Decentralized Rural Development Planning : A Case Study of Khok Charoen District, Lopburi Province, Thailand (Part I)


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Decentralized Rural Development Planning : A Case Study of Khok Charoen District, Lopburi Province, Thailand (Part I)

  1. 1. Rural Regional Planning Workshop January – May 2008 Workshop Report Development Planning ofKhok Charoen District, Lopburi Province Submitted to Asso. Prof. Dr.Soparth Pongquan Professor J.K. Routray Mr. Vitoon Nil-Ubol Submitted by Rural regional Development Planning Student Rural Regional Development Planning Field of Study School of Environment, Resources and Development Asian Institute of Technology Thailand
  2. 2. AcknowledgmentsFirst, we would like to express our deep gratitude to Prof.J.K.Routray, School ofEnvironment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, and Dr. SoparthPongquan, Associate professor, School of Environment, Resources and Development, AsianInstitute of Technology for their kind and field and class room guidance, comments, and theirtechnical assistance in preparing this report and to learn a valid practical social researchmethodologies.This report and field work was become successfully possible due to Mr. Vitoon Nil-ubol,RRDP Field Laboratory Supervisor, School of Environment, Resources and Development,Asian Institute of Technology. We heartily acknowledged his efforts in preparing schedules,organizing filed surveys and trips and data collection. We also extend our thanks to all thesenior Thai students who acted as translator and made our job easier while data collection andeven in data organizing.Finally, our greatest appreciation is given to local people of Khok Chareon district and TAOofficials, and other officials at the district and provincial level for their warm contribution andsupport. ii
  3. 3. Workshop Participants1 Mr. Abdul Waheed Pakistan2 Mr. Abid Hussain Pakistan3 Mr. Alam Mohammad Pakistan4 Mr. Amar B. Thing Nepal5 Mr. Bashirullah Khpalwan Afghanistan6 Ms. Chaba Srisuno Thailand7 Mr. Choen Krainara Thailand8 Mr. Imran Taj Hassani Pakistan9 Mr. Junaid Alam Memon Pakistan10 Mr. Khampu Phoyyavong Laos11 Mr. Mahtab Ahmad Pakistan12 Mr. Mizan ul-Rahman Bangladesh13 Ms. Naw Pe The Law Myanmar14 Ms. Nay New Myanmar15 Ms. Poonam Sharma Nepal16 Mr. S.Apichatthanapath (seng) Thailand17 Mr. Sarawuth Wattatham Thailand18 Ms. Sirinath Matra (Noi) Thailand19 Mr. Sothy Va Cambodia20 Ms. Tran Thi Bach CUC Vietnam21 Ms. Yupa Naw Myanmar22 Mr. Zhang Jun China iii
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTACTSChapter Title Page Acknowledgment і Workshop Participants іі Table of contacts ііi List of Table vi List of Figures x List of Maps xiii 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Study Area Identification Phase 2 1.2 Preparatory Phase 2 1.3 Field Investigation Phase I 2 1.4 Data Analysis Phase I 2 1.5 Field Investigation Phase II 2 1.6 Data Analysis Phase II 3 1.7 Planning Phase 3 1.8 Synthesis 3 2. Natural Resources and Environment Sector 5 2.1 Over view and outline 5 2.2 Topography and Climate 6 2.3 Soil 11 2.4 Land 19 2.5 Water 23 2.6 Forest 26 2.6a Case Study of Tambon Yangrak Community Forestry 28 2.7 Minerals 30 2.8 Environmental Issues 32 2.8a A Case Study on Pollution from Open Sugarcane Burning in 33 Tambon Nang Makha 2.9 Relevant Government Policies and Strategies on NRE 35 2.10 Sectoral Analyses and Interrelation of Key Issues 37 2.10.1 Conclusions 40 3. Agricultural Sector 42 3.1 Land for Agriculture 3.2 Water Resources 50 3.3 Soil for Agriculture 3.3a Water Management: A case study on water users’ organization 53 3.4 Crops 55 3.5 Livestock and Poultry 66 3.6 Fishery 72 3.7 Agricultural Employment 74 3.8 Khok Chareon District Agriculture Office 74 3.9 Agriculture Extension Service 74 iv
  5. 5. 3.10 Tambon Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre 76 3.11 Case study on Integrated Farming System 78 3.12 Case study on chemical free vegetable plantation 80 3.13 Case study on paddy farming group 82 3.14 Agricultural Credit 83 3.15 Agriculture Policies 84 3.16 Problems and prospects 86 3.17 Conclusions and recommendations 874. Non Agricultural Sector 88 4.1 Industrial Sector 91 - Thai Hand Weaving Group, Tambon Khok Charoen 103 - Thai hand weaving group, Tambon Khok Samae San 105 - Thong Muan production, Tambon Nong Makha 106 - Basketry group – Wang Thong 109 4.2 Trade and Commerce 116 4.3 Tourism 133 4.4 Problems and Potential Analysis of Non-Agriculture Sector 138 4.5 Conclusion and Recommendation 1405. Infrastructure Sector 143 5.1 Introduction 143 5.2 Settlement 144 5.3 Connection network: Time distance and accessibility 147 5.4 Public transportation (Bus) 152 5.5 Water Supply System 153 5.5.1 Case study 154 5.6 Power supply systems 155 5.7 Telecommunication 156 5.8 Overall Development 1586. Social Sector 161 6.1 Population 161 6.1.2 Population Structure 161 6.1.6 Population Projection 165 6.1.11 Migration 170 6.1.13 Policies and Programs on Poverty Alleviation 171 6.2.1 Health policies and strategies 174 - Public Health Station - Tambon Yang Rak 183 - District hospital, Khok Charoen – A case study 185 6.3 Education - Case Study on Yang Rak Vittaya School 206 - Case Study of Village Development Fund Project in Supporting 208 Students’ Study 6.3.10 Non-Formal Education 210 6.3.13 Vocational Training 214 6.4.1 Thailand’s Administrative Structure 218 6.4.3 Community Planning Process of Tambon 223 6.4.6 The Community Development Department (CDD 228 - A Case study on Weaving Group 230 v
  6. 6. - Saving group case study in Tambon Khok Charoen 231 - Village Development Funds Case Study on Village 232 Development Funds village no.of 8 Tambon Wang Tong 6.4.12 Social Welfare and Issues 235 6.4.15 Summary of problems and potentials for the Social sector 2367. Project proposals 237 - Awareness Raising Project on Natural Resources and 237 Environmental Problems - Promoting Community Forestry in Tambon Wangthong 243 - Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre Strengthening Project 248 - Enhancement of Area under Cassava Cultivation 250 - Cooperative weaving centre 252 - Formation of Weaving Training and Demonstration Center as a 258 Culture Tourism - Provision of Community Shallow Tub-well 265 - Skill improvement program for OTOP groups in Khok Charoen 267 district References 270 Appendices 272 vi
  7. 7. LIST OF TABLETable Title PageTable 2.1 Classification of Major Soils in Khok Charoen district 11Table 2.2 Soil quality with reference to the villages in the district 13Table 2.3 Soil Suitability analysis of Khok Charoen District with reference to Tambons 14Table 2.4 Types and Number of Land Ownerships in Khok Charoen District 20Table 2.5 Details of the Natural Sources of water in Khok Charoen District 23Table 2.6 Overall Policies of Natural Resources and Environment Sector 39Table 3.1 Total cultivable agricultural land, households and average land holding size 43Table 3.2 Land area and percentage of land occupied by agriculture and others 43Table 3.3 Agricultural Land Use by Tambon Wise 44Table 3.4 Upland and Lowland Crop by Tambon Wise 45Table 3.5 Factors affecting crop performance and suitability 47Table 3.6 General Soil Observation 47Table 3.7 Soil Fertility Analysis 48Table 3.8 Available water storage resources 50Table 3.9 Situation of cultivable area and available stored water resources 52Table 3.10 Cropping pattern 56Table 3.11 Cropping Calendar 57Table 3.12 Cropping Intensity 57Table 3.13 Average Yield 58Table 3.14 Benefit Cost ratio calculation of major crops 59Table 3.15 Comparative statement of livestock and agriculture production 64Table 3.16 Human resource of livestock department in Khok Charoen District 67Table 3.17 Poultry Population in District Khok Charoen 70Table 3.18 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas 72Table 3.19 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas 72Table 3.20 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas 73Table 3.21 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas 73Table 3.22 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas 73 vii
  8. 8. Table 3.23 Summary information about the three Financial Institutions 83Table 4.1 General information of Lop Buri province 88Table 4.2 Breakdown of income generated by sector 88Table 4.3 Comprehensive picture of Non-agricultural sector in Khok Charoen district 90Table 4.4 Summary of supporting institutions of industries and OTOPs 91Table 4.5 Industry situation in Lop Buri province 94Table 4.6 Current situation in Khok Charoen district 95Table 4.7 Number of agricultural household per one agro-processing industry 95Table 4.8 Change in number of OTOP projects in different districts between 2006-07 98Table 4.9 Comparison of income generated from OTOPs among different districts 99Table 4.10 Comparison of successful OTOPs (4 stars or more) in different districts of 99 LopburiTable 4.11 List of OTOPs in Khok Charoen district 100Table 4.12 Comparison among OTOPs 108Table 4.13 List of main problems in the industrial sector 114Table 4.14 List of potentials of industrial sector in Khok Charoen 115Table 4.15 Distribution time and place of weekly market in Khok Charoen district. 117Table 4.16 Distribution of total shop by Tambon 119Table 4.17 Distribution of Shops by Tambon 120Table 4.18 Ratio of Population under the Service of Shops in Tambon 120Table 4.19 Markets, Location and Time Spent of Inflow Products 125Table 4.20 Markets, Location and Time Spent of Outflow Products 128Table 4.21 Number of Clients and Loan Amount Disbursed 130Table 4.22 Department of Business Development Strategy (2008-2012) 132Table 4.23 Internal Tourism Statistics of Lop Buri Province 133Table 4.24 Attractive tourist place in Lop Buri by share of visitors in 2004 134Table 4.25 SWOT analysis of tourism 138Table 5.1 Population Density and Settlement Pattern of District Khock Charoen 145Table 5.2 Average time 147Table 5.3 Roads density 148Table 5.4 Cumulative road density 148Table 5.5 Accessibility to facilities 151 viii
  9. 9. Table 5.6 Construction and maintenance 151Table 5.7 Individual transport 152Table 5.8 Water availability 153Table 5.9 Case study 154Table 5.10 Power supply 155Table 5.11 Telecommunication 156Table 5.12 Overall development 158Table 6.1 Households size change by Tambon, 2004-2007 161Table 6.2 Population Density by Tambon 161Table 6.3 Population by gender, 2007 163Table 6.4 Comparison of Male and Female Sex Ratio 164Table 6.5 The dependency and dependency ratio 165Table 6.6 Population projected by Tambon 2015 and 2020 166Table 6.7 The population growth rate Khok Charoen district, 2003-2007 166Table 6.8 Birth and Death Rates Khok Charoen district, 2007 167Table 6.9 Household income 168Table 6.10 Poverty rate by Tambon in 2004-2007 168Table 6.11 Type of poverty problems 169Table 6.12 Tambon wise out - migration 170Table 6.13 Tambon wise in - migration 171Table 6.14 Accessibility of public health stations/hospital 176Table 6.15 Distribution of health facilities with respect population 177Table 6.16 Detail of health personnel 178Table 6.17 Details of major disease in the district 180Table 6.18 Distribution of Education Institutions by Tambons 194Table 6.19 Ratio of Student-classroom Khok Chareon District 194Table 6.20 Ratio of Students-classroom in Pre-primary Education Khok Chareon District 196Table 6.21 Ratio of Student-classroom in Primary School, Khok Chareon District 196Table 6.22 Ratio of Students-classroom in Lower Secondary Education, Khok Chareon 197 DistrictTable 6.23 Ratio of Students-classroom in Upper Secondary Education, Khok Chareon 198 District ix
  10. 10. Table 6.24 Number of Teachers by Qualification in Khok Chorean District, Academic Year 198 2006Table 6.25 Students-teacher Ratio by School 199Table 6.26 Students-teacher Ratio by Lower Secondary and Upper Secondary School 200Table 6.27 Percentage of Dropout by Schools 200Table 6.28 Time of Distance to a Particular School Service by Foot and by Bike 203Table 6.29 Schedule of English Teacher of Anu Bann Khok Charoen School 204Table 6.30 School Assessment by External Education in Khok Charoen District 205Table 6.31 Number of Villages Reached at Progressive Level of Studying Continuation 206Table 6.32 The Students-to-computer Ratio, Yang Rak Wittaya School 206Table 6.33 Number of Students in Yang Rak Wittaya School by Gender and Grade 207Table 6.34 The Distribution of Scholarship in Khok Charoen District, 2008 209Table 6.35 The Rate of Illiteracy by Tambons in 2007 211Table 6.36 Non-formal Education Projects’ Plan and Budget, Khok Chaoren District, 212 2007Table 6.37 Community Learning Centers in Khok Charoen District 214Table 6.38 Report Fiscal Year 2007: Education and Training to Improve Vocational 215 SkillsTable 6.39 Human Resource of the Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO) 221Table 6.40 Income and Expenditure by Tambon in Khok Charoen District, 2007 221Table 6.41 Local Revenues by Source of income in TAO, 2007 222Table 6.42 Expenditure of TAO 222Table 6.43 List of Development Projects in Khok Charoen District 223Table 6.44 Percentage of Local People’s Participation in Khok Charoen District 225Table 6.45 Institutional support from Line Ministries in Khok Charoen District 227Table 6.46 List of Community Groups in Khok Charoen District by Tambon 229Table 6.47 Finance group and the budget in five Tampons, 2007 230Table 6.48 Detail of assistance provided to needy people 235 x
  11. 11. LIST OF FIGUREFigure Title PageFigure 1.1 Rural and Regional Planning Workshop Methodology 4Figure 2.1 Percentage Distribution of the Area by Tambon 7Figure 2.2 Rainfall Data Lopburi Metrological Station (1988-2006) 9Figure 2.3 No of Rainy Days, Lopburi Metrological Station (1997-06) 9Figure 2.4 Average Max/Min Temperature 9Figure 2.5 Average Humidity, Lopburi Metrological Station (1988-2006) 9Figure 2.6 Percentage distribution of the soil under major groups 13Figure 2.7 Alternative for Planting in Khok Charoen District 18Figure 2.8 Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water 25Figure 2.9 Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water for Domestic Uses 25Figure 2.10 Villages with Access to water for agricultural purposes 26Figure 2.11 Utilization and appearance of Perlite 30Figure 3.1 Land Use 42Figure 3.2 Upland and low land crop area 44Figure 3.3 Upland and Low land crop by Tambon 45Figure 3.4 Agricultural land use by Tambon 46Figure 3.5 Soil Fertility Level 49Figure 3.6 Tambon wise percentage of total water storage capacity 50Figure 3.7 Comparison of cultivable land and water resources 52Figure 3.8 Area under the different cropping patterns 56Figure 3.9 Cropping Intensity 58Figure 3.10 Gross Benefits vs Production Cost (per rai) 60Figure 3.11 Benefit cost ratio analysis of major crops 60Figure 3.12 Number of Livestock (cattle- Buffalo, Sheep, Pig) in 2008 67Figure 3.13 Livestock population in Tambon Khok Charoen 67Figure 3.14 Livestock population in Tambon Yang Rack 68Figure 3.15 Livestock population in Tambon Nong Makah 68Figure 3.16 Livestock population in Tambon Khok Samae 69Figure 3.17 Comparison of Tombon wise livestock population percentage 69Figure 3.18 Percentage of Production System 70 xi
  12. 12. Figure 3.19 Khok Chareon district Agriculture Organizational Chart 75Figure 4.1 Employment status at provincial level 89Figure 4.2 Breakdown of employment by sub-sector in Lopburi 89 (in number of worker)Figure: 4.3 Industrial Development and Planning Zone of Thailand 92Figure 4.4 Percentage distribution of cottage industries by location/Tambon 95Figure 4.5 Distribution of cottage industries (rice mills) 96Figure 4.6 Distribution of OTOPs among different districts 97Figure 4.7 Distribution of OTOPs by location/Tambon 101Figure 4.8 Distribution of OTOPs by function among Tambon 101Figure 4.9 Distribution of OTOPs by function among different areas within 102 Khok Charoen districtFigure 4.10 Marketing channels for weaving products 105Figure 4.11 Marketing channels of Thong Muan production 107Figure 4.12 Marketing channels for handicraft basketry 110Figure 4.13 Marketing channels of dried cassava. 111Figure 4.14 Marketing channels of products from rice mill. 111Figure 4.15 Density of Population to Private Shops Map 121Figure 4.16 Distribution of Weekly Market Map 122Figure 4.17 Market Linkage 123Figure 4.18 Marketing Chanel of cloths 126Figure 4.19 Marketing Chanel of groceries 126Figure 4.20 Marketing Chanel of House ware products 127Figure 4.21 Marketing Chanel of Electric ware Products 127Figure 4.22 Distribution of Tax revenue of Khok Charoen District in 2006 129Figure 4.23 Tax Revenues Generated from Private Shop by Tambon in 2007 129Figure 4.24 Tourist Map in Lop Buri Province 135Figure 5.1 Size of Household 145Figure 5.2 Individual transports 152Figure 5.3 Availability of water 153Figure 5.4 Power supply 155Figure 5.5 TOT and cell phone 157 xii
  13. 13. Figure 5.6 Overall development 158Figure 6.1 Population Distributions by Tambon 162Figure 6.2 Population by age and gender 163Figure 6.3 Gender balance 163Figure 6.4 Population pyramid 164Figure 6.5 Population Growth Rate 167Figure 6.6 Achievement of households have saving by Tambon 169Figure 6.7 Location of public health station 176Figure 6.8 Distribution of health facilities 177Figure 6.9 Distribution of nurses in the district 178Figure 6.10 Resident environment 180Figure 6.11 Health and Hygiene conditions 181Figure 6.12 Distribution of health volunteers in four Tambons 181Figure 6.13 Organization Structure Khok Charoen Hospital 185Figure 6.14 Details of health awareness schemes 187Figure 6.15 Organization of the Present School System in Thailand 191Figure 6.16 Education Administration and Management Structure 193Figure 6.17 Percentage of Classrooms by Education Level 195Figure 6.18 Percentage of Students by Education Level 195Figure 6.19 Percentage of Villages Achieved Progressive Education Level by Tambons 203Figure 6.20 The Changing of Numbers of Students by Gender and Grades 207Figure 6.21 The National and Local Government Structure in 218Figure 6.22 TAO Administrative Chart 220Figure 6.23 Development Project of TAOs 224Figure 6.24 People’s Participation in Social Activities by Five Tambon 226Figure 6.25 Community Development Department working 228Figure 6.26 Number of villages becoming sufficiency economy village 228Figure 6.27 Number of villages having Public Information Centre in Khok Charoen 228 District xiii
  14. 14. LIST OF MAPSMap Title PageMap 2.1 Topographic map of Khok Chareon District 8Map 2.2 Villages Affected by Storm in Tambon Khok Charoen 11Map 2.3 Soil Type 16Map 2.4 Soil Suitability Map, Khok Charoen Disitrict 17Map 2.5 Land Use Pattern 19Map 2.6 Land Reformed in Tambon Khok Samae San, Khok Charoen District 21Map 2.7 Drainage Map Showing Water Bodies 24Map 2.8 Distributions of Land and Forest Resources in Khok Charoen District 27Map 3.1 Distributions of Water Resources 51Map 3.2 Showing water reservoir in the study district 53Map 3.3 Demonstration Farm Sites 77Map 5.1 Settlement pattern of Khok Chareon 144Map 5.2 Population density of Khok Charoen district 146Map 5.3 Population distribution 146Map 5.4 Road network 147Map 5.5 Flow map 149Map 5.6 Distribution of Facilities 150Map 5.7 Accessibility of facilities 150Map 6.1 School Distribution in Khok Charoen District 202 xiv
  15. 15. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTIONThis report is prepared by the students who participated in the Rural and Regional PlanningWorkshop which was conducted form January to May 2008 as part of the Masters andDoctors Program at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT). The objective of this report is tounderstand the current situation and development level of the district, and then to provide anyrecommendations or suggestions for future district development planning to the localauthorities or any other relevant organizations. The report is based on both primary andsecondary data sources. Main sources of secondary data have been NRD-2C and BMN aswell as statistics and documents provided by the local government offices and organizations.The study area of Khok Chareon District is situated in Lobburi Province and had thefollowing features. The district (King Amphoe) was created on March 9th, 1987 by splittingoff four tambon from Khok Samrong District. It was upgraded to a full district on November4th, 1993 with total area of 317.14 Km2 or 198212 rai with five subdistricts (tambons) and 53villages.Socio-economic Characteristics of the study area • The main occupation is agriculture • Hospital: 10 bedrooms, 2 doctors, 1 dentist, 28 nurses, 1 pharmacist, 11 public health officers • None of bank • None of department store • There are 16 Primary Schools • 2 Secondary Schools: (Khok Charoen Withaya School and Yang Rak Withaya School) • 1 Research Station: Kasetsart University in Moo 4, Tambon Yang Rak • Total households 7142 • Total Population 24457 • Agriculture and industry î Main agricultural goods: maize, sugarcane, potato, sorghum î Main water sources: Sub Song Stream, Ma Deu Stream î None of industry • Tourist Attractions î None of ancient remains and antiques î Tourist Attractions: handmade silk center, Chang village headman’s grape field 15
  16. 16. î Hotel: Sak Thong Phra Narai Resort î None of guest house î Restaurant: J’ Lek Restaurant next to the Khok Charoen District Office• Significant natural resources of Khok Charoen District î Perlite mineral in Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon Yangrak1. Methodology:Rural and Regional Planning Workshop has various steps (Figure 1.1). These steps weregrouped into phases.1.1Study Area Identification PhaseFaculty and staff identified the study area for the workshop. In this case Khok Charoendistrict was identified. The faculty and associated proceeded with the collection ofsecondary data about the study area.1.2 Preparatory PhaseIn this phase objectives of the workshop were formulated. Different literatures werereviewed such as the study area profile, the previous workshop reports and planningreports. Conceptual framework was prepared from these studies.1.3 Field Investigation Phase 1Study area reconnaissance survey was done in this phase. This survey was intended to getan overall picture of the situation of the district through field observation, Rapid RuralAppraisal (RRA) with local groups and project activities in the study area. During thevisit secondary data and information were obtained from district and sub-district levels.Key problems and issues encountered in the sub-district and district levels were identifiedfrom primary and secondary sources.1.4 Analysis Phase 1Data and information collected during the reconnaissance survey, the local groups andproject activities, the NRD-2C database by village on selected aspects (general,economic, education, health, labor and social), BMN of the sub-districts and othersecondary data were analyzed and key problems were identified into difference sectors.The data requirement, data sources and data gaps were worked out for detailed survey. 16
  17. 17. 1.5 Field Investigation Phase 2 During the field investigation, the participants were assigned to 5 separate sector groups namely: I. Natural Resources and Environment Sector II. Agriculture Sector III. Non-agriculture Sector IV. Infrastructure Sector V. Social SectorThe respective groups collected data and information of study area, i.e. the problems, needs,potentials and key issues, focusing on their sectors. Data such as descriptive statistics, annualreports, provincial plans, sectoral plans, line department plans, district plans, sub-district(Tambon) agriculture plans, Tambon administrative organization development plans, maps,topographic sheets, and others, were collected from line agencies, departments and otherprimary sources of information. The participants were presented the main problems andneeds of study area at the district and provincial meeting room and got the feed back fromthese officials.1.6 Analysis Phase 2From the data and information gathered during the field study such as Tambon Profile,district profile, district development guidelines, government policies, existingproject/activities and other primary data, the respective sectoral group analyzed the situationof the study area for their sectors. Therefore, the problems, needs, potentials and key issues ofthe sectors were identified and prioritized.1.7 Planning PhaseBase on the identified and prioritized sectoral problems and needs, projects were identified.The result of secondary data analysis, people’s perception, government policies, andinformation on existing projects of the district were taken into consideration for theformulation of new projects.1.8 SynthesisEach sectoral group completed a final report of the respective sector. The final report wascompiled and arranged strategically to contain the following chapters: Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Natural Resources and Environment Sectoral Study Chapter 3 Agriculture Sectoral Study Chapter 4 Non-agriculture Sectoral Study 17
  18. 18. Chapter 5 Infrastructure Sectoral Study Chapter 6 Social Sectoral Study Chapter 7 Project ProposalsA workshop is organized in Khok Charoen District to present the outcome of the planningworkshop. The participants were the representatives from the study area: Provincial, District,and Tambon officers of Khok Charoen District, during the workshop. The respect five groupspresented their sectoral projects. Questions were raised concerning the projects presented andwas courteously and promptly answered by the presenters. Suggestion and comments werealso raised. This final report was prepared incorporation all the comments and suggestionsmade.Problems and ConstraintsThe workshop was conducted within four months and participants encountered variouspersonal and professional related concerns. But despite everything, the plan was cohesivenessof the group was developed. The following were the major problems and constraintsidentified: a) All data and information were collected through PRA or RRA, which needed extensive discussion with the local community. Local people speaks Thai language only, which some of the students don’t understand. Faculty, staff and Thai friends worked very hard to solve the language problem. b) Data requirement for a purpose was found different. Some of the required data were not available for the sectoral planning at sub-district and district levels. 18
  19. 19. Time Frame Major Steps Techniques - Identification of the Study Area - Collection of Secondary Data - Primary Survey on Sample Tambon/ Village (Pre-workshop period) - Objective of the Workshop and Literature Review • PRA/RRA - Introduction of the Study Area Preparatory Phase • Observation • Group Discussion (2 weeks) • Discussion with - Review of Different Plans and people and Gov’t Literature officials - Conceptual FrameworkField Investigation Phase 1 - Reconnaissance Survey (Macro and Micro Study Groups) • PRA/RRA (3 days) • Presentation Before the District and Provincial Identification of Problems Officials Analysis Phase 1 • Tambon Council Meetings Identification of Data Requirements, Data • Meeting with Sector (3 weeks) Sources and Data Gaps OrganizationsField Investigation Phase 2 2 Field Investigation Phase - Field Investigation - Data/Information Gathering (6 (6 days) days) • Structuring of Problems and Potentials Analysis Phase 2 - Regional and Sectoral Analysis • Projection/Spatial Analysis (4 weeks) • Quantitiative and Development of Problems Based on Potential Mapping Planning Phase 2 Finalization of the Planning Report (3 weeks) Synthesis - Final Presentation Before the District and Provincial Officers (2 weeks) - Discussion and Adjustments Source: Routray, J.K., (1995) Figure 1.1: Rural and Regional Planning Workshop Methodology 19
  20. 20. CHAPTER II NATURAL RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENT2.1 OverviewThe part of the study analyzes the state of natural resources and environment (NRE) andhighlights its problem potential, need and constraints. Subsequently it also attempts topropose important project to address the problems and develop the potentials that willcontribute to overall development of the district by creating opportunities for the well being ofthe local people. This sector will broadly cover topography, land, soil, water, forest, mineralsand environment. The relevant policies at all scales are also reviewed and the strategiesadopted by the district and Tambon offices are also reviewed in detail to streamline theproject with programs and policy to enhance their relevance and practical application.Basedon the analysis of the sector, it is observed that the state of environment and natural resourcesin the district is not very much satisfactory. The district is not very rich in terms of naturalresources in their present state. Given some natural constrains, the potential however exist inthe area that can be developed for the overall improvement of social, economical andenvironmental aspects for long-term and sustainable development of the district.Each of the above mentioned sectors has some problems and potentials needs and constrainswhich sketch the outline for the development planning of the district. The land is available inthe district with relation to population. The per-capita land availability of the district is about7.5 rai but the most of the land in the district comes under the reserve forest area. The landdistribution is also a major problem. The state of water for some basic needs like drinking andother domestic usage is satisfactory however the water shortage in dry season coupled by poorquality of aquifer is the main problem in the area. The water perennial supply of agriculturewater is utmost need of the area and has important implications on the development of thedistrict. Forests are the most prominent feature of the district in general and Tambon WongThong and Yang Rak in specific and are development potentials of the area. But thedegradation of the forest to considerable extent needs immediate attention. The communitybased forestry management practices are already introduced in Tambon Yang Rak and itsresults are promising. So community forestry is considered to be a potential that cansubstantially applicable in Tambon Wong thong as about 90% of the total area of Tambonarea classified as reserve forest area. In terms of soil quality, the poor soil texture is the mainproblem. Due to the lack of compactness in soil structure, the water run-off during the rainyseasons and flooding causes soil erosion problem. The issues related to soil are on particularfocus of national and provincial level priorities. The land development department has the soildoctor project with a soil doctor in every village and the demo project on soil conservationthrough vitiver gross in Tambon Nong Makha. However the services of scope of theseinitiatives are not very much satisfactory. The district level authorities can take initiative tostrengthen these existing services to cope with the serious problem of soil erosion because thenational and provincial policy and program framework is in complete harmony. The issuescorresponding to soil are addressed in proposed general awareness raising project. In theenvironmental analysis though the district has got relatively clean environment but theperiodical and ad-hoc based problems like illegal farm burning from sugarcane and emerging 20
  21. 21. problems or solid-waste in residential areas are also highlighted for future implication ofenvironmental conscious planning as a part of sustainable development strategy.The overall sectoral plan provided by the planning team is not a one-off action plan rather aflexible cyclic activity. It is neither a recipe that is complete in-itself to ensure thedevelopment of the district nor it is a complete replacement version of the existing planningmethodology in the district. Rather it’s a supplement to the existing planning mechanisms.District level planning personals can add-remove following the empirical and practicalexperience acquired through close interaction with the area. This report represents the sectoralstatus of the Natural Resources and Environment and sectoral development plan projectproposals for the Khok Charoen district. The sectoral report covers the following sections: 1. Topography and Climate 2. Soil 3. Land 4. Water 5. Forest 6. Minerals 7. Environmental Issues 8. Relevant Government Policies and Strategies 9. Sectoral Analyses and Its Interrelation of Key Issues 10. Conclusion and recommendations2.2 Topography and Climate2.2.1 Geographical Location Area and TopographyLocationDistrict Khok Chaoren is located between North 15o 15 & 15o 30 latitude and East 100o 45 &101o 0 longitude in the upper central region of Thailand. It is situated at the distance of 80 kmfrom provincial hall Lopburi and 182 km away from Bangkok, the capital of Thailand.Positioned in the top of the Lopburi province, it touches Phai Sali District of Nakhron SamanProvince in its North and Si Thep District of Phetchaboon Province in its east, whereas insouth-east and south-west, neighbors two of its siblings: District Sa Bot and District NongMuang respectively.Area and AdministrationThe district covers an area of 317 km or 198,212 rai in the upper part of Lopburi province. Itis administratively divided into five tambons namely Tambon Khok Charoen (45,573 rai),Tambon Yang Rak (41,075 rai), Tambon Nang Makha (69,268 rai), Tambon Wong Thong(15,833 rai) and Tambon Khok Same Sam (26,463 rai) with district Khok Charoen is thedistrict head quarter. 21
  22. 22. Figure 2.1: Percentage Distribution of the Area by Tambon Tambon Wise Area Distribution Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province 8% 23% 13% Khok Chaoren Yang Rak Nang Ma Kha Khok Samae San 21% Wang Thong 35%Source: District Administrative organization, Khok Charoen DistrictPhysical Settings/TopographyThe district is the part of Pasak river basin which is the important tributary of Chao Pharayaand Mekong river basins. Various Land features appear in the district ranging from lowland toupland and highlands. Highland and upland mostly exists in Tambon Yangrak where theelevation level varies from 80 m to 560 m above mean sea level, with more than 40% of theland area having a slope gradient of 0-2%, while 4.7% has slope gradient of 40%. However,some small patches of high and upland are also sparsely scattered in rest of four tambons. Thelowland exists in Tambon Khok Charoen, Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon NongMakha. The per-capita land availability in the district is about 7.5 rai. The main land uses areagriculture forest and residential. Around 54.5% of the total land in the district comes underreserve forest are mostly located in Tambon Yang Rak and Tambon Khok Samae San. 22
  23. 23. Map2.1: Topographic Map of Khok Charoen DistrictSource: District Administrative organization, Khok Charoen District2.2.2 Seasonal Composition, Rainfalls, Temperature and HumiditySeasonal CompositionThe seasonal composition of the district is similar to the general seasonal patterns of thecentral region in Thailand with three seasons a year. Generally, the summer rests for threemonths, starting from the February to April, which is less hot than the summer of the North orNortheast of the country due to the influence of the ocean and the trade winds from the oceanbetween February and April. The Rainy season rests for six months starting from May to endof October, when the southwest monsoon winds and depression storms exert their influence,while the winter retains for more or less three months starting from November to the end of 23
  24. 24. January, when the northeast monsoon winds exert their reduced influence and thus is not ascold as the winter of the district of the North or Northeast region of the country.RainfallThough the available data is not district specific and is representative of the entire jurisdictionof Lopburi metrological station but data shows that the area has got less precipitation muchlower than Thailand and also significantly lowers than rest of the central region of Thailand inwhich it is located with few exceptions in year 1996 and 1999. The average rainfall of thearea comes about 1077 (mm.). There is almost no rain in the area during December to march.The range of rainy days varies between 77 days to 121 days between the period 1996-2007with 121 days in 1996 and 77 days in 2004 and 96 days in 2006.Figure2.2: Rainfall Data Lopburi Figure2.3: No of Rainy Days, LopburiMetrological Station (1988-2006) Total Raining days 1997-2006 140 120 121 100 104 108 93 92 96 88 91 88 80 77 Raining days 60 40 20 0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Metrological Station (1997-2006)Source: LopBuri Metrological Station 2007Temperature and Humidity /climateThe area is tropical hot and humid and has almost constant temperature ranges. The trend formore than decadal time series data (1997-2007) shows that the average maximum temperatureranges between 32Co to 35Co whereas the average minimum temperature ranges from 23Co25Co. The average relative humidity in the area as of the period (1997-2007) ranges from67% to 73 % with July, August, September and October as most humid months in a year.This is significantly high in comparison to the universal recommendation of 30%-60% as astandard for comfort to human beings. Due to high humidity sweating is less effective sopeople in the area feel hotter. Please refer annex 1 (2, 3 and 4) for details. 24
  25. 25. Figure 2.4: Average Max/Min Figure2.5: Average Humidity, Lopburi Metrological Average Max/MinTemperature (1996-2007)40 Station (1988-2006)35 Average Humidity 1996-20063025 73 max 72.69 72.44 72.4420 min 72 71.8715 71.48 71105 70 70.05 70.14 Average 69.770 691996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 68.36 68 67.52Temperature 67 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008Source: LopBuri Metrological Station 20072.2.3 Flood, Draught and Storm –Case Study AnalysisFloodThe district has occasional flash floods rounds with the frequency of once in three years andrests for a maximum period of 10 days, however does not cause significant economic andhuman losses. As per qualitative information obtained during the interviews and FGDs thelast flood occurred 3 years ago for 10 days at the month of October. The magnitude was lowhowever affected 400-4500 rais of sugarcane land however no human and livestock losses areassociated with this phenomenon.Though no documentation is available in the district regarding the occurrence of floodshowever it is observed that in Tambon Nang Makha, flood occurs every year, while in KhokSamae Sam it occurs once every three years. However no flood occurs in Tambon Yang Rakand Wang Thong.StormThough minor storms usually occurs the study area but the severity of the phenomena isTambon Khok Charoen specific where it causes considerable economic and human loss.Though the data for frequency and other matters was not readily available in Tambonhowever the damages caused by last storm were properly noted down. During the Groupdiscussion and meetings with Tambon officials it was observed that due to the direction of thewind in association with the location of the villages the storms have impacts in Khok Charoentambons. Based on available data, a case study has been conducted as given below. 25
  26. 26. Case Study.1: Storm in Tambon Khok Charoen Tambon Location: Khok Charoen Year of Occurrence: 2007 Occurrence Period: December to January of every year Villages Affected: Village number 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9&12 Household Affected: 59 households Economic Loss: 178217.38 bhat Storm is an annual event in Tambon Khok Charoen, so the people of this Tambon are facing storm problem every year. The time of the storm was from December to January. The storm of 2007 was massive one and so taken as a case for study in our report. 58 households of 7 villages namely village number 1,2,3,6,8,9,&12 were affected by the storm, and among them village number 8 was greatly affected in which a total 32 Households out of total 56 households were affected by the storm. In village number 2, 12 household, in village number 12, 1 household, in village number 6, 2 household, in village number 1, 7 household and village number 9, 5 household were affected. In average, 80 households are affected per year from the storm. The Map 2.2: Villages Affected by Storm in Tambon Khok CharoenSource: RRDP Workshop, 2008 26
  27. 27. 2.3 Soil 2.3.1 Soil Type and Classification Like other central districts of the country, Khok Charoen consist variety of soil series. The standard classification of soil in Thailand is based on the standard soil classifications by the major soils of south Asia by R.Dudal and FR Moornam, the Jour of Trop Geog vol 18 1964. Following these standards there are 15 major soil series found in the Khok Charoen District and can be categorized under 6 major groups. About 42% total district soils are classified as low humic gley soils which makes 42% of total soils of the district followed by red yellow podozolic soil 20%, hydromorphic, non calcic gely soil 18%, Sedimentary rocks 11.22%, Alluvial Soils 7% and Redish Brown Lateritic soils 2.5%. The details of each of the soil types are given in Table 2.1: and percentage distribution of the soil is given in figure 2.1. Table 2.1: Classification of Major Soils in Khok Charoen DistrictClassification Soil % of Drainage Permeability Surface pH Slopeof Soil Series it total Run Value contain district range Soil Moderately 6.0 toAlluvial Soils 1 7% well Moderate Moderate <2 7.0 drainedHydromorphic, Moderately 25, 25B, 5.5 toNon Culcic 18% well Moderate Moderate 1-20 31, 55 8.0Gley Soils drained 16, 28, 28B, 28/47, SomewhatLow Humic 5.0- 28/54, 42% poorly Moderate Slow 0-2Gley Soils 8.0 28B/47B, drained 29, 33B, 30Reddish Well 4.5 toBrown 52, 54 2.5% Moderate Rapid 2-16 Drained 6.0Lateritic Soil 46, 46B,Red Yellow Well Moderate 4.5- 47, 47B, 20% Moderate 4-16Podzolic Soil Drained to Rapid 6.0 47CSedimentary 62 11.22 Well Moderate Rapid 5.0- 3-16 27
  28. 28. Rocks Drained 8.0 Source: Land Development Office, Lopburi Province, 2008 The overall picture of the soil of the district shows that about 33% of the soils are well drained; about 25% of the soils are moderately well drained while 42% of the soils are somewhat poorly drained. The permeability of the entire of the district is moderate. The surface run data shows the patterns in flow of rain water. The map 2.1 shows the area under each type soil in the district. When we locate the data on map and compare it with NRD-2C data we can observe that due to the fact that the considerable part of the low humic gley soils are located at Khok Charoen, the soil erosion problem is not found in this Tambon because none of the top fertile soil is lost due to slow surface water run. We can observe that the most of the low humic soils which are poorly drained are located in Khok Charoen district. Due to slow surface run on these the soil problem is not appear ant in this Tambon. In the case of Yang Rak the soil erosion is a problem in the area where the surface run is moderate or rapid. The same observations can also be calculated from the rest of the three Tambons. As its is oblivious from above analysis that the areas of the district with high run rate are more prone to the soil erosion problem one other factor is the lack of vegetations on the soil and land is left barren which cause soil erosion and top soil loss in the district. Figure2.6: Percentage distribution of the soil under major groups Percentage of the Soil under 6 Major Groups Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province 11% 7% Alluvial Soil 18% Hydromorphic, Non Calcic Gley Soil 19% Low Humic Gley Soil Redish Brown lateritic Soil 2% Red Yellow Podzolic Soils Sedimentry Rocks 43% Source: Land Development Office, Lopburi Province, 2008 2.3.2 Soil Quality No exclusive data set for soil quality exists in the district. However the NRD-2C provides some indication about the point with reference to village numbers where the soil quality is shown in the village which can extrapolated to nearby soils with reference to the type of soil upon which the villages exists. The summary of the NRD-2C data set for indicator No: 27 regarding soil quality is summarized in table 2.2 as given below which provides tambon wise general picture of the soils in the district. 28
  29. 29. Table 2.2: Soil quality with reference to the villages in the district Name of Tambon No of villages under particular Total Number category of soil of villages Fertile soil Silted/Eroded Gravel, Sandy Soil Soil Tambon Khok Charoen 12 - - 12 Tambon Yang Rak 5 4 3 12 Tambon N. Makha 7 2 3 12 Tambon Wong Thong 6 - 3 9 Khok Same San 4 1 3 8Source: National Rural Database-form 2C, 20072.3.3 Soil SuitabilityBased on the data and general guidelines of the land development office, the soil in thedistrict Khok Charoen can be categorized into nine groups. The location and topography ofthese groups is shown on map 2.2 which has been prepared to depict the overall picture of thesoil suitability in Khok Charoen district. The soil suitability, degree of fertility, limitation andrecommendation regarding the soil are summarized in below given table. It may beremembered that soil suitability may not be in complete harmony with the actual croppingpatterns adopted by farmers. However, if cropping patterns are somehow managed as perbelow given synthesis it shall result in the increasing productivity of the soil.The analysisrecommends for the cultivation of the selected crops on the group areas as shown on the map.Under this analysis different groups can be suitable for same crop but the conditions for thesuitability vary within groups.Table 2.3: Soil Suitability analysis of Khok Charoen District with reference to Tambons 29
  30. 30. Soil Found in Suitability Fertility Limitation Recommendationgroup TambonGroup − K.C − Paddy Crops Medium Annual Crops − Application1 − K.S − Annual can be of both chemical − WT crops/Cash Crops cultivated if and Organic − YR and Orchards the water is fertilizer 4 /5 Tambons available in dry seasonGroup − K.C − Paddy Very Low Sandy Loamy − ApplicationII − K.S Soil of both chemical − WT and Organic − YR fertilizer − NM − Burring 5/5 Tambons after harvest should be discouragedGroup − YR − Paddy on Low Low capacity − ApplicationIII − NM low land and to retain water of both chemical upland crops on and Organic high lands fertilizer 2/5 TambonsGroup − K.C − Fruits high Soil Erosion − ApplicationIV − K.S − Upland Problem at of both chemical − WT Crops high Slopes and Organic − YR − Perennials fertilizer − NM − Vegetables − Topography with high slopes should be covered with vegetation to 5/5 Tambons avoid soil erosionGroup − K.S − Upland Low to Soil Erosion − Rotation inV − WT Crops Medium by water Cropping − YR − Livestock pattern must be − NM grazing in low observed fertile areas − Application of both chemical and Organic fertilizer − Barren lands 30
  31. 31. should be covered with vegetation to avoid soil erosion 4/5 TambonsGroup − K.S − Upland High Soil Erosion − ApplicationVI − WT Crops Problem of both chemical − YR − Livestock and Organic − NM grazing fertilizer − High Growth − Should be Plants covered with 4/5 Tambons − Intercropping vegetation to avoid soil erosionGroup − K.S − Unsuitable for Low to High Slopes, − ConservedVII − WT any cash crop Medium Hilly Patches as forest or − YR water shed area − NM 4/5 TambonsGroup − K.C − Upland Crops High Alkaline Soils − ApplicationVIII − WT − Also Suitable of both chemical − YR for Chili, Cotton, and Organic Sugarcane, fertilizer Sorghum, Maize, − Alkaline Custard Apple, Resistant Tamarind Varieties should be introduced 3/5 TambonsGroup Misalliances group − − −IX Map2.3: Soil Type 31
  32. 32. Source: RRDP Workshop, 2008 32
  33. 33. Map 2.4: Soil Suitability Map, Khok Charoen33 Source: RRDP Workshop, 2008
  34. 34. 2.3.4 Alternative Analysis for Soil Suitability for Major CropsOn the basis of the data from land and development office the alternative analysis has beendone for the different crops in the province. Data shows that for different wide prevailingcrops the suitability varies considerably. For example only about the suitability for ricecultivation in the soil is low. Only 22% of the total soil is suitable for rice around 5 % of thetotal soil is less suitable while rest 73 % is not suitable at all for the cultivation of rice crop.The same sort of analysis has been made for rice corn sugarcane grapefruits papaya, Banana,Asparagus, Guava, Mango and Vegetable. The overall analysis is show in figure 2.7.Figure 2.7: Alternative for Planting in Khok Charoen District Alternative For Planting in Khok Charoen District Lopburi Province 100% Percentage of the the Area 90% 80% 70% 60% Not Suitable 50% Less Sutable 40% Suitable 30% 20% 10% 0% go t rn e ce ya a e va ui us an an bl Co ua an Fr Ri p ta ag Pa n rC gi M pe G Ba gr Ve ga pa ra Su G As Name of CropSource: Regional Rural Workshop, 2008 (Prepared on the basis of guidelines provided byLand Development Office, Lopburi Province)2.3.5 Problems, Constraints, Needs and PotentialsProblems• Poor quality of soil• Soil erosion• FloodingConstraints• Mismatch between soil suitability and existing cultivation practices• Lack of knowledge on soil conservationPotentials• Soil suitable for upland crops like sugarcane and cassava 34
  35. 35. • Soil doctor project is working at village level where a volunteer at village level provides technical assistance regarding soil problemsNeeds• Awareness raising among the local people regarding impacts of extensive use of chemical fertilizer and encourage them on use of bio fertilizer.• The public involvement in soil reclamation activities and land use planning• Establishment of local level soil erosion and flood control initiatives2.4 Land2.4.1 Broad Land Use PatternBroadly, land use pattern has been categorized into 5 types. These consist of humansettlement areas, other human settlement areas located in Pawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved Forest, agricultural area, Pawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved and land reform areas (in four villages of TambonKhoksamaesan). Pa means forest area. It can guide approximate utilization of the land inKhok Charoen District. Pawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved Forestextended over Tambon Yangrak, Tambon Wang Thong, and some parts of Tambon KhokCharoen and Tambon Nong Makha. Overall, there are 53 human settlements within KhokCharoen District. Out of these, nineteen settlements or 36 % of total settlements were locatedin the degraded reserved forest represented by 12, 6 and 1 communities in Tambon Yangrak,Tambon Wang Thong and Tambon Nongmakha, respectively. Land reform areas can only befound in Tambon Khok Samae San. While agricultural areas are widely noticed in TambonKhok Charoen, Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon Nong Makha. And the trend ofsettlements will slowly be toward encroaching reserved forest. Please see detail of broad landuse pattern in the map below.Map 2.5: Land Use Pattern 35
  36. 36. 2.4.2 Land OwnershipKhok Charoen District has total area of 198,212 Rais. It has non-national reserved area of99,314 Rais (50.10 %) of total land area, of which land ownerships registered at 69,049.94Rais with 8,067 land plots. Title deed holders represented at highest share at 81.95 %,followed by N.S.3K at 16.49 %, while N.S.3 and Por Bor Tor 5 0combined at 1.54 %. Thisimplies that there are almost 69 % of people who live on non-national reserved area have landownerships whereas the rest 31 % of them did not have any types of land ownership at all.According to Natural Resources and Environmental Office of Lopburi Province, local peopleare upgraded and legally granted certificate of land ownerships from time to time when thegovernment has the policy to do so.Average land holding size varies from 2-4 Rais up to 50 Rais per household. There are fewpeople in almost all Tambons who have large size of hundreds Rais of land. Holding of landownerships allow local communities to use as collateral for access to formal credits so thatthey can utilize as household investment capital in productive farm and non-farm activities. Interms of government income from the land, in 2008, Khok Charoen Land District hasgenerated total revenues amounted at 165,761 Baht from land fee and tax. 36
  37. 37. Table 2.4: Types and Number of Land Ownerships in Khok Charoen District Types Number of Plots Rai % 1.Title deed 7,369 56,588.84 81.95 2.N.S.3K 653 11,392.73 16.49 3.N.S.3 1 28.83 0.04 4.Por Bor Tor 5 44 1,039.54 1.50 Certificate Total 8,067 69,049.94 100Source: Khok Charoen District Land Office, 2008In addition, lack of land tiles is commonly raised. Approximate 50 % and 10 % of totalhouseholds in Tambon Wang Thong and Tambon Khok Samae San did not have land titlesrespectively. This problem was partly due to communities encroached and now resided ondegraded National Reserved Forest Area. According to data from key informant interviews,landlessness is also significant problem in Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon WangThong at about 6 % and 11 %, respectively, while in Tambon Nongmakha the landlessincidence is marginal. This is considered a part of the whole landless scenario in theseTambons. Some of them have land for settlements but do not have land for cultivation. Andsome are totally landless. Their coping strategies have been rented land both for settlementsand cultivation. Yet, actual magnitude of absence of land titles in Khok Charoen Districtcould doubtedly be higher than this if further investigation is to be conducted at householdlevel. Therefore, it is equitably necessary for TAO to render possible assistance to this groupof poor people through appropriate initiative so that their social and human securities areensured.2.4.3 Land Reform ActivitiesAt present, land reform was only carried out in Tambon Khok Samae San in order to legallymanage land which was long encroached to National Reserved Forest. A total of 305households were granted Agricultural Land Reform Certificates (ALRC) with the whole4,349.59 Rais of reformed land, or accounted for 2.19 % of Khok Charoen District area. Afterimplementing the project, the average land size was redistributed at 14.26 Rais/householdwith the maximum holding size at 50 Rais/household. It was undertaken in 4 villages asfollows: • Village 4 at 40 households of 604.68 Rais • Village 5 at 8 households of 106 Rais • Village 7 at 197 households of 2,785.62 Rais • Village 8 at 60 households of 751.77 Rais 37
  38. 38. Please see detail of already land reform area in the map 2.6Map 2.6: Land Reformed in Tambon Khok Samae San, Khok Charoen DistrictSource: RRDP Workshop, 2008Once households registered for land reform, they will be entitled to a package of governmentsupports for generating rural livelihoods consisting of agricultural extension and technologytransfer particularly on Sufficiency Economy practices, seedling, skill trainings,environmental and natural resources management as well as capitalization using ALRC ascollateral to borrow loan from Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC).According to interview with Office of Land Reform of Lopburi Province, the land reformactivities went well in terms of providing greater technical supports for enhancing localagricultural productivity. In fact, the government has a policy to establish a system governingland ownership and land zoning that is comprehensive and fair. And land reform is politicalissue and national agenda. Therefore, there is so far no clear policy on land reform atprovincial level. Though there are pros and cons (particularly those who have occupied largearea of land plot) existed on essence of land reform in other Tambons, many villagers 38
  39. 39. expressed their willingness to join government’s land reform scheme if they are to offer.Thus, there is potential to intensify land reform undertaking in other areas e.g. Tambon YangRak and perhaps in Tambon Khok Charoen so that equitable redistribution of land could helpincrease income through better local livelihoods situation and higher agricultural productivity.2.4.4 Problems/Constraints, Potentials and NeedsLand resource play crucial role in enhancing livelihoods of local communities. However,some problems existed need to be overcome in order to realize potentials in meeting the needof local villagers.Problems • Lack of land titles This is due to some communities are settled in degraded National Reserved Forest for quite long times. So they have the right to cultivate and settle but the government does not provide any land title. • Landlessness This is due to rapid population growth in Khok Charoen District causing some of them and the new settled migrants (2-4 years in migration) have become landless. • Misperception on non-commercial value of land reform certificate to use for borrowing loan from BAAC. Many local villagers misperceived that holding land reform certificates do not entitle them to access to formal credit. That is why some of them still feel against land reform provided by government. Many of local villagers only prefer N.S 3 or N.S.3K or land deeds which are difficult to obtain as by law their settlements are illegal. So government can not grant any land titles neededPotentials • Land reform has been successfully implemented in Tambon Khoksamaesan in terms of providing technical supports to farmers in to increase agricultural productivity. It could be expanded to other areas where there is potential to developed in order to optimize full capacity of the land value. • Agricultural water supply pipeline project originating from Pasak Cholasit Dam to serve some districts and terminate at Khok Charoen District opens up a prospect particularly in Tambon Khok Charoen to tap with this potential in intensifying cash crops e.g. paddy, sugarcane or cassava.Needs • Land titles Local villagers need land titles so that their land ownerships are secure. In addition, they can use land title as collateral to borrow loans from both BAAC and other commercial banks. • Land reform in Tambon Yangrak Local peoples want the government to carry out land reform activities as they realized its benefits and opportunity to increase agricultural productivity, gaining technology transfer and technical supports. 39
  40. 40. 2.5 Water2.5.1 Types, Numbers and Capacity of Natural Water ResourcesThe study area has acute water shortage every year specifically for agriculture usage. The dryseason starts from March to July, while it also suffers from flooding in rainy seasonparticularly during the months from August to October; however the frequency for flooding ismostly once every three year period. The drainage network of the district is given as Map 2.7.Though the area is receiving low precipitation in comparison with the central region and alsocountry as a whole, however, it has sufficient natural water resources but the scarcity ofreservoirs and weirs for storage of water is the main problem causing extreme situation ofdryness and flooding in peak seasons. The detail of the some of natural water sources is givenin Table 2.5.The water from aquifer is not suitable for drinking in all Tambons except some pockets ofpotable waters exists in Nong Makha sub district. Generally the underground water containshigh amount of limestone and other heavy nutrients which make it unsuitable for drinkingpurposes. As a result heavy reliance on rainwater is the only available option for potablewater. The water scarcity in dry season also substantially affects the agricultural productivityin all Tambons but the degree of scarcity varies among all Tambons. The over all picture ofthe status of water for above mentioned usages is given in the Table 2.5.Table 2.5: Details of the Natural Sources of Water in Khok Charoen District Pond Reservoir Weir Stream No. Cap. No Cap. No Cap. No. Cap. . . Tambon Name (M3) (M3) (M3) (M3) Khok Charoen 17 80,000 3 57,880 4 24,000 14 335,750 Yang Rak 22 105,000 3 300,000 15 72,000 19 360,000 Nong Makha 12 120,000 0 0 2 32,550 2 32,000 Wang Thong 19 307,200 3 2,640,000 14 492,000 14 492,000 Khok Samae San 3 44,800 1 128000 1 3,500Source: Irrigation Office, 2007 40
  41. 41. Map 2.7: Drainage Map Showing Water BodiesSource: RRDP Workshop, 20082.5.2 Water Availability for different Water UsesPotable WaterAs earlier said, the rain is the primary source of potable water in the district. Local peoplehave indigenous knowledge to collect and store the water in rainy season and use it in dryseason when water scarcity is on its peak. Mostly the water collected in rainy season is notsufficient for the entire dry season. In the case of shortage the villages receive the watersupply from district water supply Authority through respective TAO. However the drinkingwater is relatively not a major problem in the district. The state of drinking water in allTambons is shown in below given figure 2.8. 41
  42. 42. Figure2.8: Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water Tambon wise status of villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water, Khok Charoen District Lopburi Province 6 11 11 8 12 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Tambon Khok Tambon Yang Tambon Nong Tambon Wong Tambon Khok Charoen Rak Makha Thong Samesan Clean Drinking water < 63 % Clean Drinking water > 63 but < or 90 Clean Drinking water > 95%Source: National Rural Database, 2007Water for Domestic UsageThe availability of water for domestic usages other than drinking is also satisfactory in almostall Tambons and also relatively better than the state of potable water in the district. Thevillage specific data shows that the need for domestic use water is also fulfilled. Peoplerelying on village water supply scheme for fulfilling the need for domestic usage. The state ofdomestic water in all Tambons is shown in figure 2.9.Figure 2.9: Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water for Domestic Uses Tambon wise status of Villages with Access to Water for Domestic usage, Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province 11 12 12 9 8 0 1 0 0 0 0 Tambon Khok Tambon Yang Tambon W ong Tambon Nong Tambon Khok Charoen Rak Thong Makha Sames an < 63 % > 63 but < or 90 > 95%Source: National Rural Database, 2007Water for AgricultureThe dry season in the district considerably affects the availability of water for agriculturesector. Due to the scarcity of the water in dry season, the full potential of soil always remainsunder utilized. It has negative impacts first on the local economy and subsequently on theregional and national economy. The state of agriculture water in different tambons is shownin figure 2.10: 42