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Microclimates

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Microclimates

  1. 1. Microclimates
  2. 2. Objectives Understand how urban areas have distinct climates Understand how forests and water have distinct climates
  3. 3. Microclimatology is the study of climate over a small area It includes both changes resulting from construction and natural features
  4. 4. Urban climates More dust and condensation Create heat Alter chemical composition and moisture content of air Albedo Air flow
  5. 5. Urban Heat Island Most building materials non-reflective Dark coloured roofs, concrete/brick walls, tarmac roads – high thermal capacity Further heat – car fumes, factories, power stations, central heating and people
  6. 6. Effects Daytime temp average 0.6 C + Night-time temperatures 3-4 higher Dust & cloud blanket, buildings as radiators Mean winter temperature 1-2 C + rural areas (Rural areas even colder with snow cover) Mean summer temperature 5 C + Mean annual temperature is higher by Chicago 0.6 C -London 1.3 C
  7. 7. Less Sunlight High buildings More cloud and dust Winter can be up to 50% less
  8. 8. Wind Buildings act as wind breaks Building act as 'canyons' Local thermals Smoke and smog
  9. 9. Relative Humidity 6% lower due to lack of vegetation and lack of water surfaces
  10. 10. Cloud 10% more frequent cloud cover Due to convection currents 5-15% more rain Strong thermals increase thunder Fog greater
  11. 11. Atmospheric Composition 7 times more dust Gaseous and solid impurities 200 times more sulfur dioxide & 10 times more nitrogen Smog
  12. 12. Forests Incoming radiation absorbed and trapped Small diurnal range RH higher during summer esp. in deciduous forests Heavy rain can be caused by increase evapotranspiration (Rain Forests) Windbreaks
  13. 13. Water Surface Less insolation absorbed due to albedo Small dinurnal range – like the UK High RH esp. in summer More rain or fog Strong winds
  14. 14. Objectives Understand how urban areas have distinct climates Understand how forests and water have distinct climates

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