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Teoria del poblamiento de america

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Teoria del poblamiento de america

  1. 1. El Poblamiento de América
  2. 2. PRIMEROS HOMINIDOS
  3. 4. TEORÍA AUTOCTONISTA <ul><li>Expuesta por FLORENTINO AMEGHINO propusó que el ser humano apareció y evolucionó en América. </li></ul><ul><li>Su teoría se basa en el hallazgo de huesos humanos en la pampa argentina. </li></ul>
  4. 5. HOMUNCULUS PATAGONICUS
  5. 6. <ul><li>Su teoría perdió viegencia por: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Los restos humanos encontrados pertenecen al ser humano actual, otros investigadores europeos aseguraron que los fósiles eran de MONOS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Los estratos de la tierra donde se encontraron no son de la antigüedad que él les atribuyó. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. TEORIA ALOCTONISTA <ul><li>Los investigadores dicen que arribaron desde diversas partes de Asia y Oceanía, por diferentes rutas. </li></ul>
  7. 8. ALEX HRDLICKA <ul><li>Afirmó que el ser humano arribó desde Asia, eran alóctonos, el planteaba que el poblamiento ocurrió a través del ESTRECHO DE BERING. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Se dió hace 40 mil o 30 años a.C, las aguas de los ríos y mares se congelaron, durante la última glaciación. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>La zona entre E.E.U.U y Rusia se congeló, llamandosé BERINGIA, esto favoreció que bandas de cazadores llegaran a lo que hoy es América. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Como eran nómadas, recorrían grandes distancias en busca de alimento, lo que se le llama TEORÍA ASIÁTICA. </li></ul>
  11. 12. ESTABA CONVENCIDO DE SU TEORIA POR: 1. LAS SEMEJANZAS FÍSICAS ENTRE LOS ABORÍGENES AMAERICANOS Y ALGUNOS ASIÁTICOS. 2. LA SIMILITUD ENTRE LOS OBJETOS DE PIEDRA (PUNTAS DE LANZA) HALLADOS EN AMERICA Y ASIA. 3. EL PARECIDO ENTRE LOS GRUPOS SANGUINEOS DE DIVERSOS SECTORES ASATICOS Y AMERICANOS.
  12. 13. PAUL RIVET <ul><li>Los pobladores provenía de Asia, pero tambien de Oceanía (Australia, Polinesia y Melanesia), propusó el origen múltiple de los americanos. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Se le conoce como TESIS OCEANICA, que el ser humano llego a través del Estrecho de Bering y a través del Oceáno Pacífico. </li></ul>
  14. 15. SEGUN RIVET, EL PARENTESCO ENTRE LOS AUSTRALIANOS Y LOS INDIGENAS DEL CONO SURSE DEMUESTRA POR: 1. EL PARECIDO ENTRE LOS CRANEOS DE ALGUNOS INDGENAS AUSTRALIANOS Y CIERTOS INDIOS PATAGONES. 2. LA COINCIDENCIA DE LOS RESPECTIVOS GRUPOS SANGUINEOS (TIPO O) 3. LOS SORPRENDENTES PARECIDOS ETNOGRAFICOS, COMO LOS AUSTRALIANOS, LOS INDIGENAS DE LA TIERRA DEL FUEGO NO CONOCIAN LA CERAMICA NI LA HAMACA; USABAN MANTAS DE PIEL Y HABITABAN EN CHOZAS EN FORMA DE COLMENA.
  15. 16. DISPERSION POR EL CONTINENTE <ul><li>Los primeros se dispersaron a lo largo de las cordilleras occidentales del continente, cerca de 20.000 a.C habrían llegado al centro de México. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Desde América del Norte se desplazaron hacia el sur y poblaron América Central y por último América del Sur, según arqueológos hace 12.000 ó 14.000 años. </li></ul>
  17. 18. PERIODOS DE LA PREHISTORIA AMERICANA <ul><li>LÍTICO (45000-7000 a.C): los humanos eran nómadas y vivían de la recolección de frutos silvestres, de la caza y pesca, confeccionaron objetos de piedra. </li></ul><ul><li>Las culturas clovís y folsom, en E.E.U.U fueron las primeras,en Suramérica en Huánuco, en Perú estuvieron los primeros. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>ARCAICO (7000-3000 a.C): la población inició la domesticación de animales y plantas, hicieron las primeras huertas cerca de ríos, se seguía la caza y recolección. </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>PRECLÁSICO (3000a.C -300d.C): se da la agricultura y el desarrollo de la cerámica y textilería, se desarrollan los Olmecas, en Mesoamérica y la Chavín, en Perú. </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>CLÁSICO (300-900d.C): se perfeciona la agricultura, se da la metalurgía, la cerámica y los textiles, se crean centros urbanos y religiosos, se destaca la cultura teotihuacana y maya, los moche y nazca. </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>POSCLASICO (900-1500d.C): se estableció una organización política y social , se construyen ciudades, obras de arquitectura, se destacan los toltecas, los mayas y aztecas, y los incas, desaparecieron con la llegada de los españoles. </li></ul>
  22. 24. LOS OLMECAS <ul><li>Se establecieron en la parte sureste de Veracruz y el oeste de Tabasco, entre 1200 y 600 a.C, sus principales ciudades fueron La Venta, San Lorenzo y Tres Zapotes. </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Crearon un Estado teocrático, dirigido por sacerdotes, las decisiones dependían de la ley divina y conocimientos astronómicos que tuvieran los chamanes. </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>Rendían culto a varios dioses, las deidades se relacionaban con el entorno y actividades, se cree que el dios principal era el JAGUAR. </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>La sociedad se componía de: LOS SACERDOTES, ARTESANOS Y COMERCIANTES; CAMPESINOS. </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Con los excendentes de la agricultura, los aborígenes, implementaron el trueque con los pueblos cercanos. </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>En las ciudades, construyeron centros ceremoniales, que eran edificios dedicados al culto y al gobierrno. </li></ul>
  28. 30. CHAVÍNES <ul><li>Se extendieron en la regiones del norte de Perú, como en la Ica, Lima, Ancash, La Libertad, Piura, Cajamarca, Ayacucho y Huánuco, entre 2000 y 500 a.C </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>Los chavines instauraron un Estado teocrático, se dividían en: SACERDOTES, ARTESANOS Y CAMPESINOS. </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Los indígenas construyeron sus chozas cerca de centros ceremoniales, el más famoso Huántar.. </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Rindieron culto a diversos dioses, el más importante fue Lanzón, que es una escultura que tiene rasgos humanos y animales y que, al parecer, representaba a un ídolo. </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>La población sembraba maíz, practicaban la caza, pesca, recolección de frutos, pastoreo y trabajos en piedra y cerámica. </li></ul>

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