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  2. 2. Aims and objectives of the session. <ul><ul><li>Aim is to understand the mechanics behind the process of effective communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives are— </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Understand different ways to communicate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Understand the barriors to effective communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Look at what is meant by the term “active listening” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Communication <ul><li>Communication is the way in which we stay connected to our world. It puts us in touch with others, allows us to express ideas and feelings, give direction and exert control over our environment. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Communication. <ul><li>Communication is the way we convey information to one another. </li></ul><ul><li>How many different ways can you think that we can communicate? </li></ul><ul><li>Communication can be split into two different forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal and none verbal. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not just what you say but how you say it. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Verbal communication <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Tone </li></ul><ul><li>speed </li></ul>
  6. 6. None verbal <ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic </li></ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul>
  7. 7. Other means of communication <ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Letters </li></ul><ul><li>Morse code </li></ul><ul><li>Flashing lights </li></ul>
  8. 8. Communication. <ul><li>80 per cent of our communication is derived from none verbal means </li></ul><ul><li>If we verbally say some thing but our body language says some thing else. We are more prone to believe the body language than the actual words that are spoken. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Communication <ul><li>Communication requires two things. </li></ul><ul><li>A receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>And a transmitter. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Communication <ul><li>The receiver has to be able to understand what the transmitter is trying to convey to them. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Communication <ul><li>Think about problems that can exist between the transmitter and the receiver which could cause problems with communication. </li></ul><ul><li>In pairs write down what barriers to good effective communication you an think of. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Barriers to communication. <ul><li>Language/Dialect. </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Mental capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>And many more. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Communication
  14. 14. Communication
  15. 15. Communication <ul><li>Look at how you communicate? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Communication
  17. 17. Communication <ul><li>We may some times have to communicate in a different way in order to make ourselves understood by others </li></ul><ul><li>for example when we go abroad. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Communication
  19. 19. Communication <ul><li>Exercise on communication. Looking at “different methods of communication.” </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise on communication problems and identify ways to help towards better understanding? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Examples of communication failings <ul><li>The mother brought her child in for immunisation. The vaccine was left in the sun and was deactivated. The child caught measles. </li></ul><ul><li>The smoking adverts were placed in the Guardian and the Independent newspapers and were not seen by the working class population. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Bad communication <ul><li>The parents of the most vulnerable children did not regularly attend the child health clinics and therefore missed the talks on child care and immunization. </li></ul><ul><li>The lecture given by the nurse at the clinic was boring and most of the audience didn’t bother to listen. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Bad communication. <ul><li>The T.V. campaign on smoking mainly consisted on facts and figures about the dangers of smoking and no body bothered to watch them. </li></ul><ul><li>The explanation given by the nurse about the importance of nutrition used technical language which the mothers could not follow. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Bad communication. <ul><li>The T.V. campaign about teenage drinking was broadcast late at night when the young people were not watching. </li></ul><ul><li>The language used in the leaflet used long words and complicated sentence structures and people found it difficult to read. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Communication
  25. 25. Communication <ul><li>Part three. Listening </li></ul>
  26. 26. LISTENING THE OTHER SIDE OF COMMUNICATION. <ul><li>You probably spend more time using your listening skills than any other kind of skill. like other skills, listening takes practice. </li></ul><ul><li>But what does it really mean to listen? </li></ul><ul><li>Real listening is an active process that has three basic steps. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 1….Hearing. <ul><li>Hearing just means listening enough to catch what the speaker is saying. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, say you were listening to a report on Zebras, and the speaker mentioned that no two Zebras are alike. If you can repeat the fact, then you have heard what has been said. </li></ul>
  28. 28. 2…..Understanding. <ul><li>The next part of listening happens when you take what you have heard and understand it in your own way. </li></ul><ul><li>Lets go back to the report on Zebras. </li></ul><ul><li>When you hear that no two Zebras are alike. Think about what that might mean. You might think, “maybe this means that the pattern of stripes is different for each Zebra.” </li></ul>
  29. 29. 3…..Judging <ul><li>After you are sure that you understand what the speaker has said. Think about whether it makes sense. Do you believe what you have heard? </li></ul><ul><li>You might think. “How could the stripes be different for each Zebra? But then again, the fingerprints are different for every person. I think this seems believable. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Tips to be a good active listener. <ul><li>Give your full attention to the person who is speaking, don’t look out of the window or at what else is going on in the room. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your mind is focused too. It can be easy to let your mind wander if you think you know what the person is going to say next, but you might be wrong! If you feel your mind wandering, change the position of your body and try to concentrate on the speakers words. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Tips to be a good active listener. <ul><li>Let the speaker finish before you begin to talk. Speakers appreciate having the chance to say everything they would like to say without being interrupted. When you interrupt, it looks like you aren't listening, even if you really are. </li></ul><ul><li>Let yourself finish listening before you begin to speak! You cant really listen if you are busy thinking about what you want to say next. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Tips to be a good active listener. <ul><li>Listen for main ideas. The main ideas are the most important points that the speaker wants to get across. They may be mentioned at the start or the end of a talk, and repeated a number of times. Pay special attention to statements that begin with phrases such as, “My point is….” or “The thing to remember is.” </li></ul>
  33. 33. Tips to be a good active listener. <ul><li>Ask questions. If you are not sure that you understand what the speaker has said, just ask. It is a good idea to repeat in your own words what the speaker has said so that you can be sure that your understanding is correct. For example, you might say, “When you said that no two Zebras are alike, did you mean that the stripes are different on each one. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Tips to be a good active listener. <ul><li>Give feedback. Sit up straight and look directly at the speaker. Now and then, nod to show that you understand. At appropriate points you may also smile, frown, laugh or be silent. These are all ways to let the speaker know that you are really listening. Remember, you listen with your face as well as your ears. </li></ul>
  35. 35. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS. <ul><li>Be an active listener </li></ul><ul><li>People speak at 100 to 175 words per minute, but they can listen intelligently for up to 300 words per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Since only a part of our mind is paying attention, it is easy to go into “mind drift”. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Active listening skills. <ul><li>Use none verbal behaviours to raise the channel of interpersonal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>None verbal communication is facial expressions like smiles, gestures, eye contact and even your posture. </li></ul><ul><li>This shows the person that you are communicating with that you are indeed listening actively. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Active listening skills. <ul><li>Give feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that what some one says and what we hear can be very different! Our personal filters, assumptions, judgments and beliefs can distort what we hear. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat back or summarize to help ensure your understanding of what is being relayed. </li></ul>