Language ComparisonEnglish vs Tagalog Celeste Holovacs Wilkes - 502
The Philippines is anarchipelago in South-East Asia. The nationconsists of 7,107 islandslocated between thePhilippine Sea and theSouth China Sea, on theeastern edge of Asia.Tagalog is anAustronesian languagewith about 57 millionspeakers in thePhilippines, particularlyin Manila, central andsouthern parts of Luzon.
Tagalog Background Tagalog pronounced (ta-GA-log) serves as the basis ofthe Filipino language, the national language of the Philippines.The two languages are basically identical. However, there is asignificant political and social history that underlies thereasons for differentiating between Tagalog and Filipino.The current constitution of the Philippines maintains thatFilipino is the country’s national language. Today, Filipino isconsidered the proper term for the language of the Philippines,especially by Filipino-speakers who are not of Tagalog origin.Many Filipino-speakers acknowledge Filipino’s roots byreferring to the Filipino language as “Tagalog-based.”http://www.alsintl.com/resources/languages/Tagalog/
Student Background Rica is an eleven year old sixth grade studentwho has been in the United States for fourmonths. She came from Pampanga Luaon, an island inthe Philippines. She is currently at an independent readinglevel of grade four and instructional reading levelof grade five. The primary language spoken in her home isTagalog. She attended public school five days a weekwhere English was a core subject.
English and Tagalog Comparisons English TagalogFive vowels, a, e, i, o, u, short Five vowel sounds, a, e, i, o, u,and long sounds all short, long vowels are nonexistent21 consonant sounds, Nine 16 consonant sounds - b, d, k,English consonants do not g, h, l, m, ng, p, r, s, t, w, and y.occur in Tagalog: /v/, /j/, /z/, The consonants have only onevoiced and voiceless th, sh, dz, sound each, most notably the gch, z. always pronounced as the hard g, never softLanguage is written left to Language is written left toright right
English and Tagalog Comparisons English TagalogPresent, past, future tense, Almost all verbs are regularand there are several tense.different forms of thesetensesEnglish has linking verbs No auxiliary or linking verblike: am, is, are, was, wereEnglish words are not Highly phonetic language,always pronounced the same most words are spelled likeway it is spelled. they sound
English and Tagalog Comparisons English TagalogPronouns indicate gender: Pronouns do not indicatehe, she, we, they, his, her, us gender. Siya means he or sheNouns do not require an All nouns, even proper nounsarticle require an article.Plurals are made by adding The plural word is preceded“s” or “es” by "mga" i.e. "mga apple" means "apples“ and "the child" would be "ang bata"; "the children" would be "ang mga bata".
English and Tagalog Comparisons English TagalogSentence structure is SVO Sentence structure is usually VSOFocus is placed by voice, Focus of the sentence is doneimportant words are by placing a marker in front ofemphasized the word that is the focus. marker comes before a noun. Ang, ng, and sa are markers.Three degrees of adjectives Three degrees of adjectives
Below are some errors made by Rica:• The teacher gived us the test.• The tall boy growed two inches over the summer.• I have these last time, instead of I had these lasttime.• The baby toys instead of the baby’s toys• The boy books instead of the boys’ books• Him exchanged the tickets instead of heMost of Rica’s errors were developmental. However, shealso made interlingual errors which should be addressed.Rica had the most problems with verbs especially in theomission of past tense. This was understandable sinceTagalog verbs are of the regular tense.
In Tagalog, verbs start with verb roots. To createtenses, an affix is added to the root. To make verbs futuretense, the first two letters are repeated. For example, the verb jump is “Talon”. Future tense is“TATALON” the T and A is repeated.To turn a verb to past tense, insert “UM” between thefirst and second letter of the word. Past tense of Talon isTUMALON. To turn a verb into present tense, combine the futureand past tense rules. Repeat the first two letters, and thenadd “UM” between them. The present tense of Talon isTUMATALON
INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLICATIONSAddressing past tense difficulties:− Have students tell you what they did the night before− Have students tell you about a TV show they watched− Have students fill in correct past tense verbs in sentences−Give students sentence starters like “ Last night….. orYesterday…..− Show students pictures and have them write sentences in pasttense− Use tongue twisters such as: Swan swam over the sea. Swim,swan, swim! Swan swam back again. Well swum, swan!
The word order in Tagalog is different inthan English. In English one would say"The house is beautiful." which is translatedinto Tagalog as "Magandá ang báhay."which literally means "Beautiful the house."
INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS Sentence structure difficulty: Write individual words on index cards representingvarious parts of speech Color code each part of speech the same color Start with simple sentences Work collaboratively to build sentences by pickingwords from index cards
Tagalog usually stresses the last syllable. It alsouses glottal stop which can be stressed. Thediacritical marks are used to show which vowelshould be stressed and which vowel should beaccompanied with the glottal stop and whichshould be the combination of both the stress andthe glottal stop.This is very important because the meaning of aword can be changed if you dont make the stressor glottal stop correctly. suka - vomit These could be a real sukà – vinegar problem if mixed bága - live charcoal up! bagà - lungs
INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS− Introduce IPA - to capture accents by showing studentshow a word should be pronounced. Students would nothave to depend on hearing the words to learn them.− Cooperative Learning Groups – to build confidencewith speaking−Read stories that are familiar to students
Whether we as teachers have an ESL class, a special needsclass, or a regular population class, it is important to meetthe diverse needs of all students. Activities must be gearedto all learning modality styles.General ELL strategies:− Bring in magazines that interest the student or juniorscholastic and have students read and discuss− Read various types of literature aloud− Be aware of and respectful of the student’s culture− Use Dialogue Journals− Introduce vocabulary that has meaningful context
Reyes, R. (1997). About the Tagalog language. In A handbook and grammar of the Tagalog language. Retrieved from http://tagalog.ryanreyes.com/tagalog.htm