6 china under mao


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6 china under mao

  1. 1. China Under Mao Essential Question: How did life in China change under Mao’s rule?
  2. 2. Mao set about building a Communist China. His first concern was rebuilding a country that had been torn apart by years of civil war. <ul><li>Communist ideas shaped the new government. </li></ul><ul><li>Mao changed China’s political and economic systems. </li></ul><ul><li>His government discouraged the practice of religion. </li></ul><ul><li>The government also seized the property of rural landowners and redistributed it among peasants. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1957, China’s small industrial output had doubled. </li></ul><ul><li>Early efforts to build the economy were successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved economy and reduced poverty </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>China Modeled on Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union provided financial support and aid in China’s first years. </li></ul><ul><li>China modeled many of its new political, economic, military policies on the Soviet system. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1950s, territorial disputes and differences in ideology pushed China away from its Soviet ally. </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Leap Forward </li></ul><ul><li>In 1958, in the break from Soviet-style economic planning, Mao announced a program designed to increase China’s industrial and agricultural output. </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Leap Forward created thousands of communes, collectively owned farms, of about 20,000 people each. </li></ul><ul><li>Each commune was to produce food and have own small-scale industry </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Great Leap Forward <ul><li>Planning Disaster </li></ul><ul><li>The plan was a disaster; small commune factories failed to produce the quantity and quality of goods China needed. </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of poor weather and farmers’ neglect led to sharp drops in agricultural production. </li></ul><ul><li>Famine spread through rural China; tens of millions starved to death between 1959 and 1961. </li></ul><ul><li>China Virtually Isolated </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of the Great Leap Forward led to criticism of Mao. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet criticism and the withdrawal of Soviet industrial aid widened the rift between the two Communist nations. </li></ul><ul><li>By the early 1960s, relations had broken down completely; China was virtually isolated in the world community. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Cultural Revolution <ul><li>New Movement </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid-1960s, Mao tried to regain power and prestige lost after Great Leap Forward. </li></ul><ul><li>He initiated a new movement called the Cultural Revolution , which sought to rid China of old ways and create a society where peasants, physical labor were the ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>Red Guards </li></ul><ul><li>The campaign meant eliminating intellectuals who Mao feared wanted to end communism and bring back China’s old ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Mao shut down schools, encouraged militant students, called the Red Guards , to carry out work of Cultural Revolution by criticizing intellectuals and values. </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of Society </li></ul><ul><li>Mao lost control; The Red Guards murdered hundreds of thousands of people; by late 1960s, China was on the verge of civil war before Mao regained control. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cultural Revolution reestablished Mao’s dominance, caused terrible destruction; civil authority collapsed and economic activity fell off sharply. </li></ul>