is not a normative morality, but a heterogenising ethics
  64. 64. Aesthetics and ethics • Ontological relativity • Heterogenising force of the abstract machine • ‘untiring renewal of the consistency of machinic assemblages of valorisation’ • This is not a normative morality, but a heterogenising ethics • Aesthetics of becoming
  65. 65. Some examples of machinic assemblages
  66. 66. schecter20 Guitar riff, post feedback http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnBQIcCGw80
  67. 67. Ontological universes • Reterritorialisations: equipment; sound; YouTube • Universes of reference: musical scales feedback thresholds • Assemblages of subjectivation Heavy metal identities • Singularities
  68. 68. Ontological universes • Reterritorialisations: equipment; sound; YouTube • Universes of reference: musical scales feedback thresholds • Assemblages of subjectivation Heavy metal identities • Singularities
  69. 69. Ontological universes • AC/DC • Financing • Touring schedules, promotion, album sales • Global Fan Community
  70. 70. 2008 Year-End Shipment Statistics Manufacturers' Unit Shipments and Retail Dollar Value 202-775-0101 (In Millions, net after returns) Digital % CHANGE % CHANGE 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2006-2007 2007-2008 • - - - - - - 139.4 366.9 586.4 809.9 38.1% 1,033.0 27.5% (Units Shipped) Download Single - - - - - - 138.0 363.3 580.6 801.6 38.1% 1,022.7 27.6% (Dollar Value) - - - - - - 4.6 13.6 27.6 42.5 54.0% 56.9 33.9% Download Album - - - - - - 45.5 135.7 275.9 424.9 54.0% 568.9 33.9% - - - - - - - 0.7 1.4 1.8 28.5% 1.6 -8.7% 1 Kiosk - - - - - - - 1.0 1.9 2.6 38.1% 2.6 -1.2% - - - - - - - 1.9 9.9 14.2 43.0% 20.8 46.7% Music Video - - - - - - - 3.7 19.7 28.2 43.0% 41.3 46.7% Total Units - - - - - - 143.9 383.1 625.3 868.4 38.9% 1,112.3 28.1% Total Value - - - - - - 183.4 503.6 878.0 1,257.2 43.2% 1,635.4 30.1% - - - - - - - 170.0 315.0 362.0 14.9% 338.4 -6.5% Mobile2 - - - - - - - 421.6 773.8 880.8 13.8% 816.3 -7.3% - - - - - - - 1.3 1.3 1.8 42.8% 1.6 -15.0% Subscription3 - - - - - - - 149.2 206.2 201.3 -2.4% 188.2 -6.5% Digital Performance Royalties4 - - - - - - 6.9 27.4 31.5 47.0 49.2% 81.8 74.1% Physical 847.0 938.9 942.5 881.9 803.3 746.0 767.0 705.4 619.7 511.1 -17.5% 384.7 -24.7% CD 11,416.0 12,816.3 13,214.5 12,909.4 12,044.1 11,232.9 11446.5 10,520.2 9,372.6 7,452.3 -20.5% 5,471.3 -26.6% 56.0 55.9 34.2 17.3 4.5 8.3 3.1 2.8 1.7 2.6 51.5% 0.7 -71.7% CD Single 213.2 222.4 142.7 79.4 19.6 36.0 14.982 10.9 7.7 12.2 59.0% 3.5 -71.3% 158.5 123.6 76.0 45.0 31.1 17.2 5.2 2.5 0.7 0.4 -41.2% 0.1 -62.8% Cassette 1,419.9 1,061.6 626.0 363.4 209.8 108.1 23.7 13.1 3.7 3.0 -18.4% 0.9 -70.7% 3.4 2.9 2.2 2.3 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.3 36.6% 2.9 124.1% LP/EP 34.0 31.8 27.7 27.4 20.5 21.7 19.3 14.2 15.7 22.9 46.2% 56.7 147.7% 5.4 5.3 4.8 5.5 4.4 3.8 3.5 2.3 1.5 0.6 -58.5% 0.4 -30.9% Vinyl Single 25.7 27.9 26.3 31.4 24.9 21.5 19.9 13.2 9.9 4.0 -59.6% 2.9 -27.4% 27.2 19.8 18.2 17.7 14.7 19.9 32.8 33.8 23.2 27.5 18.6% 12.8 -53.6% Music Video 508.0 376.7 281.9 329.2 288.4 399.9 607.2 602.2 451.1 484.9 7.5% 218.9 -54.9% 0.5 2.5 3.3 7.9 10.7 17.5 29.0 27.8 22.3 26.6 19.4% 12.3 -53.8% DVD Video5 12.2 66.3 80.3 190.7 236.3 369.6 561.0 539.8 442.8 476.1 7.5% 215.7 -54.7% Total Units6 1123.9 1160.6 1079.2 968.5 859.7 798.4 814.1 748.7 648.2 543.9 -16.1% 401.8 -26.1% Total Value6 13,711.2 14,584.7 14,323.7 13,740.9 12,614.2 11,854.4 12,154.7 11,195.0 9,868.6 7,985.8 -19.1% 5,758.5 -27.9% Total Retail Units 869.7 788.6 733.1 675.7 658.2 687.0 634.8 558.8 464.4 -16.9% 348.7 -24.9% Total Retail Value 13,048.0 12,705.0 12,388.8 11,549.0 11,053.4 11,423.0 10,477.5 9,269.7 7,495.3 -19.1% 5,474.3 -27.0% Total Digital & Physical Total Units7 1,123.9 1,160.6 1,079.2 968.5 859.7 798.4 958.0 1,301.8 1,588.5 1,774.3 11.7% 1,852.5 4.4% Total Value 13,711.2 14,584.7 14,323.7 13,740.9 12,614.2 11,854.4 12,345.0 12,296.9 11,758.2 10,372.1 -11.8% 8,480.2 -18.2% Retail value is value of shipments at recommended or estimated list price 1 % of Shipments 2005 2006 2007 2008 Includes Singles and Albums 2 Physical 91% 84% 77% 68% Includes Master Ringtunes, Ringbacks, Music Videos, Full Length Downloads, and Other Mobile 3 Digital 9% 16% 23% 32% Weighted Annual Average 4 Estimated payments in dollars to artists and record companies distributed by SoundExchange. Amounts based on prior year's collections and airplay 5 While broken out for this chart, DVD Video Product is included in the Music Video totals 6 Total includes Cassette Single, DVD Audio, and SACD shipments not broken out separately in this report 7 Units total includes both albums and singles, and does not include subscriptions or royalties Permission to cite or copy these statistics is hereby granted, as long as proper attribution is given to the Recording Industry Association of America.
  71. 71. P.W. Singer Military robots and the future of war
  72. 72. P.W. Singer Military robots and the future of war
  73. 73. Manuel de Landa War in the age of intelligent machines
  74. 74. Manuel de Landa War in the age of intelligent machines
  75. 75. Abstract machine • Clockwork Steam engine • Syllogism Boolean logic • Abstract motor: • reservoir • exploitable difference • diagram or program to exploit differences
  76. 76. http://www.technologystudent.com/elec1/dig2.htm
  77. 77. Machinic phylum • process by which order emerges from chaos (p20) • emergence of singularities • e.g. dynamics of a storm formation • integration of elements into an assemblage more than the sum of its parts (p20)
  78. 78. Big Dog http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W1czBcnX1Ww
  79. 79. Essay questions • Q1. Analyse how YouTube appropriates and exploits other media, with reference to McLuhan. As a cultural form, is it closest to cinema, television or home movies? Justify your answer with reference to specific examples. • Q2. In ‘A cyborg manifesto’, Haraway identifies a contemporary transition from hierarchical domination to networked informatics of domination. Concentrate on one or two of the examples of this transition in evaluating whether the trends that she identified in the early 1990s have continued, accelerated or changed. • Q3. Trace the development of a standard of Internet software (eg web, email, swf, blogger, google search), following a SCOT analysis. Has this standard found closure?
  80. 80. Essay questions • Q4. Compare & contrast different conceptions of how social class relates to information technology (refer to the readings on Class and technology). What are the implications of each analysis for policy and action? • Q5. Analyse the spatialities involved in a computer game you have played: both the space ‘inside’ the game, and the space in your house / arcade / internet café / remote networks in which you play. What is distinctive about the way this game works with space? Refer to the readings on technology and spatiality. • Q6. What is a machine? Compare and contrast Guattari’s concept of the machine with conventional dictionary definitions. • Q7. Write an essay that analyses how you will write / are writing / have written that essay; with attention to how the technologies you used contribute to your thinking and your writing. (refer to the readings on technology and thought)
  81. 81. Next week
  82. 82. Next week • Heidegger and technology
  83. 83. Next week • Heidegger and technology • Heidegger, Martin, Macquarie, John, and Robinson, Edward (Trans) (1961 [1927]) Being and time, New York: Harper and Row: 95-107.
  84. 84. Next week • Heidegger and technology • Heidegger, Martin, Macquarie, John, and Robinson, Edward (Trans) (1961 [1927]) Being and time, New York: Harper and Row: 95-107. • Winograd, Terry (1995) ‘Heidegger and the design of computer systems’ in Feenberg, Andrew and Hannay, Alastair (1995) Technology and the politics of knowledge, Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press: 108–127.

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