DiscoveryThe primary process used in science to uncover new knowledge.
CreativityThe ability to see a problem in several dimensions.The ability to truly understand the problem at hand.
Patents• Provide inventors with exclusive rights to manufacture a device for a period of time that has been fixed. Currently 17 yrs.• Assigned to individuals, not corporations.
Patents Cont.The inventor must keep dated logs in order to prove whoinvented something first.“Patent Pending” – the inventor has applied for a patent, butnot received it yet.
TrademarksTrademarks give an individual or corporation a right to identify aproduct with a graphic symbol that customers can readilyrecognize for the quality and service they have earned.Generally, a trademark has no time limit.
CopyrightsProvide the creators of written materials the right to a profitfrom the sale of their works for a definite period of time.Related to written material, graphic material, or music.
Science• The pursuit of new knowledge about nature.• Its primary goal is knowledge, not solutions to problems.
Engineering• Definition-The profession in which the knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize economically the materials and the forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.• The deliberate, orderly process through which technology is created.
TechnologyThe innovation, change, or modification of the natural environment to satisfy the perceived human wants and needs.
DesignThe process of designing solutions to technological problems— innovating and inventing.
History of Invention, Innovation andDiscoveryThe greatest difference between science and technology is purpose.
• The main purpose of science was curiosity, where the main purpose of technology was a matter of survival.• Science and technology need and serve each other while serving mankind.
Early civilizations were based on just a fewinventions: • The plough • Stonecutting • Handwriting • Spinning • Metallurgy • Weaving • Pottery • Surveying instruments • Brick making • And more…
7 Mechanisms that affect Invention andInnovation1. Deliberate search2. Deliberate search for 1 thing that leads to something else3. Totally unrelated developments have an effect on the main event4. Military needs or military inventions give rise to intense development efforts and equally significant social change.5. Result of religion6. Weather & other natural forces7. Pure accident
Invention, Innovation and Discovery TodayA few of the most influential factors which are of a different origin than theprevious 7 mechanisms… 1. Information and Communication Technology 2. The faster we can communicate, the faster we can influence others with new inspiration and new inventions 2. Specialization of knowledge and teamwork 3. The rise of organized science 4. In the past, discoveries often followed the practical application 5. Technology preceded science 6. Today, technology rarely precedes science
The influence of GovernmentThe need for rapid wartime development of technologytends to push the envelope of efficiency.The funding of research which is often available for theasking.Government can also influence invention and innovationby legislation that creates the rules others must play by.
Intellectual PropertyTo promote rapid growth of technology, there had to be something in it for both users and producers, and if the correct balance could be found, it would be good for the country.