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Cms 498 chapter 9 presentation


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Cms 498 chapter 9 presentation

  1. 1. CHAPTER 9: WORK By: Christopher Bernard
  2. 2. OVERVIEW-To study Gender/sex in the workplace, one needs to be attemptingnot only to gender and sex but also to Race, Class, Nationality, andother Identities (199)-Explores the Intersecting ways in which people participate in the“saying and doing” of gender in the workplace (200)-Explores the ways in which communication in and about work isgendered and genders. Studying work as a social institution makesclear that gender/sex, are much more than individual Problems(200)
  3. 3. WORK AS A SOCIALINSTITUTION-Depending on the culture and time, the meaning and significance of workchanges-Currently in the U.S. people define work as paid work outside the home.
  4. 4. WORK AS A SOCIALINSTITUTION-“Working Mothers” are women with young children who also workoutside the home for a wage (201)-Here you can see different percentages of parents who have childrenunder the age of 18 and work:
  5. 5. WORK AS A SOCIALINSTITUTION-The notion that work is something that occurs outside the home Isa Western Bias (Part of White U.S. Culture), Public distinct fromPrivate-The belief that work is good and the demonization of those onwelfare demonstrates the way rhetorical constructions of workmaintain its function as a social institution (201)-An “ideal worker” ethic exists, and is repeated through publicdiscourse, that “Equates work commitment with uninterestedemployment and very long weekends” (201)
  6. 6. WORK AS A SOCIALINSTITUTION-Work Expectations are not Consistent Across Sexes (201)-Many Characteristics that make work an institution, will also makeit clear how it is a Masculine Institution (202)-In the United States a man is not a real man unless he is gainfullyemployed; the job a man does is “a major basis of Identity and whatit means to be a man” (202)
  7. 7. WORK AS A SOCIALINSTITUTION-Sex segregation in Jobs is “An amazingly persistent pattern” insofar “Thegender/sex identity of jobs and occupations is repeatedly reproduced,often in new forms” (202)- Male Occupations possess more social value, higher pay, prestige,authority, and advancement opportunities
  8. 8. INTERLOCKLING INSTITUTIONS-Conflict between work and family is a visible intersection of U.S.institutions-Work and family are opposite social institutions (203)-These two institutions generate tensions in people causing manyto feel they most choose one. These choices are gendered, raced,and classed. (203)
  9. 9. INTERLOCKING INSTITUTIONS-Law makers in Nordic Countries( have structured work benefits to challengethe pattern where women tend to carry disproportionateresponsibility in child rearing (204)-This is not the case in the United Sates-Family Leave in the United States creates, rather then helps, thetensions work balancing work and family because they treat malesand females differently
  10. 10. INTERLOCKING INSTITUTIONS- The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 and the Family MedicalLeave Act of 1993 allows up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave forpregnancy, personal, or family reasons (204)-This allows caregivers and pregnant women to return with nopenalty, however:- Lori West Peterson and Terrance L. Albrecht found that indiscussions of work and women’s childbearing processes,maternity leave was interpreted as a benefit (business’s choice)and pregnancy was interpreted as a disability (204)-This leads to the conclusion that through a critical gendered lendsdirected at organizational communication focuses attention onwork-family dilemmas not as individual problems but located ininstitutions.
  11. 11. INTERLOCKING INSTITUTIONSTo give you a clearer Idea of the problem we have in theUnited states:
  12. 12. INTERLOCKING INSTITUTIONS-Work and Education also interlock to reproducepower differentials (205)-Studies of African American women and work make itclear that their experiences of subordinations in theinstitution of work begin in school (205)-Counselors and Teachers tend to steer them awayfrom particular work aspirations (205)
  13. 13. SEX DIFFERENCE In the workplace-Many of the verbal and nonverbal activities inthe workplace that are characterized asfeminine actually tend to be practiced by menas much, if not more, than by woman (205)-The differences emerge not in the actualpractice of communication but in others’interpretations (205)- For example men are emotional at work, eventhough it is not labeled as being emotionalbecause they are men (206)
  14. 14. SEX DIFFERENCE In the workplace-Studying the activities rather than emotionality it appears that menengage in practices that are stereotypically attributed to WOMEN(206)-These include: wasting time talking to co workers, pretending tolike people they dislike, making decisions based on affect ratherthan ‘objective’ evidence, and ignoring rules in favor ofparticularistic sentiments (206)--The interesting thing is that when women socialize with womenco-workers it is wasting time, but when men socialize with othermale co-workers it advances their careers (206)
  15. 15. SEX DIFFERENCE In the workplaceThese subtle practices highlight low mechanisms ofexclusion and discrimination are not always readilyapparent, even if they are demonstrably present (206)
  16. 16. WORK CONSTRUCTS (and Constrains) GENDER-Social inequalities are manifested and maintainedthrough work (206)-There is undeniable evidence of inequality based onsex (and exacerbated by race, nationality, and relationto the globalizing economy). (207)-This is seen with Income disparity-“Women managers continue to lag behind their malecounter parts in both advancement and pay” (207)-These numbers have gotten worse, comparing the2000 numbers to the numbers in 1995 (207)-These problems continue:
  17. 17. WORK CONSTRUCTS (and Constrains) GENDER-Joan Acker: “Organizational structure is not gender neutral” (207).Her five reasons for attention to gender and organizations are:1. The sex segregation of work, including which work is paid andwhich is unpaid2. Income and status inequality between women and men and howthis is created through organizational structure3. How organizations invent and reproduce cultural images of sexand gender4) The way in which gender, particularly masculinity, is the productof organizational processes5) The need to make organizations to make organizations moredemocratic and more supportive of humane goals. (208)
  18. 18. CLASS, RACE, GENDER/SEX, AND WORK-CHILD CARE: women have historically been the primarycaregivers to small children, and women of color have oftenbeen hired by White women to be caregivers (209)-This shows us that job segregation not only occurs acrosssex lines but also across race lines within sex (209)
  19. 19. CLASS, RACE, GENDER/SEX, AND WORK-The intersectional approach enables you to see ways in whichinequalities manifest themselves (210)-An example: “Black women’s initial overrepresentation in domesticservice reflects the intersections of race, gender, and class- theidea that blacks are best suited for servitude, that omen belong inthe private sphere of the home, and that work done in the homedoes not deserve significant economic reward” (210)-“Interlocking systems of gender and racial oppression act toconcentrate women and people of color in those occupations thatare lower paying and lower status” (210)-
  20. 20. SEXUAL HARASSMENT In the workplace- In the workplace, the normalization of violence mostclearly takes the form of sexual harassment (210)
  21. 21. SEXUAL HARASSMENT In the workplace-In 2004 women filed 84.9% of the 13,136 charges of sexualharassment (many go unreported) (211)-40% to 70% of women and 10% to 20% of men have experiencedsexual harassment in the workplace (211)-Most Predominant: Men harassing women
  22. 22. SEXUAL HARASSMENT In the workplace-Sexual Harassment appears easily identifiable but sexualharassment in the form of hostile work environment has notdeveloped a consensus definition at least not between masculine-identified men and non masculine-identified women.-Women tend to define more acts as constituting harassment andare more likely to perceive coercion in a particular situation,whereas masculine men are more likely to blame the personharassed instead of empathizing with that person (211)-A common example of a difference in opinion is with “GirlWatching.” Females take offense to males “sexually evaluating”them (211)
  23. 23. WORK AS LIBERATION and LOCATIONS of EMPOWERMENT IN WORK-Even as power dynamics in the institutions of work constrain people’soptions, locations of resistance open-up (214)-African American Women: seek ways to empower themselves and othersin work settings-Latin Immigrants: many redefine mother to mean “wage earner” as theyleave their own children in order to earn money caring for others’ children-White Women (U.S.): some have codified forms of legal redress to useagainst sexual harassers.-Reality: Although work can constrain, it also “provides women with thesame rewards that it has historically offered men, including a degree ofeconomic interdependence and enhances self esteem” (214)-Work can be liberating and working jobs that violate gender expectationscan transform the way which work is gendered (214)
  24. 24. Conclusion-Work is something in which virtually every person engages,whether it is paid or unpaid and if one does not work, that in itself isa basis for judgment (214-215)-Work can be extremely rewarding, but also extremelydehumanizing, something one done as a means to the end ofearning money to pay for the necessities of life (215)
  25. 25. SourcesDeFransico, V.P. and Palczewski, C.H. (2007). Communicating Gender Diversity: A critical Approach. ThousandOaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.