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Music Industry & Technology


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The Music Industry & Technological Innovation

Published in: Entertainment & Humor

Music Industry & Technology

  1. 1. Technology & The Music Industry Music Industry Chris Baker
  2. 2. Outline: 2X RevolutionsProduction Technologies Delivery Technologies History History Current Issues Current Issues Trends Trends
  3. 3. A Dual Edge Technological innovation’s downside: Obsolescence Frictional unemployment Disruption of existing business models Property disputes May enhance power structures
  4. 4. A Dual EdgeTechnological innovation’s upside: Efficiency Standardization Increased accuracy/quality Improved price/performance ratios Individual empowerment May erode power structures
  5. 5. Production Technologies: PianoPianoforte developed around 1720, by Bartolomeo Cristofori ofPadua, ItalyReplaced harpsichord as the standard keyboard instrument“velocity sensitive”Forced acceptance of Equal Temperament as the tuningstandard for Western music“Settled” a tuning argument that began with Pythagoreans vAristotoleans, circa 400 BC
  6. 6. Production Technologies: HornsEarly Horns included straight trumpets made of wood, bronzeand silver such as the salpinx found in Greece, and the Romantuba, lituus, and buccinaThe modern brass orchestra became feasible only after 1840,when machines capable of making consistent valves wereinventedBeethoven first major composer to use trombones, in his 5thand 9th symphonies
  7. 7. Production Technologies: EngravingGutenberg Bible: 1455Constance Gradual first fully-printed sheet music, 1473(Germany); Used freehand wood engravingBrietkopf (Germany) developed moveable type system for musicin 1754Lithography first used to print music in 1796, used limestoneplatesPhotolithography using zinc plates perfected 1860
  8. 8. Production Technologies: Copyright• 1709: Statute of Anne 1st British © law• U.S. Copyright Act of 1790: books, maps• Berne Convention 1887 rationalizes international copyright law (except in U.S.)• Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act 1998 adds years, favors corporations• Life of Author, plus 75 - 95 years• Mickey Mouse would have entered public domain 2000
  9. 9. Production Technologies: ElectricalRecordingElectrical Recording developed by AT&T 1924, popularized byVictor as “Orthophonic”IMPACT:•Better sound quality•Easier recording setups•Music now fills the home•Crooners replace belters
  10. 10. Production Technologies: Tape RecordingMagnetic Tape developed in Nazi Germany - AEG MagnetophonU.S. Army Signal Corp liberates technology, delivers it to AmpexBing Crosby finances developmentIMPACT:•Sound Quality•Time Shifting•Editing•Killed the “transcription disk”
  11. 11. Production Technologies: MultitrackMultitrack tape recording developed by Les Paul, 1950sPopularized by Beatles, late 1960sIMPACT:•Destroyed the simultaneous performance imperative•Allowed “one man bands” and “auteur” style of recordproduction•Better sound quality•Eroded the studio orchestra business
  12. 12. Production Technologies: SynthesizersSynthesizer developed by Moog, Buchla, others, early 1960s“Switched-On Bach” by Wendy Carlos was the watershed LPIMPACT:•Inaugurated a boom era in musical electronics•Expanded sonic palette•“Replacing musicians” more hype than fact
  13. 13. Production Technologies: Drum MachinesDrum machine introduced by Roland, Linn late 1970sCheap digital drum machines become prevalent early 1980sIMPACT:•Improved rhythmic accuracy•Streamlined the recording process•Improved price/performance•Eroded studio drummer business
  14. 14. Production Technologies: Sampling Introduced by Fairlight, NED, others, mid-1970s Becomes prevalent mid-1980s IMPACT: •Derivative recordings become a primary mode of popular music production •Touched off a firestorm of litigation •Sample licensing: new revenue stream
  15. 15. Production Technologies: ComputerRecordingComputer-based digital multitracking developed by OSC, others,late 1980sFeasible for home users mid-1990sIMPACT:•Accelerates the home recording trend•Improves quality of independent recordings•Erodes the professional studio business•Kills the analog multitrack business•End of huge recording budgets
  16. 16. Production Technologies: Current IssuesHigh-resolution audioFaster sample rates, bigger bit depthsSurround mixingDriven by the DVD marketSampling prohibition creates inequitiesEase of access -> flood of bad musicSupply outstrips demand, now more than ever
  17. 17. Production Technologies: Trends“Mix Tapes” (usually CD-Rs) are a new enforcement priorityReplicators forced to become sample copsQuality and price/performance will continue to improvePerformance/skill augmentation
  18. 18. Delivery Technologies: PhonographPhonograph patented by Edison, 1878Berliner patents disk phonograph, 1895Berliner & Frank Seaman introduce spring-wound Gramophone,1897IMPACT:•Preservation & exploitation of performances•Brought music into the homes of non-performers•Eroded the piano & sheet music industries•Pianos declared “obsolete” 1904•Eroded the live music performance business•Created the new role of Disk Jockey
  19. 19. Delivery Technologies: RadioRadio developed by Tesla, Marconi, Fessenden mid-1890s to1906Popularized as consumer entertainment by Westinghouse,others, 1920sIMPACT:•Competed with the phonograph record industry, live musicperformance and sheet music publishing•BMI formed to counteract ASCAP•ASCAP Strike exposes “outsider” music, 1941•Broadcast Prohibition 1920s – 1940•“Not Licensed For Broadcast” struck down by SCOTUS in RCA vWhiteman -> No Performance Right for Sound Recordings
  20. 20. Delivery Technologies: VinylVinyl 12” LP and 7” 45 developed late 1940s“microgroove” recordingsEarly 1950s market confusion and sales slumpIndustry settles on the album/single conceptIMPACT:•Better sound quality than shellac•Better handling, durability•Cheaper to manufacture, transport, store•Taught the record business the value of obsolescence andupgrades
  21. 21. Delivery Technologies: CassetteCassette tape developed as a music delivery medium by HenryKlossDolby NR was lynchpin - 1971: Advent 201Consumers preferred cassette to 8-TrackIMPACT:•Recordable medium gives consumers more control over music•Record business accepts format, fights home taping•Leads to cassette-based multitracks & the first stage of thehome recording trend•8-track, reel-to-reel obsolete consumer formats
  22. 22. Delivery Technologies: CDCompact Disc (CD) developed by Sony & Philips; Matsushitaaccepts standard 1981Introduced to U.S. market 1983Labels stop taking vinyl returns 1988IMPACT:•Better sound quality•Cheaper to manufacture, transport, store•Artists paid less•Higher retail & wholesale prices•Consumers re-purchased their collections•Vinyl, turntables obsolete•Rescued & maintained by DJs
  23. 23. Delivery Technologies: DATDigital Audio Tape (DAT) - Sony 1987Based on VCRs: helical scanOriginally envisioned as a consumer mediumIMPACT:•Precipitated passage of Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 “theDAT tax”•SCMS mandated for consumer units•Only pros adopted DAT•AHRA assumes pre-emptive guilt, creates new revenue streamfor labels•“Piracy” becomes bogeyman
  24. 24. Delivery Technologies: WebTim Berners-Lee invents WWW at CERN, 1990Military/Educational Arpanet opened to general public, renamedInternet, 1994Advent of the dot-com domainIMPACT:•Artists (and virtually all other businesses) forced to migrate tocomputers, use email, have Web sites•Inexpensive, instant self-publishing allows a proliferation ofnew voices, increases the general noise level•Music became a factor w/ advent of MP3 format and high-speed service
  25. 25. Delivery Technologies: MP3Moving Picture Experts Group publishes MPEG-1 Specification, 1993MPEG-1, Audio Layer 3 (aka MP3) adopted by Internet music hobbyistsIMPACT:•RIAA v Diamond Multimedia (the “Rio case”) establishes exemptionfor computer devices• popularizes format with artists•Spurs development of competing compressed formats, includingWMA, AAC•Erosion of label control over distribution•Overall DECREASE in sound quality
  26. 26. Delivery Technologies: P2PShawn Fanning writes Napster, first peer-to-peersearch/retrieval system, 1999Justin Frankel writes Gnutella, first distributed P2P application,2000Many descendants, Bit Torrent, eDonkey, etc.IMPACT:•Practically all music available for free, instantly•Erosion of label control over distribution•DECREASE in sound quality (see MP3)•Disruption of recording industry business models•Record industry begins suing its own customers•Internet piracy becomes hot-button (or red herring?)
  27. 27. Delivery Technologies: StreamingApple Computer introduces QuickTime, 1991RealAudio introduced, 1995Yahoo buys for $5 Billion, 1999DPRA establishes performance rights for sound recordings, 1995CARP negotiation -> streaming royalties, 2002IMPACT:•Immediate unplugging of most streams•RIAA spin-off SoundExchange becomes collector of a newprivate “tax”
  28. 28. Delivery Technologies: IssuesOwnership called into questionMusic consumers demonized as “pirates” - a generationcriminalizedOpens the doorway for taxing ISPs, other computerproducts/servicesAlong with anti-terrorism, anti-piracy efforts risk establishing apolice state
  29. 29. Delivery Technologies: TrendsDigital Rights Management (DRM) cornerstone of for-profitonline music businessesLabels segue from CD business to marketing/managementDVDs, Merch, personal appearances, licensing are main productsPre-recorded music -> a loss leaderP2P -> entrenched distribution venue
  30. 30. Delivery Technologies: TrendsCourts rejecting mass-John Doe suitsGrokster decision legitimizes P2P appsLabels now willing to sell into P2P Snocap, WurldMediaLicensed music services gaining tractionCD sales rebounding slightlyMusic industry will co-opt P2P over time