Air Force One is the official air traffic control call sign of a United States Air
Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. In common parlance the
term refers to those Air Force aircraft specifically designed, built, and used for the
purpose of transporting the president. The Presidential aircraft is a prominent symbol
of the American presidency and its power.
The idea of designating specific military aircraft to transport the President arose in
1943, when officials of the United States Army Air Forces – the predecessor to the
U.S. Air Force – became concerned with relying on commercial airlines to transport
the President. A C-87 Liberator Express was reconfigured for use as a presidential
transport; however, it was rejected by the Secret Service amid concerns over the
aircraft's safety record. A C-54 Skymaster was then converted for presidential use;
this aircraft, dubbed theSacred Cow, transported President Franklin D. Roosevelt to
the Yalta Conference in February 1945, and was subsequently used for another two
years by President Harry S. Truman.
The "Air Force One" call sign was
created after a 1953 incident during
which a flight carrying
President Dwight D.
Eisenhowerentered the same
airspace as a commercial airline
flight using the same call sign.
Several aircraft have been used as
Air Force One since the creation of
the presidential fleet, including two Boeing 707s introduced in the 1960s and 1970s,
respectively; since 1990, the presidential fleet has consisted of two Boeing VC-25As –
specifically configured, highly customized Boeing 747-200B series aircraft. The Air
Force is looking into replacing the two VC-25 aircraft with three replacement aircraft
beginning in 2017.
On 11 October 1910, Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to fly in an
aircraft, although at the time of the flight in an early Wright Flyer from Kinloch Field
(near St. Louis, Missouri), he was no longer in office, having been succeeded
by William Howard Taft. The record-making occasion was a brief overflight of the
crowd at a country fair but was nonetheless the beginning of presidential air travel.
Prior to World War II, overseas and cross-country presidential travel was rare. Lack of
wireless telecommunication and quick transportation made long-distance travel
impractical; as it took much time and isolated the president from events in
Washington, D.C. Railroads were a safer and more reliable option if the President
needed to travel to distant states. By the late 1930s, with the arrival of aircraft such
as the Douglas DC-3, increasing numbers of the U.S. public saw passenger air travel as
a reasonable mode of transportation. All-metal aircraft, more reliable engines, and
new radio aids to navigation had made commercial airline travel safer and more
convenient. Life insurance companies even began to offer airline pilots insurance
policies, albeit at extravagant rates, and many commercial travelers and government
officials began using the airlines in preference to rail travel, especially for longer
Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to fly in an aircraft while in office. The
first aircraft obtained specifically for presidential travel was a Douglas
Dolphin amphibian delivered in 1933 which was designated RD-2 by the US Navy and
based at the Naval base at Anacostia D.C. The Dolphin was modified with a luxury
upholstery for four passengers and a small separate sleeping compartment. The
aircraft remained in service as a presidential transport from 1933 until 1939. There
are no reports as to whether the president ever flew in the aircraft though. During
World War II, Roosevelt traveled on the Dixie Clipper, a Pan Am-crewed Boeing
314 flying boat to the 1943 Casablanca Conference, in Morocco, a flight that covered
5,500 miles (in three "legs"). The threat from the German submarines throughout
the Battle of the Atlantic made air travel the preferred method of VIP transatlantic
Concerned about relying upon commercial airlines to transport the president, USAAF
leaders ordered the conversion of a military aircraft to accommodate the special
needs of the Commander in Chief. The first dedicated aircraft proposed for
presidential use was a C-87AVIP transport aircraft. This aircraft, number 41-24159,
was re-modified in 1943 for use as a presidential VIP transport, the Guess Where II,
intended to carry President Franklin D. Roosevelt on international trips. Had it been
accepted, it would have been the first aircraft to be used in presidential service, in
effect the first Air Force One. However, after a review of the C-87's highly
controversial safety record in service, the Secret Service flatly refused to approve
the Guess Where II for presidential carriage. Also, the C-87 was a derivative of the
Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber, so it presented strong offensive impressions to
both enemy fighter aircraft as well as foreign dignitaries being visited, an issue not
present with airframes that were used purely for transport. The Guess Where II was
then used to transport senior members of the Roosevelt administration on various
trips. In March 1944, it transported Eleanor Roosevelt on a goodwill tour of several
Latin American countries. The C-87 was scrapped in 1945
Historically, several U.S. presidents have
flown on Boeing aircraft.
In 1943, President Franklin D.
Roosevelt flew to Casablanca aboard a Boeing
model 314 Clipper.
In 1962, Boeing introduced U.S.
presidents to modern jet transportation with
the introduction of the Boeing model 707320B. In all, seven presidents were served by
Today, the chief executive flies aboard a specially configured 747-200B, the
newest and largest presidential airplane. Its capabilities include:
Longer range for presidential travel
Self-sufficiency at airports around the world
The "flying Oval Office" has 4,000 square feet of interior floor space. Among its
Quarters for the president and the first lady
An office area for senior staff members
Another office that converts into a medical facility when necessary
Work and rest areas for the presidential staff, media representatives and Air
Two galleys that can provide 100 meals at one sitting
Multi-frequency radios for air-to-air, air-to-ground and satellite
Principal differences between Air Force One and the standard Boeing 747 include
state-of-the-art navigation, electronic and communications equipment; its interior
configuration and furnishings; self-contained baggage loader; and front and aft airstairs.
SINGAPORE AIRLINE History
Singapore Airlines began with the incorporation of Malayan Airways Limited
(MAL) on 1 May 1947, by the Ocean Steamship Company of Liverpool, the Straits
Steamship Company of Singapore and Imperial Airways. The airline's first flight was a
chartered flight from the British Straits Settlement of Singapore to Kuala Lumpur on 2
April 1947 using an Airspeed Consul twin-engined aircraft. Regular weekly scheduled
flights quickly followed from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Penang from 1 May
1947 with the same aircraft type. The airline continued to expand during the rest of
the 1940s and 1950s, as other British
Commonwealth airlines (such as BOAC
and Qantas Empire Airways) provided
technical assistance, as well as
assistance in joining IATA.[citation
needed] By 1955, Malayan Airways'
fleet had grown to include a large
number of Douglas DC-3s, and went
public in 1957. Other aircraft operated
in the first two decades included the
Douglas DC-4 Skymaster, the Vickers
Viscount, the Lockheed 1049 Super Constellation, the Bristol Britannia, the de
Havilland Comet 4 and the Fokker F27. When Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak
formed the Federation of Malaysia in 1963, the airline's name was changed, from
"Malayan Airways" to "Malaysian Airways". MAL also took over Borneo Airways. In 1966,
following Singapore's separation from the federation, the airline's name was changed
again, to Malaysia-Singapore Airlines (MSA). The next year saw a rapid expansion in
the airline's fleet and route, including the purchase of MSA's first Boeing aircraft, the
Boeing 707s, as well the completion of a new high-rise headquarters in Singapore.
Boeing 737s were added to the fleet soon after.
Singapore Airlines operates a hub at Changi Airport and has a strong presence in the
Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and "Kangaroo Route" markets. Singapore
Airlines was the launch customer of Airbus A380, currently the world's largest
passenger aircraft. SIA has diversified airline-related businesses, such as aircraft
handling and engineering. Its wholly owned subsidiary, SilkAir, manages regional
flights to secondary cities with smaller capacity requirements.
Singapore Air offers two longest non-stop commercial flights aboard the Airbus
A340-500 which fly to Newark and Los Angeles from Singapore. Singapore Airline has
the London Heathrow Airport and the Sydney Airport as its focus cities. It offers its
frequent flyer program under the KrisFlyer Club for passengers availing Singapore Air
flights on a frequent basis.
Singapore Airlines' Mission Statement
"Singapore Airlines is a global company dedicated to providing air
transportation services of the highest quality and to maximising returns for the
benefit of its shareholders and employees."
This Customer Service Plan has been introduced pursuant to the U.S. Department of
Transportation Final Rule on enhancing airline passenger protections and is applicable
for flights to and from the US. However, this does not mean that some of the services
and assurances set out in this Customer Service Plan are not provided on our other
1. Singapore Airlines will always disclose on our website, at our ticket counters, and
on our phone reservation line, that the lowest fare offered may be located elsewhere.
2. Singapore Airlines shall deliver baggage on time, make every reasonable attempt to
return mishandled baggage within 24 hours, compensate passengers for reasonable
expenses associated with delayed delivery as required by applicable international
agreements, and reimburse customers for lost baggage.
3. Singapore Airlines will provide prompt refunds after receiving a complete refund
application, where ticket refunds are due - within seven business days for credit card
purchases and within 20 business days for purchases made by cash or check. 4.
Singapore Airlines shall accommodate customers with disabilities as required by 14
CFR Part 382 and other special needs customers, including during lengthy tarmac
delays. This will include:
a) Provision of wheelchair assistance for transportation to, from, and between gates;
b) Boarding assistance; c) Assistance with visual, auditory, cognitive, or mobility
impairments while in the airport and on the plane; and d) Accommodation for certain
medical requirements such as medical portable electronic devices.
5. Singapore Airlines shall meet the needs of customers during lengthy tarmac delays,
as provided in Singapore Airlines’ Tarmac Delay Contingency Plan.
6. Singapore Airlines will inform you, upon your request, if the flight on which you are
ticketed is overbooked. We also will provide information at all US airports about our
policies and procedures for handling situations when all ticketed customers cannot be
accommodated on a flight.
7. Singapore Airlines’ cancellation policies, frequent flyer rules, aircraft seating
configuration and lavatory availability are available on our website and, upon request,
from the our telephone reservation system.
8. Singapore Airlines shall notify consumers in a timely manner of changes to their
9. Singapore Airlines shall ensure responsiveness to consumer complaints. We shall
acknowledge a complaint within 30 days and provide a substantive response within 60
days of receiving it.
10. In the event that Singapore Airlines cancels, diverts or delays a flight, Singapore
Airlines will, to the best of our ability, provide meals, accommodation, assistance in
rebooking and transportation to the accommodation to mitigate inconveniences
experienced by passengers resulting from such flight cancellations, delays and
misconnections. Singapore Airlines will not be liable to carry out these mitigating
efforts in cases where the flight cancellations, delays and misconnections arise due to
factors beyond the airline’s control, for example, acts of God, acts of war, terrorism
etc, but will do so on a best effort basis.
11. Singapore Airlines will notify consumers through our web site, telephone
reservation system, and our boarding gates at U.S. airports, within 30 minutes of us
learning of a delay, cancellation or diversion.
12. Singapore Airlines will allow consumers to cancel a reservation made using the
Singapore Airlines web site without penalty for 24 hours after the reservation is made,
as long as that reservation is made one week or more prior to a flight’s scheduled
departure. Consumers will need to call our contact centre to cancel such online
13. Singapore Airlines will allow consumers to hold a reservation made at Singapore
Airlines reservation office for 24 hours after the reservation is made without
payment, as long as that reservation is made one week or more prior to a flight’s
Singapore Airlines offers four classes of service – suites, first class, business class and
economy class. Major upgrades to its cabin and in-flight service were announced on 17
October 2006, the first major overhaul in over eight years and costing the airline
approximately S$570 million. Initially planned for its Airbus A380-800's introduction
into service in 2006, and subsequently on the Boeing 777-300ER, the postponement of
the first A380-800 delivery meant it had to be introduced with the launch of the first
Boeing 777-300ER with the airline on 5 December 2006 between Singapore and Paris.
On July 9, 2013, Singapore Airlines, in collaboration with two design firms, James
Park Associates and DesignworksUSA, unveiled the next generation of cabin products
for First, Business, and Economy class, which will enter service onboard new Boeing
777-300ERs and Airbus A350s. London will be the first city served with the new
product in September.
Singapore Airlines Suites
Singapore Airlines Suites is a class available only on the Airbus A380. The product was
designed by French luxury yacht interior designer Jean-Jacques Coste and consists of
separate compartments with walls and doors 1.5 m high. The leather seat,
upholstered by Poltrona Frau of Italy, is 35 in (89 cm) wide (with armrests up and 23
in (58 cm) wide when armrests are down) and a 23 in (58 cm) LCD TV screen is
mounted on the front wall. The 78 in (200 cm) bed is separate from the seat and folds
out from the back wall, with several other components of the suite lowering to
accommodate the mattress. Windows are built into the doors and blinds offer privacy.
Suites located in the center can form a double bed after the privacy blinds between
them are retracted into special compartments between the beds and in the frame of
Boeing 777-300ER First Class
There are three variations of the first class cabin, although the Singapore Airlines
Suites class is designated by Singapore Airlines as a "Class Beyond First" and uses a
different fare code (R) (see above).
Introduced on 17 October 2006, the "New" First Class is offered only on Boeing 777300 and Boeing 777-300ER aircraft. Designed by James Park Associates, it features a
35 in (89 cm) wide seat upholstered with leather and mahogany and a 23 in (58 cm)
LCD screen. The seats fold out into a flat bed and are arranged in a 1-2-1
The First Class in 3-class-configured Boeing 777-200 features sleeper seats that are 21
in (53 cm) wide in a 2-2-2 configuration. It has a 10.4 inch display screen for IFE with
AVOD technology. The first class product will be retired shortly in the third quarter of
2013, along with the withdrawal of all 3-class B777-200, awaiting on the delivery of
the 24th A330 to Singapore Airlines and subject to regulatory approval.
The latest first class seat was introduced on 9 July 2013. Features include a 24-inch
in-flight entertainment screen with video-touch screen handsets, adjustable in-seat
lighting, and passenger control unit, inside a fixed-shell cabin with an 35 in (89 cm)
wide seat, foldable into an 80 in (203 cm) bed.
Boeing 777-300ER Business Class
Formerly known as Raffles Class until 2006, the Business Class on the Airbus A380,
Airbus A340-500, Boeing 777-300ER, a fully flat bed is available in a 1-2-1
configuration featuring 30 in (76 cm) of seat width. These seats are forward-facing, in
contrast to the herring-bone configuration used by several other airlines offering flat
beds in business class. The leather seats feature a 15.4 in (39.1 cm) diagonal screen
size personal television, in-seat power supply and 2 USB ports. This seat is also being
progressively introduced on Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. The new Singapore Airlines
business class (usually operating on the A380, A340 and 777-300ER aircraft) was voted
the world's best business class by Skytrax in 2011.
On eight Airbus A380 aircraft, the first of which entered service in October 2011,
Singapore Airlines extended the business class cabin to run the entire length of the
upper deck, compared to the original configuration which shares the upper deck
between 16 rows of business class and 11 rows of economy at the rear.
New Regional Business Class is available on Airbus A330-300, Boeing 777-300 and
select Boeing 777-200 aircraft, configured in 2-2-2 layout and with iPod connectivity.
The Business Class seat is lie-flat at an 8-degree incline, featuring Krisworld on a 15.4
SpaceBed seats are being progressively phased out and currently are available on
three Boeing 777-200ER aircraft in a 2-2-2 configuration. The SpaceBed seats are 27 in
(69 cm) wide and 72 in (183 cm) long and convert to an angled flat bed. They have a
retractable 10.4 in (26.4 cm) personal television, and are being phased out in favor of
New Business Class seats. Traditional Ultimo business class seats, which do not
convert into beds, are offered on 7 Boeing 777-200 aircraft in a 2-3-2 configuration
with an 8.4 inch screen.
A new design of Business Class seat was unveiled on July 9, 2013. Features include
power socket and ports all in one panel, stowage beside the seat, two new seating
positions and a 18-inch in-flight entertainment screen. The seat has a recline of 132
degrees and can be folded into an 78 in (198.1 cm) length bed.
Airbus A380-800 Economy Class
The old economy class seats in all 7 unrefitted Boeing 777-200s and 3 unrefitted
Boeing 777-200ERs have VGA 6.1 inch personal television screens, footrests,
adjustable headrests with side-flap "ears" and adjustable seat reclines. Baby bassinets
are available at some bulkheads. These older Economy Class seats with the Wisemen
3000 AVOD system were introduced with the Boeing 777-200ER in 1997, for use
alongside the existing Economy Class seats with the non-AVOD KrisWorld (at that time
on board the airline's Boeing 747-400s and A340-300s, having been introduced in 1995)
and the older-generation early 1990s seats without KrisWorld (at that time on board
the airline's A310-200s and A310-300s). After the first Boeing 777-200ER had been
delivered on 5 May 1997, the updated Economy Class seat was installed in all
subsequent aircraft deliveries (including newer -SP* series Boeing 747-400s), as well as
in refitted existing Boeing 747-400s in late 1997 and early 1998.
The new Economy class seats on the Boeing 777-300ER, Airbus A380-800, and Airbus
A330-300 are 19.5 in (50 cm) wide, have in-seat power and have a 10.6in personal
television screen which has a non-intrusive reading light under it, which can be used
by folding the screen outwards. These are configured 3-4-3 on the lower deck of the
Airbus A380, 3-3-3 on the Boeing 777, and 2-4-2 on the Airbus A330, as well as the
upper deck of the Airbus A380. Other features include an independent cup
holder (separate from the fold-out table), a USB port, and a power socket, as well as
an iPod port exclusively on board the Airbus A330.
Singapore Airlines introduced a similar design on board the Boeing 777 aircraft
through their ongoing cabin retrofit program. The Boeing 777-300 is the first model to
undergo refit and has introduced the product on the Singapore – Sydney route on 22
July 2009. Equipped with bigger 9-inch screens and AVOD in each seat. The seats are
installed onboard 11 B777-200s, 7 B777-300s and 8 B777-200ERs.
A redesign of the Economy Class seat was unveiled on July 9, 2013. Features include
increased legroom, an adjustable headrest, and an 11.1 inch-touch screen in-flight
entertainment system which also controllable with a video touch-screen handset.
Food that they offer according to class
Suites and First Class cuisine
Indulge in sheer culinary bliss
Wine and dine in style at your preferred time when you
travel in Suites or First Class. Select your meals from our
exquisite menus meticulously created by our International
Culinary Panel comprising acclaimed chefs from around the
globe. Our award-winning chefs’ creations are indicated by the wok symbol on your
Book the Cook - Your Premium Advance Meal Selection Service
We are pleased to offer our exclusive Book the Cook Service
where you can select your gourmet main course from a
premium selection of dishes at least 24 hours before
departure. Be tantalised by a wide range of gastronomical
pleasures only available exclusively in our premium classes of travel. Out of
Singapore, enjoy a wide range of over 60 diverse dishes, including dishes created
exclusively for Singapore Airlines by the world's most sought-after culinary masters
from our International Culinary Panel, all-time favourites, low-fat and lowcarbohydrate delights and comforting local fare.
A classic favourite on the menu is our renowned Satay, a
local delight of skewered slices of chicken, mutton or beef.
Each satay dish is grilled to perfection and served with a
tantalizing peanut sauce, along with some fresh cucumbers
Savour a tasty treat any time with our extensive snack menu offering savoury and
sweet selections, along with some of the finest gourmet coffee.
Our finest wines
To complement your meal, we offer a selection of the finest
wines to ever grace a cellar, meticulously handpicked by our
distinguished panel of wine experts. Singapore Airlines’ Suites
and First Class customers can take their pick from our signature
offerings, which include Dom Perignon and Krüg Champagnes.
Singapore Airlines invites you to experience the pinnacle of
luxury dining when you fly in Suites or First Class. Indulge in
the most exclusive culinary masterpieces in the sky, featuring
intricate and luscious gourmet creations accentuated by
highly-prized ingredients of the season. From the earthy white
asparagus and satin-like tenderness of beef, to intense,
indelible spices of biryani, the Epicurean Gallery continues to introduce new flavours
that surprise and delight your palate as you embark on a gastronomical journey like
名家珍馔 (Míng Jiā Zhēn Zhuàn)
First Class customers travelling on selected flights between
Singapore and China can look forward to a new Chinese fine
dining experience with the introduction of 名家珍馔 (Míng Jiā
Zhēn Zhuàn), an elegant and complete Chinese meal available
for lunch or dinner service.
The name - translated in English as ―treasured culinary creations from a famed and
reputable establishment‖ - highlights the partnership between renowned master chefs
and the Airline. 名家珍馔 (Míng Jiā Zhēn Zhuàn) is specially created for Singapore
Airlines by acclaimed masterchefs Sam Leong and Zhu Jun, both members of our
International Culinary Panel and renowned authorities in the art of Chinese
cuisine. First Class customers will be treated to timeless Chinese fare made up of an
exquisite array of ingredients that will impress even the most discerning of palettes.
Dine in elegance with our traditional Kyo-Kaiseki service,
available on our Japan flights or when you order a Japanese
special meal on selected international routes.
Originating in the 1500s as a meal preceding the traditional
Japanese tea ceremony, the Kaiseki has evolved into an art form cleverly balancing
visual elements and a myriad of flavours.
International Culinary Panel Chef, Kyoto-based Yoshihiro Murata has planned an array
of Kyo-Kaiseki menus served on serviceware exclusively designed in collaboration with
Japanese fine bone china manufacturer Narumi. Accompanied with crisp, fine sake,
our Kyo-Kaiseki brings you the freshness of every season.
Shahi Thali is a distinguished Indian meal that features a
dazzling spread of traditional Indian delicacies, specially
designed by Sanjeev Kapoor, a celebrated chef from our
International Culinary Panel.
Available in both vegetarian and non-vegetarian versions, Shahi Thali comprises of a
starter, two types of chutneys (Indian relish), up to four entrees, rice, Indian rotis
(bread) and a signature dessert. Complete the grandiose meal service with Lassi (a
yoghurt drink) or Masala tea.
Business Class cuisine
Exquisite dining experiences
At Singapore Airlines, we present an array of deluxe dishes,
which includes international favourites, such as our classic
tender rib eye steak, served with a creamy red wine sauce, and
pan-seared escalope of salmon, served with a light dressing of
tomato, lemon and olive oil. Dishes specially created by our award-winning chefs are
indicated by the wok symbol on your menu.
Book the Cook - Your Premium Advance Meal Selection
We are pleased to offer our exclusive Book the Cook
Service where you can select your gourmet main course
from a premium selection of dishes at least 24 hours
before departure. Be tantalised by a wide range of
gastronomical pleasures only available exclusively in our premium classes of travel.
Out of Singapore, enjoy a wide range of over 60 diverse dishes, including dishes
created exclusively for Singapore Airlines by the world's most sought-after culinary
masters from our International Culinary Panel, all-time favourites, low-fat and lowcarbohydrate delights and comforting local fare.
Sip fine Champagne, as well as a delightful selection of red
and white wines, all specially selected by our renowned
wine consultants. Coffee lovers can take their pick from
espresso to cappuccino and tea lovers can enjoy a fine
selection, which includes Earl Grey, Japanese Green tea, Chinese Oolong tea and
Indian Masala tea on selected routes.
Singapore Airlines invites you to experience the pinnacle of
luxury dining when you fly in Business Class.
Indulge in the most exclusive culinary masterpieces in the
sky, featuring intricate and luscious gourmet creations
accentuated by highly-prized ingredients of the season.
From the earthy white asparagus and satin-like tenderness of beef, to intense,
indelible spices of biryani, the Epicurean Gallery continues to introduce new flavours
that surprise and delight your palate as you embark on a gastronomical journey like
Hanakoireki – A culinary expression of nature's changing
beauty through the seasons
A lush service that uses only fresh seasonal ingredients to
showcase the uniqueness of each season, Hanakoireki is an
elaborate service exquisitely presented and served in a
traditional Japanese style.
Economy Class cuisine
Relish in our delightful selection of Asian and International
dishes when you travel with Singapore Airlines.
Our inflight menus are specially created to reflect the
culinary influences of the regions to which we fly. Explore
our range of wine and beverages to enhance your meals. On long haul flights, a
delightful range of delectable snacks is available in between meals for your blissful
Toothsome dessert treats are available on our menus,
including our classic ice cream that never fails to delight.
In-flight entertainment (IFE) refers to the entertainment available to aircraft
passengers during a flight. In 1936, the airship Hindenburg offered passengers a piano,
lounge, dining room, smoking room, and bar during the 2½ day flight between Europe
and America. After the Second World War, IFE was delivered in the form of food and
drink services, along with an occasional projector movie during lengthy flights. In
1985 the first personal audio player was offered to passengers, along with noise
cancelling headphones in 1989 During the 1990s the demand for better IFE was a
major factor in the design of aircraft cabins. Before then, the most a passenger could
expect was a movie projected on a screen at the front of a cabin, which could be
heard via a headphone socket at his or her seat.
The largest manufacturers of IFE systems are Panasonic Avionics Corporation, Thales
Group, Zodiac, Lumexis, Gogo, On Air, Row 44Rockwell Collins, and LiveTV Design
issues for IFE include system safety, cost efficiency, software reliability, hardware
maintenance, and user compatibility.
The in-flight entertainment onboard airlines is frequently managed by content service
Airport check-in procedure uses service counters found at
commercial airports handling commercial air travel. The check-in is normally handled
by an airline itself or a handling agent working on behalf of an
airline. Passengers usually hand over any baggage that they do not wish or are not
allowed to carry on to the aircraft's cabin and receive a boarding pass before they can
proceed to board their aircraft.
Check-in is usually the first procedure for a passenger when arriving at an airport, as
airline regulations require passengers to check in by certain times prior to the
departure of a flight. This duration spans from 15 minutes to 4 hours depending on
the destination and airline. During this process, the passenger has the ability to ask
for special accommodations such as seating preferences, inquire about flight or
destination information, make changes to reservations, accumulate frequent flyer
program miles, or pay for upgrades.
The airline check-in's main function, however, is to accept luggage that is to go in the
aircraft's cargo hold and issue boarding passes.
Check-in options and procedures vary per airline with some airlines allowing certain
restrictions other airlines have in place, and occasionally the same airline at two
separate airports may have different check-in procedures. Such differences are
usually not noted by the average passenger and occasionally lead to service
interruptions when one carrier refuses to abide by the procedure that another carrier
normally would be willing to do.
In-town check-in service is a service offered by some cities such as Abu
Dhabi, Seoul, Hong Kong, Delhi, Kuala Lumpur, Stockholm,Vienna and Taipei, where
passengers may check in luggage in designated places within the city but outside the
airport. This reduces check-in time and queuing at the airport.
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion
into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and rear surfaces
of the airfoil-shaped blade, and a fluid (such as air or water) is accelerated behind
the blade. Propeller dynamics can be modelled by both Bernoulli's
principle and Newton's third law. A marine propeller is sometimes colloquially known
as a screw propeller or screw.
The twisted airfoil (aerofoil) shape of modern aircraft propellers was pioneered by
the Wright brothers. While some earlier engineers had attempted to model air
propellers on marine propellers, they realized that a propeller is essentially the same
as a wing, and were able to use data from their earlier wind tunnel experiments on
wings. They also introduced a twist along the length of the blades. This was necessary
to ensure the angle of attack of the blades was kept relatively constant along their
length. Their original propeller blades were only about 5% less efficient than the
modern equivalent, some 100 years later. The understanding of low speed propeller
aerodynamics was fairly complete by the 1920s, but later requirements to handle
more power in smaller
diameter have made the problem more complex.
Alberto Santos Dumont, another early pioneer, applied the knowledge he gained from
experiences with airships to make a propeller with a steel shaft and aluminium blades
for his 14 bis biplane. Some of his designs used a bent aluminium sheet for blades,
thus creating an airfoil shape. They were heavily undercambered, and this plus the
absence of lengthwise twist made them less efficient than the Wright propellers. Even
so, this was perhaps the first use of aluminium in the construction of an airscrew.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, several theories were developed.
The momentum theory or disk actuator theory—a theory describing a mathematical model of
an ideal propeller—was developed by W.J.M. Rankine (1865), Alfred George Greenhill (1888)
and R.E. Froude (1889). The propeller is modelled as an infinitely thin disc, inducing a
constant velocity along the axis of rotation. This disc creates a flow around the propeller.
Under certain mathematical premises of the fluid, there can be extracted a mathematical
connection between power, radius of the propeller,torque and induced velocity. Friction is
The blade element theory (BET) is a mathematical process originally designed by William
Froude (1878), David W. Taylor (1893) and Stefan Drzewiecki to determine the behaviour of
propellers. It involves breaking an airfoil down into several small parts then determining the
forces on them. These forces are then converted into accelerations, which can be integrated
into velocities and positions.
Theory of operation
A propeller is the most common propulsor on ships, imparting momentum to a fluid which
causes a force to act on the ship.
The ideal efficiency of any size propeller (free-tip) is that of an actuator disc in an ideal fluid.
An actual marine propeller is made up of sections of helicoidal surfaces which act together
'screwing' through the water (hence the common reference to marine propellers as "screws").
Three, four, or five blades are most common in marine propellers, although designs which are
intended to operate at reduced noise will have more blades. The blades are attached to
a boss (hub), which should be as small as the needs of strength allow - with fixed pitch
propellers the blades and boss are usually a single casting.
An alternative design is the controllable pitch propeller (CPP, or CRP for controllablereversible pitch), where the blades are rotatednormally to the drive shaft by additional
machinery - usually hydraulics - at the hub and control linkages running down the shaft. This
allows the drive machinery to operate at a constant speed while the propeller loading is
changed to match operating conditions. It also eliminates the need for a reversing gear and
allows for more rapid change to thrust, as the revolutions are constant. This type of propeller
is most common on ships such as tugs where there can be enormous differences in propeller
loading when towing compared to running free, a change which could cause conventional
propellers to lock up as insufficient torque is generated. The downsides of a CPP/CRP include:
the large hub which decreases the torque required to cause cavitation, the mechanical
complexity which limits transmission power and the extra blade shaping requirements forced
upon the propeller designer.
For smaller motors there are self-pitching propellers. The blades freely move through an
entire circle on an axis at right angles to the shaft. This allows hydrodynamic and centrifugal
forces to 'set' the angle the blades reach and so the pitch of the propeller.
A propeller that turns clockwise to produce forward thrust, when viewed from aft, is called
right-handed. One that turns anticlockwise is said to be left-handed. Larger vessels often
have twin screws to reduce heeling torque, counter-rotating propellers, the starboard screw
is usually right-handed and the port left-handed, this is called outward turning. The opposite
case is called inward turning. Another possibility is contra-rotating propellers, where two
propellers rotate in opposing directions on a single shaft, or on separate shafts on nearly the
same axis. One example of the latter is the CRP Azipod by the ABB Group. Contra-rotating
propellers offer increased efficiency by capturing the energy lost in the tangential velocities
imparted to the fluid by the forward propeller (known as "propeller swirl"). The flow field
behind the aft propeller of a contra-rotating set has very little "swirl", and this reduction in
energy loss is seen as an increased efficiency of the aft propeller.
An azimuthing propeller is a propeller that turns around the vertical axis. The individual
airfoil-shaped blades turn as the propeller moves so that they are always generating lift in the
vessel's direction of movement. This type of propeller can reverse or change its direction of
thrust very quickly,
Type of propellers
In designing propellers, the maximum performance of the airplane for all
condition of operation from takeoff, climb, cruising, and high speed. The propellers
may be classified under eight general types as follows:
1. Fixed pitch: The propeller is made in one piece. Only one pitch setting is
possible and is usually two blades propeller and is often made of wood or metal.
Wooden Propellers: Wooden propellers were used almost exclusively on personal
and business aircraft prior to World War II .A wood propeller is not cut from a solid
block but is built up of a number of separate layers of carefully selected .any types of
wood have been used in making propellers, but the most satisfactory are yellow birch,
sugar marble, black cherry, and black walnut. The use of lamination of wood will
reduce the tendency for propeller to warp. For standard one-piece wood propellers,
from five to nine separate wood laminations about 3/4 in. thick is used.
Metal Propellers: During 1940, solid steel propellers were made for military use.
Modern propellers are fabricated from high-strength, heat-treated, aluminum alloy by
forging a single bar of aluminum alloy to the required shape. Metal propellers are now
extensively used in the construction of propellers for all type of aircraft. The general
appearance of the metal propeller is similar to the wood propeller, except that the
sections are generally thinner.
2. Ground adjustable pitch: The pitch setting can be adjusted only with tools on
the ground before the engine is running. This type of propellers usually has a split
hub. The blade angle is specified by the aircraft specifications. The adjustable - pitch
feature permits compensation for the location of the flying field at various altitudes
and also for variations in the characteristics of airplanes using the same engine.
Setting the blade angles by loosened the clamps and the blades are rotated to the
desired angle and then tighten the clamps.
3. Two-position: A propeller which can have its pitch changed from one position
to one other angle by the pilot while in flight.
4. Controllable pitch: The pilot can change the pitch of the propeller in flight or
while operating the engine by mean of a pitch changing mechanism that may be
operated by hydraulically.
5. Constant speed: The constant speed propeller utilizes a hydraulically or
electrically operated pitch changing mechanism which is controlled by governor. The
setting of the governor is adjusted by the pilot with the rpm lever in the cockpit.
During operation, the constant speed propellers will automatically changes its blade
angle to maintain a constant engine speed. If engine power is increase, the blade
angle is increased to make the propeller absorb the additional power while the rpm
remain constant. At the other position, if the engine power is decreased, the blade
angle will decrease to make the blades take less bite of air to keep engine rpm
remain constant. The pilot selects the engine speed required for any particular type
6. Full Feathering: A constant speed propeller which has the ability to turn edge
to the wind and thereby eliminate drag and wind milling in the event of engine
failure. The term Feathering refers to the operation of rotating the blades of the
propeller to the wind position for the purpose of stopping the rotation of the
propeller to reduce drag. Therefore, a Feathered blade is in an approximate in-lineof-flight position , streamlined with the line of flight (turned the blades to a very high
pitch). Feathering is necessary when the engine fails or when it is desirable to shutoff
an engine in flight.
7. Reversing: A constant speed propeller which has the ability to assume a
negative blade angle and produce a reversing thrust. When propellers are reversed,
their blades are rotated below their positive angle , that is, through flat pitch, until a
negative blade angle is obtained in order to produce a thrust acting in the opposite
direction to the forward thrust . Reverse propeller thrust is used where a large
aircraft is landed, in reducing the length of landing run.
8. Beta Control: A propeller which allows the manual repositioning of the
propeller blade angle beyond the normal low pitch stop. Used most often in taxiing,
where thrust is manually controlled by adjusting blade angle with the power lever.
List of large aircraft
Generally acknowledged as the largest airplane in
the world, the Antonov An-225 is the world's
heaviest aircraft ever (max. takeoff weight greater
than 640 tons) and the largest aerodyne (in length
and wingspan) ever entering operational service.
23 April 2001 World's second longest passenger aircraft at 75.36m.
27 April 2005
Largest mass-produced aircraft in the world and the
highest-capacity passenger aircraft
The second largest mass-produced aircraft in the
world until the Airbus A380 was produced. Remains
the World's largest military aircraft.
World's largest turboprop-powered airplane
Highest-capacity passenger aircraft until surpassed
by Airbus A380
World's longest passenger aircraft at 76.4m.
9 September 747 with enlarged fuselage for 787 parts transport
(65,000 cubic feet)
Physically the largest aircraft, and heaviest landbased aircraft of the 1930s era (63 meter/206.7 ft
19 May 1934
wingspan, 53 tonne MTOW), required eight 900 hp
Mikulin V12 engines for flight
Dornier Do X
Largest successful flying boat and heaviest aircraft in
12 July 1929 the world from 1929 until 1942 when the even
heavier Boeing B-29 Superfortress first flew.
Blohm + Voss BV
Largest aircraft in the world 1944 to 1946 when the
even heavier Convair B-36 first flew. Very large flying
Largest aircraft in the world from 1942 to 1943 when
the even heavier Junkers Ju-390 first flew. It was one
of the largest bombers used during World War II
Largest aircraft in the world 1946 to 1947 when the
even heavier Hughes H-4 Hercules first flew. First
intercontinental strategic bomber, longest wingspan
for a combat aircraft
Developed from B-36, largest piston-engined landbased transport aircraft ever built
Largest WWII aircraft produced by Japan in any
Largest aircraft ever to fly with only one propeller,
used largest airplane propellor ever used.
Largest USAF strategic airlifter and one of the largest
military aircraft in the world
Martin JRM Mars
Largest flying boat to enter production (7 built)
Messerschmitt Me 1941
Biggest land-based cargo airplane during World War II
Myasishchev VM-T 1981
Derivative of the M-4 as outsized cargo aircraft
Heaviest combat aircraft ever built
Largest aircraft to see regular squadron service
in World War I
Announced in 2006 as a derivative of the Airbus
2006 development A380-800. World's highest-capacity passenger
aircraft in history
Would be the largest aircraft ever, if built;
development started in the 1980s
October 16, 1966
The ekranoplan had wingspan of 37.6 m, length
- 92 m, maximum take-off weight - 544 tons.
Until An-225 it was the largest aircraft in the
world.KM was tested at the Caspian Sea for 15
years until 1980. In 1980, pilot error caused a
crash without human casualties. The vehicle
was too heavy to be recovered from its watery
Planned as an answer to the European
Concorde Supersonic Transport. At 306 feet
(93 m) long it would have been one of the
longest airframes ever flown. Problems with
1960s design. A
the weight of the swing-wing mechanism and
mockup was built
air friction heating in Mach 3 flight provoked a
but no prototype.
drastic redesign, by which time airline interest
in SSTs was dropping because of environmental
concerns. The U.S. Congress cut government
funding and airlines began canceling orders.
Proposed passenger aircraft, Designed to
compete with the A380 and the 747, canceled
Largest aircraft in the world 1947 to 1952 when
the even heavier Boeing B-52
Stratofortress first flew. World's largest flying
1947, 2 November
boat, and largest wingspan of any aircraft. Only
one was ever built and it performed only one
Junkers Ju 390
1943, 20 October
Largest aircraft in the world 1943 to 1944 when
the even heavier Blohm & Voss BV 238 first
flew. Selected and further developed as
the Junkers firm's entry for the Amerika
Bomber design contract.
KR-860 (Kryl'ya Rossii or Wings of Russia) early
named as SKD-717 is super large transport
aircraft with weights about 650 tonnes
(Antonov An-225 weight is 600 tonnes), payload
about 300 tonnes (An-225 payload is 250
tonnes) and 860 to 1000 passengers, a proposed
Double decker wide-body Superjumbo jet by
Russian aerospace company Sukhoi.
a proposed aircraft being developed by Scaled
Composites to provide air-launch capability
for Stratolaunch Systems
1. Jump up^ For designs that never flew the year of design or conception is used
Helicopters and rotary wing aircraft
Aeroflot Mil V-12 at Groningen Airport in May 1971.
Heaviest (56 tonnes), largest and most powerful
helicopter in production ever.
Prototype heavy-lift helicopter with the largest
rotor (129 ft) flown
1989, 19 March
One of the largest (27 tonnes) VTOL aircraft and
the first operational tiltrotor
1960, 15 June
Heavy-lift "skycrane" developed from Mi-6, 114 ft
rotor, 43 tonne MTOW
Mil V-12 or Mi-12
1968, 10 July
Largest helicopter ever built; not put into
production. 2x 114 ft rotors, 105 tonnes MTOW.
At 33 tonnes, largest helicopter in service with
the US armed forces
1. Jump up For designs that never flew the year of design or conception is used
Hindenburg class airship compared to largest fixed wing aircraft.
HM Airship R100
220 m, 146,000 m3
HM Airship R101
236 m, 156,000 m3
Also known as Project H, planned 240,000
1931, 8 August
239 m, 180,000 m3 US Navy airship and largest
1933, 23 June
Sister ship to Akron
1936, 4 March,
245 m, 200,000 m3 Largest aircraft ever flown.
Sister ship to LZ 129 Hindenburg
List of light transport aircraft
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The list of light transport aircraft details single- and twin-engine aircraft used for hire by the very smallest
of regional, commuter, feeder, air taxi, on demand, or charter type of operators for air service.
A Piper PA-46 Malibu
A Cessna 206H Stationair
De Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 6
De Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter
Piper PA-46 Malibu and Matrix
A King Air C90 at Centennial Airport
Piper PA-23 Aztec
Beechcraft Queen Air
Beechcraft King Air and Super King Air 7-13
Cessna 421 Golden Eagle
Piper PA-31 Navajo
Beechcraft 60 Duke
Piper PA-34 Seneca
Piper PA-42 Cheyenne
Cessna 404 Titan
Cessna T303 Crusader