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FOOD LIPID
BY
Pintu Choudhary
Master of Technology
( Food Science and Technology)
Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology
Ministry of Food Processing Industries
Government of India
Thanjavur - 613005
LIPID
 The term “lipid” is applied to a group of
naturally occurring substances characterized
by their insolubility in water, greasy, feel and
solubility in some organic solvent. They occur
in the plant and animal kingdom.
FAMILY OF LIPID
 Triglycerides (fat & oil)
 Glycerol (1 per triglyceride)
 Fatty acid (3 per triglyceride)
 Saturated
 Monounsaturated
 Polyunsaturated
 Omeg-3
 Omega-6
 Phospholipid (such as lecithin)
 Sterol (such as cholesterol)
TRIGLYCERIDES
 Triglycerides: the major class of dietary lipids,
including fats & oils
 Made up of 3 units known as fatty acids and 1 unit
called glycerol (backbone)
 Comprise about 95% of lipids in food and the
human body
FATTY ACID
 Fatty acids:
 basic units of fat composed of chains
of carbon atoms
 an acid group at one end and
hydrogen atoms attached all along
their length
CONT’D
 Saturated fatty acid: a fatty acid carrying
the maximum possible number of hydrogen
atoms
 Animal foods such as meat, poultry and
full-fat dairy products
 Tropical oils such as palm and coconut
CONT’D
 Unsaturated fatty acid: a fatty acid with one or
more points of unsaturation.
 Found in foods from both plants & animal
sources
Monounsaturated fatty acids (one double
bond)
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (two or more)
CONT’D
 Polyunsaturated fatty acids: also called a
PUFA; a fatty acid in which two or more
point of unsaturation occur
 Found in nuts, vegetable oils such as
safflower, sunflower and soybean, and
in fatty fish
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
 The body can synthesize all of the fatty
acids it needs from carbohydrates, fat
or protein except for two:
1. Linoleic acid
2. Linolenic acid
– PUFAs
– Found in plant & fish oils
CHARACTERISTICS OF FATS IN
FOODS
Liquid vs. Solid
 More saturated a fat is, the more solid
it is at room temperature
 More unsaturated a fat is, the more
liquid it is at room temperature
CHARACTERISTICS OF FATS IN FOODS
 Hydrogenation
 The process of adding hydrogen to
unsaturated fat to make it more solid and
more resistant to chemical changes such
as spoiling
 Increasing a fat’s saturation can cause a fat
to lose its unsaturated health benefits
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
 A lipid consisting of a water-soluble head and a fat-
soluble tail
 Contain phosphorous
 Component of cell membranes
 Serve as emulsifiers (allow fats and water to mix and
travel in and out of cells into watery fluid on both sides)
 Lecithin is a common phospholipid
 Often used as an emulsifier in foods such as margarine,
chocolate & salad dressing
CHOLESTEROL – A STEROL
 Found only in animal products
 Also made & used in the body:
 Structure of cell membranes
 Used to make bile for digestion
Bile: a mixture of compounds, made by the liver,
stored in the gallbladder, & secreted into the small
intestine
 Emulsifies lipids to prepare them for enzymatic digestion
& helps transport them into the intestinal wall cells
 Used to make the sex hormones estrogen & testosterone
 Made into vitamin D with the help of sunlight
 Deposited in the artery walls leading to plaque buildup &
heart disease
FUNCTIONS OF FAT IN THE BODY
 Energy source esp. for muscles
 Serves as an energy reserve
 1% body fat contains 3500 kcal
 30-50% of stored fat
 Major component of cell membranes
 Nourishes skin & hair
 Insulates the body from temperature
extremes
 Cushion the vital organs to protect them
from shock
FUNCTIONS OF FAT IN FOOD
Provide calories (9 per gram)
Provide satiety
Carry fat-soluble vitamins & essential
fatty acids
Contribute aroma & flavor
FAT IN THE DIET
Food Guide Pyramid
3 groups traditionally account for
nine-tenths of the fat in the Indian diet
 Fats, oils & sweets group
 Meat, poultry, fish, dry
beans, eggs & nut group
 Milk, yogurt & cheese group
 Most of the fat in our diets
comes from animal
products
RANCIDITY IN FAT
The development of off-flavor in fat is known as rancidity
 Hydrolytic rancidity: When fat is hydrolyzed by lipase,
free fatty acid are formed, the odors of low molecular
weigh fatty acids to the rancidity.
 Oxidative rancidity: The oxidation takes place at the
unsaturated linkage (double bond). The addition to the
unsaturated linkage result in formation of peroxide which,
on decomposition , yields aldehydes and ketones having
pronounced off flavor.
REFERENCES
• Maitland, Jr Jones (1998). Organic Chemistry. W W Norton & Co Inc (Np). p. 13.
• Stryer et al., p. 328.
• Stryer et al., p. 330.
• Fahy E, Subramaniam S, Murphy R, Nishijima M, Raetz C, Shimizu T, Spener F,
Van Meer G, Wakelam M and Dennis E.A (2009). "Update of the LIPID MAPS
comprehensive classification system for lipids". Journal of Lipid Research 50
(Supplement).
• Michelle A, Hopkins J, McLaughlin CW, Johnson S, Warner MQ, LaHart D, Wright
JD (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA:
Prentice Hall.
• Vance JE, Vance DE (2002). Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes.
Amsterdam: Elsevier.
• Brown HA, ed. (2007). Lipodomics and Bioactive Lipids: Mass Spectrometry
Based Lipid Analysis, Volume 432 (Methods in Enzymology). Boston: Academic
Press.
• Mandal, Ananya. "Types of Lipids". news-medical.net.
THANKS

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Food Lipid Guide: Types, Functions and Characteristics

  • 1. FOOD LIPID BY Pintu Choudhary Master of Technology ( Food Science and Technology) Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology Ministry of Food Processing Industries Government of India Thanjavur - 613005
  • 2. LIPID  The term “lipid” is applied to a group of naturally occurring substances characterized by their insolubility in water, greasy, feel and solubility in some organic solvent. They occur in the plant and animal kingdom.
  • 3. FAMILY OF LIPID  Triglycerides (fat & oil)  Glycerol (1 per triglyceride)  Fatty acid (3 per triglyceride)  Saturated  Monounsaturated  Polyunsaturated  Omeg-3  Omega-6  Phospholipid (such as lecithin)  Sterol (such as cholesterol)
  • 4. TRIGLYCERIDES  Triglycerides: the major class of dietary lipids, including fats & oils  Made up of 3 units known as fatty acids and 1 unit called glycerol (backbone)  Comprise about 95% of lipids in food and the human body
  • 5. FATTY ACID  Fatty acids:  basic units of fat composed of chains of carbon atoms  an acid group at one end and hydrogen atoms attached all along their length
  • 6.
  • 7. CONT’D  Saturated fatty acid: a fatty acid carrying the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms  Animal foods such as meat, poultry and full-fat dairy products  Tropical oils such as palm and coconut
  • 8.
  • 9. CONT’D  Unsaturated fatty acid: a fatty acid with one or more points of unsaturation.  Found in foods from both plants & animal sources Monounsaturated fatty acids (one double bond) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (two or more)
  • 10. CONT’D  Polyunsaturated fatty acids: also called a PUFA; a fatty acid in which two or more point of unsaturation occur  Found in nuts, vegetable oils such as safflower, sunflower and soybean, and in fatty fish
  • 11. ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS  The body can synthesize all of the fatty acids it needs from carbohydrates, fat or protein except for two: 1. Linoleic acid 2. Linolenic acid – PUFAs – Found in plant & fish oils
  • 12.
  • 13. CHARACTERISTICS OF FATS IN FOODS Liquid vs. Solid  More saturated a fat is, the more solid it is at room temperature  More unsaturated a fat is, the more liquid it is at room temperature
  • 14. CHARACTERISTICS OF FATS IN FOODS  Hydrogenation  The process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fat to make it more solid and more resistant to chemical changes such as spoiling  Increasing a fat’s saturation can cause a fat to lose its unsaturated health benefits
  • 15.
  • 16. PHOSPHOLIPIDS  A lipid consisting of a water-soluble head and a fat- soluble tail  Contain phosphorous  Component of cell membranes  Serve as emulsifiers (allow fats and water to mix and travel in and out of cells into watery fluid on both sides)  Lecithin is a common phospholipid  Often used as an emulsifier in foods such as margarine, chocolate & salad dressing
  • 17.
  • 18. CHOLESTEROL – A STEROL  Found only in animal products  Also made & used in the body:  Structure of cell membranes  Used to make bile for digestion Bile: a mixture of compounds, made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, & secreted into the small intestine  Emulsifies lipids to prepare them for enzymatic digestion & helps transport them into the intestinal wall cells  Used to make the sex hormones estrogen & testosterone  Made into vitamin D with the help of sunlight  Deposited in the artery walls leading to plaque buildup & heart disease
  • 19.
  • 20. FUNCTIONS OF FAT IN THE BODY  Energy source esp. for muscles  Serves as an energy reserve  1% body fat contains 3500 kcal  30-50% of stored fat  Major component of cell membranes  Nourishes skin & hair  Insulates the body from temperature extremes  Cushion the vital organs to protect them from shock
  • 21. FUNCTIONS OF FAT IN FOOD Provide calories (9 per gram) Provide satiety Carry fat-soluble vitamins & essential fatty acids Contribute aroma & flavor
  • 22. FAT IN THE DIET Food Guide Pyramid 3 groups traditionally account for nine-tenths of the fat in the Indian diet  Fats, oils & sweets group  Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs & nut group  Milk, yogurt & cheese group  Most of the fat in our diets comes from animal products
  • 23. RANCIDITY IN FAT The development of off-flavor in fat is known as rancidity  Hydrolytic rancidity: When fat is hydrolyzed by lipase, free fatty acid are formed, the odors of low molecular weigh fatty acids to the rancidity.  Oxidative rancidity: The oxidation takes place at the unsaturated linkage (double bond). The addition to the unsaturated linkage result in formation of peroxide which, on decomposition , yields aldehydes and ketones having pronounced off flavor.
  • 24. REFERENCES • Maitland, Jr Jones (1998). Organic Chemistry. W W Norton & Co Inc (Np). p. 13. • Stryer et al., p. 328. • Stryer et al., p. 330. • Fahy E, Subramaniam S, Murphy R, Nishijima M, Raetz C, Shimizu T, Spener F, Van Meer G, Wakelam M and Dennis E.A (2009). "Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids". Journal of Lipid Research 50 (Supplement). • Michelle A, Hopkins J, McLaughlin CW, Johnson S, Warner MQ, LaHart D, Wright JD (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. • Vance JE, Vance DE (2002). Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes. Amsterdam: Elsevier. • Brown HA, ed. (2007). Lipodomics and Bioactive Lipids: Mass Spectrometry Based Lipid Analysis, Volume 432 (Methods in Enzymology). Boston: Academic Press. • Mandal, Ananya. "Types of Lipids". news-medical.net.