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@crichardson
There is no such thing as a
microservice!
Chris Richardson
Founder of Eventuate.io
Founder of the original Cl...
@crichardson
Presentation goal
Define the Microservice Architecture
as an architectural style
Explain what that means and w...
@crichardson
About Chris
@crichardson
About Chris
Consultant and trainer
focusing on modern
application architectures
including microservices
(http...
@crichardson
About Chris
Founder of a startup that is creating
an open-source/SaaS platform
that simplifies the development...
@crichardson
About Chris
https://www.manning.com/books/microservice-patterns
@crichardson
For more information
http://learnmicroservices.io
@crichardson
Agenda
A brief refresher on software architecture
From monolith to microservices
Microservices != silver bull...
About software architecture
“The software architecture of a computing system is the
set of structures needed to reason abo...
@crichardson
Architecture
=
(elements, relations, properties)
@crichardson
Architecture
=
Boxes and lines 😄
@crichardson
Architecture is multi-dimensional
e.g. Structural, electrical, plumbing,
mechanical
Described by multiple vie...
4+1 view model
Logical
View
Process
View
Deployment
View
Implementation
View
Scenarios
4+1 Logical view
Logical
View
Process
View
Deployment
View
Implementation
View
Scenarios
Elements: classes and packages
Re...
4+1 Implementation view
Logical
View
Process
View
Deployment
View
Implementation
View
Scenarios
Elements: modules and comp...
4+1 Process view
Logical
View
Process
View
Deployment
View
Implementation
View
Scenarios
Elements: processes
Relations: IPC
4+1 Deployment view
Logical
View
Process
View
Deployment
View
Implementation
View
Scenarios
Elements: “machines”
Relations...
4+1 Scenarios
Logical
View
Process
View
Deployment
View
Implementation
View
Scenarios
Derived from use cases/stories
Anima...
@crichardson
""… An architectural style determines
the vocabulary of components and
connectors that can be used in instanc...
@crichardson
Layered architectural style
Layer N
Layer N - 1
Layer N - 2
Well defined
responsibilities
The role of architecture
Requirements
=
Functional requirements
+
Non-functional requirements (-ilities)
Domain
knowledge
...
Important -ilities
Maintainability
Evolvability
Testability
Deployability
Scalability
Security
Reliability
…
https://en.wi...
@crichardson
Businesses must innovate
faster
Build better software faster
@crichardson
Reducing lead time
Increasing deployment frequency
@crichardson
Modern software development
Architecture:
Process:
Small, autonomous
teams
???
Continuous delivery/deployment...
Agenda
A brief refresher on software architecture
From monolith to microservices
Microservices != silver bullet
Managing d...
@crichardson
Tomcat/App. Server
Traditional: Monolithic
architecture
Browser/
Client
WAR/EAR
MySQL
Database
Review Module
...
@crichardson
The monolithic architecture
is an architectural style
that structures the application
as a single executable
...
-ilities of small monoliths
Maintainability
Evolvability
Testability
Deployability
Scalability
…
https://en.wikipedia.org/...
@crichardson
But successful applications
keep growing….
Development
Team
Application
@crichardson
… and growing
Development
Team A
ApplicationDevelopment
Team B
Development
Team C
@crichardson
Eventually:
agile
development
and deployment
becomes
impossible
=
monolithic hell
@crichardson
Technology stack becomes
increasingly obsolete
BUT
A rewrite is not feasible
-ilities of large monoliths
Maintainability
Evolvability
Testability
Deployability
…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-fun...
The microservice architecture
is an architectural style
that structures an
application as a
set of loosely coupled,
servic...
@crichardson
A business has a business
capabilities
Acme, Inc
Order
Taking
Inventory
management
Delivery
management
A
Busi...
@crichardson
Service = business capability
Order Taking
Service
Inventory
management Service
Delivery management
Service
…...
Service size is secondary
microservice architecture
Service:
Meaningful business functionality
Developed by a small team
Minimal lead time/high deployment
frequency
Microservices
=
Microservice architecture
=
Application architecture
No such thing as a microservice
@crichardson
Example microservice architecture
Browser
Mobile
Device
Store
Front
Web App
API
Gateway
Catalog
Service
Revie...
-ilities of a microservice
architecture
Maintainability
Evolvability
Testability
Deployability
Scalability
…
https://en.wi...
@crichardson
Microservices enable
continuous delivery/deployment
Process:
Continuous delivery/deployment
Organization:
Sma...
@crichardson
Evolve the technology stack
Pick a new technology when
Writing a new service
Making major changes to an exist...
@crichardson
Agenda
A brief refresher on software architecture
From monolith to microservices
Microservices != silver bull...
@crichardson
No silver bullets
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Brooks
@crichardson
Drawbacks of microservices
Complexity
Development: partial failure, distributed data
Testing: Integration, en...
@crichardson
Are microservices a good fit
for my application?
@crichardson
When using microservices:
How to decompose an application into services?
How to deploy an application’s servi...
@crichardson
It depends!
@crichardson
What’s a pattern?
Reusable solution
to a problem
occurring
in a particular context
@crichardson
The structure of a pattern
Resulting context
aka the situation
Name
Context
Problem
Related patterns
(conflict...
@crichardson
Example resulting context
Microservice
Architecture
Benefits
Drawbacks
Issues to resolve
@crichardsonMicroservice patterns
Communication patterns
Core
Cross-cutting concerns Security
Deployment
Maintaining data ...
@crichardson
Agenda
A brief refresher on software architecture
From monolith to microservices
Microservices != silver bull...
@crichardson
Loose coupling =
encapsulated data
Order Service Customer Service
Order Database Customer Database
Order tabl...
@crichardson
How to enforce credit limit?
sum(order.total) <= customer.creditLimit
@crichardson
How to enforce credit limit?
BEGIN TRANSACTION
…
SELECT ORDER_TOTAL
FROM ORDERS WHERE CUSTOMER_ID = ?
…
SELEC...
@crichardson
2PC is not an option
@crichardson
Saga
Instead: use event-driven sagas
Distributed transaction
Order Customer
Local transaction
Order
Local tra...
@crichardson
Order Service
Saga-based, eventually consistent
order processing
Customer Service
Order created
Credit Reserv...
@crichardson
But how to reliably
update the database
and
publish events?
@crichardson
Event sourcing: event-centric
persistence
Event table
Entity type
Event
id
Entity
id
Event
data
Order 902101 ...
@crichardson
How to find recent, valuable
customers?
SELECT *
FROM CUSTOMER c, ORDER o
WHERE
c.id = o.ID
AND o.ORDER_TOTAL ...
@crichardson
Command Query Responsibility
Segregation (CQRS)
Command side
Commands
Aggregate
Event Store
Events
Query side...
@crichardson
Queries database (type)
Command side
POST
PUT
DELETE
Aggregate
Event Store
Events
Query side
GET /customers/i...
@crichardson
Summary
The goal of architecture is to satisfy non-functional
requirements
Use the appropriate architectural ...
@crichardson
@crichardson chris@chrisrichardson.net
http://learnmicroservices.io
Thank you!
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There is no such thing as a microservice! (oracle code nyc)

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This is a keynote I gave at Oracle Code 2017 in New York:
https://developer.oracle.com/code/newyork

The microservice architecture is becoming increasingly popular. However, frequent references to using “a microservice to solve a problem” suggest that the concept is not universally well understood.

In this talk we define the microservice architecture as an architectural style and explain what that actually means. You will learn why the architecture that you pick for your application matters. We describe how the primary goal of the microservice architecture is to enable continuous delivery/deployment and how it achieves that.

You will learn how to solve key challenges with decomposing an application into microservices. We describe why there is no such thing as a microservice!

Published in: Software
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There is no such thing as a microservice! (oracle code nyc)

  1. 1. @crichardson There is no such thing as a microservice! Chris Richardson Founder of Eventuate.io Founder of the original CloudFoundry.com Author of POJOs in Action @crichardson chris@chrisrichardson.net http://microservices.io http://eventuate.io http://plainoldobjects.com Copyright © 2017. Chris Richardson Consulting, Inc. All rights reserved
  2. 2. @crichardson Presentation goal Define the Microservice Architecture as an architectural style Explain what that means and why it matters
  3. 3. @crichardson About Chris
  4. 4. @crichardson About Chris Consultant and trainer focusing on modern application architectures including microservices (http://www.chrisrichardson.net/)
  5. 5. @crichardson About Chris Founder of a startup that is creating an open-source/SaaS platform that simplifies the development of transactional microservices (http://eventuate.io)
  6. 6. @crichardson About Chris https://www.manning.com/books/microservice-patterns
  7. 7. @crichardson For more information http://learnmicroservices.io
  8. 8. @crichardson Agenda A brief refresher on software architecture From monolith to microservices Microservices != silver bullet Managing distributed data
  9. 9. About software architecture “The software architecture of a computing system is the set of structures needed to reason about the system, which comprise software elements, relations among them, and properties of both.” Documenting Software Architectures, Bass et al
  10. 10. @crichardson Architecture = (elements, relations, properties)
  11. 11. @crichardson Architecture = Boxes and lines 😄
  12. 12. @crichardson Architecture is multi-dimensional e.g. Structural, electrical, plumbing, mechanical Described by multiple views View = (elements, relations, properties)
  13. 13. 4+1 view model Logical View Process View Deployment View Implementation View Scenarios
  14. 14. 4+1 Logical view Logical View Process View Deployment View Implementation View Scenarios Elements: classes and packages Relations: inheritance, associations, …
  15. 15. 4+1 Implementation view Logical View Process View Deployment View Implementation View Scenarios Elements: modules and components Relations: dependencies
  16. 16. 4+1 Process view Logical View Process View Deployment View Implementation View Scenarios Elements: processes Relations: IPC
  17. 17. 4+1 Deployment view Logical View Process View Deployment View Implementation View Scenarios Elements: “machines” Relations: networking
  18. 18. 4+1 Scenarios Logical View Process View Deployment View Implementation View Scenarios Derived from use cases/stories Animate the views
  19. 19. @crichardson ""… An architectural style determines the vocabulary of components and connectors that can be used in instances of that style, together with a set of constraints on how they can be combined….. ”” David Garlan and Mary Shaw, An Introduction to Software Architecture
  20. 20. @crichardson Layered architectural style Layer N Layer N - 1 Layer N - 2 Well defined responsibilities
  21. 21. The role of architecture Requirements = Functional requirements + Non-functional requirements (-ilities) Domain knowledge Architecture
  22. 22. Important -ilities Maintainability Evolvability Testability Deployability Scalability Security Reliability … https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-functional_requirement Development velocity
  23. 23. @crichardson Businesses must innovate faster Build better software faster
  24. 24. @crichardson Reducing lead time Increasing deployment frequency
  25. 25. @crichardson Modern software development Architecture: Process: Small, autonomous teams ??? Continuous delivery/deployment Organization:
  26. 26. Agenda A brief refresher on software architecture From monolith to microservices Microservices != silver bullet Managing distributed data
  27. 27. @crichardson Tomcat/App. Server Traditional: Monolithic architecture Browser/ Client WAR/EAR MySQL Database Review Module Catalog Module Recommendation Module StoreFrontUI Order Module HTML REST/JSON Logical view
  28. 28. @crichardson The monolithic architecture is an architectural style that structures the application as a single executable component Implementation view
  29. 29. -ilities of small monoliths Maintainability Evolvability Testability Deployability Scalability … https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-functional_requirement 😄
  30. 30. @crichardson But successful applications keep growing…. Development Team Application
  31. 31. @crichardson … and growing Development Team A ApplicationDevelopment Team B Development Team C
  32. 32. @crichardson Eventually: agile development and deployment becomes impossible = monolithic hell
  33. 33. @crichardson Technology stack becomes increasingly obsolete BUT A rewrite is not feasible
  34. 34. -ilities of large monoliths Maintainability Evolvability Testability Deployability … https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-functional_requirement 😭
  35. 35. The microservice architecture is an architectural style that structures an application as a set of loosely coupled, services organized around business capabilities Implementation view
  36. 36. @crichardson A business has a business capabilities Acme, Inc Order Taking Inventory management Delivery management A Business Capability is something a business does in order to deliver value …
  37. 37. @crichardson Service = business capability Order Taking Service Inventory management Service Delivery management Service … Service
  38. 38. Service size is secondary microservice architecture
  39. 39. Service: Meaningful business functionality Developed by a small team Minimal lead time/high deployment frequency
  40. 40. Microservices = Microservice architecture = Application architecture No such thing as a microservice
  41. 41. @crichardson Example microservice architecture Browser Mobile Device Store Front Web App API Gateway Catalog Service Review Service Order Service … Service Catalog Database Review Database Order Database … Database HTML REST REST Supplier Inbound Gateway Catalog update messages Supplier System
  42. 42. -ilities of a microservice architecture Maintainability Evolvability Testability Deployability Scalability … https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-functional_requirement 😄
  43. 43. @crichardson Microservices enable continuous delivery/deployment Process: Continuous delivery/deployment Organization: Small, agile, autonomous, cross functional teams Architecture: Microservice architecture Enables Enables Enables Successful Software Development Services improve testability and deployability Teams own services
  44. 44. @crichardson Evolve the technology stack Pick a new technology when Writing a new service Making major changes to an existing service Let’s you experiment and fail safely
  45. 45. @crichardson Agenda A brief refresher on software architecture From monolith to microservices Microservices != silver bullet Managing distributed data
  46. 46. @crichardson No silver bullets http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Brooks
  47. 47. @crichardson Drawbacks of microservices Complexity Development: partial failure, distributed data Testing: Integration, end to end, … Deployment …
  48. 48. @crichardson Are microservices a good fit for my application?
  49. 49. @crichardson When using microservices: How to decompose an application into services? How to deploy an application’s services? How to handle cross cutting concerns? Which communication mechanisms to use? How do external clients communicate with the services? How does a client discover the network location of a service instance? How to prevent a network or service failure from cascading to other services? How to maintain data consistency and implement queries? How to make testing easier? How to understand the behavior of an application and troubleshoot problems? How to implement a UI screen or page that displays data from multiple services?
  50. 50. @crichardson It depends!
  51. 51. @crichardson What’s a pattern? Reusable solution to a problem occurring in a particular context
  52. 52. @crichardson The structure of a pattern Resulting context aka the situation Name Context Problem Related patterns (conflicting) issues etc to address Forces Solution
  53. 53. @crichardson Example resulting context Microservice Architecture Benefits Drawbacks Issues to resolve
  54. 54. @crichardsonMicroservice patterns Communication patterns Core Cross-cutting concerns Security Deployment Maintaining data consistency Database architecture External API Reliability Discovery Communication style Testing Observability UI Decomposition API gateway Client-side discovery Server-side discovery Service registry Self registration 3rd party registration Multiple Services per host Single Service per Host Service-per- Container Service-per-VM Messaging Remote Procedure Invocation Database per Service Event-driven architectureShared database Microservice Chassis Backend for front end Event sourcing Transaction log tailing Database triggers Application events Monolithic architecture Microservice architecture CQRS Motivating Pattern Solution Pattern Solution A Solution B General Specific Serverless deployment Circuit BreakerAccess Token Domain-specific Externalized configuration Service Integration Contract Test Service Component Test Exception tracking Distributed tracing Audit logging Application metrics Log aggregation Health check API Service deployment platform Server-side page fragment composition Client-side UI composition Decompose by business capability Decompose by subdomain Application patterns Infrastructure patterns Application Infrastructure patterns Microservices pattern language: http://microservices.io
  55. 55. @crichardson Agenda A brief refresher on software architecture From monolith to microservices Microservices != silver bullet Managing distributed data
  56. 56. @crichardson Loose coupling = encapsulated data Order Service Customer Service Order Database Customer Database Order table Customer table orderTotal creditLimit
  57. 57. @crichardson How to enforce credit limit? sum(order.total) <= customer.creditLimit
  58. 58. @crichardson How to enforce credit limit? BEGIN TRANSACTION … SELECT ORDER_TOTAL FROM ORDERS WHERE CUSTOMER_ID = ? … SELECT CREDIT_LIMIT FROM CUSTOMERS WHERE CUSTOMER_ID = ? … INSERT INTO ORDERS … … COMMIT TRANSACTION Private to the Order Service Private to the Customer Service Distributed transactions
  59. 59. @crichardson 2PC is not an option
  60. 60. @crichardson Saga Instead: use event-driven sagas Distributed transaction Order Customer Local transaction Order Local transaction Customer Local transaction Order Event Event
  61. 61. @crichardson Order Service Saga-based, eventually consistent order processing Customer Service Order created Credit Reserved Credit Check Failed Create Order OR Customer creditLimit creditReservations ... Order state total … approve()/reject() Event Handler Event Handler reserveCredit()
  62. 62. @crichardson But how to reliably update the database and publish events?
  63. 63. @crichardson Event sourcing: event-centric persistence Event table Entity type Event id Entity id Event data Order 902101 …OrderApproved Order 903101 …OrderShipped Event type Order 901101 …OrderCreated
  64. 64. @crichardson How to find recent, valuable customers? SELECT * FROM CUSTOMER c, ORDER o WHERE c.id = o.ID AND o.ORDER_TOTAL > 100000 AND o.STATE = 'SHIPPED' AND c.CREATION_DATE > ? Customer Service Order Service What if event sourcing is used?…. is no longer easy
  65. 65. @crichardson Command Query Responsibility Segregation (CQRS) Command side Commands Aggregate Event Store Events Query side Queries (Materialized) View Events POST PUT DELETE GET
  66. 66. @crichardson Queries database (type) Command side POST PUT DELETE Aggregate Event Store Events Query side GET /customers/id MongoDB Query side GET /orders?text=xyz ElasticSearch Query side GET … Neo4j
  67. 67. @crichardson Summary The goal of architecture is to satisfy non-functional requirements Use the appropriate architectural style Small applications Monolithic architecture Complex applications Microservice architecture Use the pattern language to guide your decision making Use an event-driven architecture for transactions and queries
  68. 68. @crichardson @crichardson chris@chrisrichardson.net http://learnmicroservices.io Thank you!

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