The Birthplace Of Jazz• Americas only indigenous art form• The only music genre native to the US• Jazz (originally spelled Jass)• Started New Orleans, near the end of the 19th Century
Jazz Congo SquareOn Sundays, New Orleans slaves met at Congo Square for trading, worship, dancing, singing, and music.These traditional West African rhythms eventually evolved into Ragtime, the precursor of Jazz.
Jazz Ragtime• Ragtime was set in traditional song forms such as waltzes.• Its defining characteristic was syncopation.• Ragtime’s popularity lasted from about 1893 to the beginning of World War I.• The most famous ragtime composer was Scott Joplin, who published the first of his many ‘rags’ in 1899.
Jazz SyncopationSyncopation is a general term for "a disturbance or interruptionof the regular flow of rhythm": a "placement of rhythmicstresses or accents where they wouldnt normally occur."
Jazz Is Born Buddy Bolden• Buddy Bolden first bandleader to play what ultimately was called Jazz.• By the end of the 19th Century.• Self-Proclaimed “King” of the Coronet• Known for his loud, clear tone and freewheeling style.• No recordings of his playing have survived.
Red Hot Jazz In The Red Light District• Many early jazz musicians got their start working in bordellos in New Orleans’ infamous Storyville District.• After Storyville was closed in 1917, many of these musicians made their way to Chicago, spreading Jazz northward.
L-R Jelly-Roll Morton Louis Armstrong & Joe “King” Oliver
First Jazz Recording• In 1917, “The Original Dixieland Jazz Band” a white group, made the first jazz recording, Livery Stable Blues.• Freddy Keppard, a black bandleader, had been offered the chance to make the first jazz record, but refused because he was afraid others would copy his style.
Jazz Swing• Swing originated in Kansas City and Harlem in the late 1920s• Became a national craze• The average big band had 15 members• Music was often written to showcase soloists• Venues such as the Cotton Club and the Savoy were packed every night• Swing’s popularity lasted into the mid 1940s
Duke Ellington The King Of Swing•Edward Kennedy Ellington•Born on April 29, 1899 in Washington, D.C.•Formed his first group in 1917.•He and his group won national fame when they were broadcastlive from the Cotton Club in 1923.
Jazz The Ellington Band• Played everywhere from New York to New Delhi, Chicago to Cairo, and Los Angeles to London. Ellington and his band played with such greats as Miles Davis, Cab Calloway, Dizzy Gillespie, Ella Fitzgerald, and Louis Armstrong.• Ultimately, they entertained everyone from Queen Elizabeth II to President Nixon.
Jazz Duke Ellington• Died in 1974.• Wrote and recorded hundreds of musical compositions.• They continue to have a lasting effect upon people worldwide.
Other legendary bandleaders included Count Benny Basie Artie Shaw Goodman
Swing SoloistsMany talented musicians gained fame appearing the bigbands.The bands were integrated before the concert halls Ella Fitzgerald Billie Holiday
Jazz BebopRevolting against the confining nature of swing.Bop gained prominence in the mid-40s.Start in Kansas City and Harlem.The top bop musicians included: Charlie “Bird” Parker Thelonius Monk Dizzy Gillespie
Progressive JazzProgressive, or Cool, Jazz developed primarilyon the West Coast in the late1940s and early 50s. Dave Brubeck Miles Davis
Jazz Neo-bop• In the mid-1950s• East Coast U.S.• Small groups led by John Coltrane, Sonny Rollins, Cannonball Adderley & Art Blakey pictured below• Marked by crackling, explosive, and uncompromising intensity.
Jazz Jazz/Fusion• Late 1960s• Jazz musicians explored the connections between rock and jazz Fusion.• The musicians included Keith Jarrett, Wayne Shorter & Chick Corea.• One of the most influential records from this time is Miles Davis‘Bitches Brew’
Summary JazzJazz continues to be a powerful and vibrant musical form. Inslightly more than 100 years, it has given birth to approximatelytwo dozen distinct Jazz styles. “The real power of Jazz…is that a group of people can come together and create… improvised art and negotiate their agendas…and that negotiation is the art.” Wynton Marsalis from ‘Jazz, a film by Ken Burns’