The Archaeology ofIntra- and Inter-ethnic Communitiesat Stanford, CaliforniaChristopher Lowman, UC Berkeley
Chinese descendent community interests regardingMarket Street Chinatown:• What was the relationship of the Market Street Chinatown tothe wider San Francisco Bay Area Chinese population?• What was the social and business interactions betweenChinese and non-Chinese people in San Jose?• What was the intra-Chinese ethnicity of people living at thesite?– (Voss 2005)
Research Questions• 1. Does the material evidence of daily practice reflect asuccessfully racialized landscape, such as distinct use ofdelineated boundaries?• 2. Is there evidence of inter-ethnic community formation inthe form of material exchange, mixed work spaces, or sharedfoodways between population groups living at Stanford?• 3. Does evidence of intra-ethnic material exchange beyondStanford suggest regional patterns of trade, kinship groups, oridentity-based practices that contributed to the creation ofcommunities?
Timeline• 1869: Completion of theTranscontinental Railroad.• 1876: Leland Stanford purchasesland for the Palo Alto Stock Farm.1/3 of employees are Chinese.• 1882: First Exclusion Act severelylimits Chinese immigration.• 1885: Construction of StanfordUniversity begins. A Chinese workforce constructs some of the firststreets.• 1887: Market Street Chinatown inSan José is burned.• 1891: Stanford University opens.All cooks are Chinese.• 1892: Second Exclusion Act. Anti-Chinese sentiments published inPalo Alto soon after.• 1900: Far fewer Chinese employeesare at Stanford than ever before.
Doumen County(formerly Huangliang Du Administrative Region)Chinese America: History & Perspectives 1998
Working on the Stanford ResidenceAh Wing in 1905, Memoir from 1906 Gardener working on carpet flowerbed, Stanford Residence 1888Palo Alto Historical ArchivesStanford University Archives
Types of WorkVegetable Seller on Alvarado Row, c. 1890s- Housekeeping- (private residences, boardinghouses, fraternities)- Stock Farm Employees- (horses, barley)- Construction- (roads)- Fruit and Vegetable Growers- (strawberries, lettuce)- Cooks- (residence halls, fraternities)- Janitors- (residence halls)Stanford University Archives
Four Sites: Sites 1 and 2 (Boarding Houses on the Stock Farm)Vegetable Grounds with Boarding House,“China House,” 1880. Sites 1 and 2.Detail of Stanford Residence Map featuring a“China Camp”, 1879. Possible shared orsegregated work space for Sites 1 and 2.Stanford University ArchivesStanford University Archives
Four Sites: Sites 3 and 4 (Residences and Fraternities)Faculty and StudentHousing, 1915Obituary for Lund Bing Moy, c.1925History San JoséStanford University Archives
Neighboring Communities: Mountain ViewChinese Camp on C.C. Morse SeedRanch, photographed 1940s-1960s but likelydating much earlierYuen Lung Store on View Street, 1879-1946Mountain View Public LibraryHistory San José
Neighboring Communities: San JoséJue Mon Get and Friend, San José c. 1910s“Chinese Sam” at theQuicksilver MiningCompany, before 1889History San JoséHistory San José
Schedule• Summer 2013: continued Archival and Historical Research• Fall Semester 2013: topographic survey, GIS layer map• Spring Semester 2014: obtain funding, permits• Summer 2014: 8 week course-based excavation season (1)• Fall Semester 2014: 10 weeks lab analysis• Spring Semester 2015: 10 week lab analysis, 10 week course-based excavation season (2)• Summer 2015: finish lab analysis
Data Collection- Archival and Oral HistoricalResearch:- GIS:- Sampling:- Excavation:- Faunal Analysis:- Paleoethnobotanical Analysis:- Ceramic, Glass, and MetalAnalysis:Stanford University Archives
For Now: Archival and Oral Historical Research