Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Marketing ibm


Published on

rajnish kumar
accman institute of management

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

Marketing ibm

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING Rajnish Kumar Roopak Sharma Pawan jain Praveer Sinha Rahul Kumar Saumya Singh Dibyendu Kumar
  2. 2. MARKETINGMarketers everywhere mustKnow their marketsDevelop products or services tosatisfy customers’ needsPrice the products or services sothat they are readily availableMake them available to the buyersInform potential customers andpersuade them to buy
  3. 3. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING• Refers to the process of identifying the goods and services that customer outside the home country wants and then providing them at the right price and place.
  4. 4. DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL MARKETINGOn the basis of DOMESTIC INTERNATIONALSCOPE Limited and will eventually dry Endless opportunities and up. scope.BENIFITS Less as compared to As is obvious, more benefits. international marketing.SHARING OF TECNOLOGY Limited in the use of Allows use and sharing of technology. latest technologies.POLITICAL RELATION Nothing to do with political Leads to improvement in relations. political relations between countries and also increased level of cooperation as a result.BARRIERS No barriers. Many barriers such as cross cultural differences, language, currency, traditions and customs.
  6. 6. ACTIVITIES IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING Economic Env. Political/Legal Env. Product Price Socio-cultural Environment Environment International Financial Customer Promotion Distribution International Economic Institutions and Agreements
  7. 7. MARKETING AND OTHER FUNCTIONS OperationsManagement Accounting Marketing Human Finance Resource Management
  9. 9. INTERNATIONAL MARKET ASSESSMENT Assess alternative foreign market Select market for entry or expansion Evaluate : cost, benefits and risk
  10. 10. INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT STRATEGIES Local and International Environment Product Firm’sCompetitive Internal Situation Strategies Situation Customer Needs & Price Elasticity
  11. 11. STANDARISATION AND ADAPTATIONDeveloping same product for Modifying product to reflect multiple countries. characteristics of a market.  Premise:-consumers share some common values, Premise-- consumers are not the same. beliefs, and consumption patterns. Advantages: improved fit  Advantages: economies of between product and scale and scope, price consumer, expanded competitiveness, penetration uniform image
  12. 12. FACTORS FAVORING PRODUCTS STANDARDIZATION VERSUS ADAPTATION Standardization Adaptation • Differences in technical standards• High cost of Localization • Primarily consumer and personal-use• Primarily industrial products products• Convergence and similar tastes in • Variation in consumer needs and applications diverse country markets • Variations in conditions of use• Predominant use in urban environments • Variations in ability to buy-differences in income levels• Marketing to predominantly similar countries e.g. Scandinavia • Fragmentation, with autonomous national subsidiaries• Centralized management of international operations when mode • Strong cultural differences, language, of entry is mainly exports etc., affecting purchase and use• Strong country-of-origin image and • Local environment-induced adaptation: effect differences in raw material available,• Scale economies in production, government-required standards and marketing, and R&D regulations• Standardized products marketed • Adaptation strategy successfully used competitors by competitors
  13. 13. Brand Decision• What is Brand ?• Brand name are one of the most valuable assets which companies possess.• Brand Equity
  14. 14. Issues Relating to Brand Name• Whether or not to use uniform brand internationally…?• Expansion to the overseas market• Image issue• Legal and cultural factors
  15. 15. Pricing issue & Policies• Standard Price Policy• Two tiered pricing• Market Pricing
  16. 16. PROMOTION ISSUES AND POLICIES4 elements of promotion mix:-a)Advertisingb)Personal sellingc) Sales promotiond)Public relation
  17. 17. Constraints on advertising• Language difference• Government control• Agency availability• Economic difference• Cultural diversity
  18. 18. Advertising programs• Message The message it wants to convey• Medium The media available to convey the message• Global vs. local advertising The extent to which the firm wants to globalize its advertising efforts
  19. 19. Advantages of Personal Selling for International Firms• Local sales representatives understand local culture,norms, and customs.• Personal selling promotes close, personal contact withcustomers.• Personal selling makes it easier for firm to adoptvaluable market information
  20. 20. Sales PromotionSales promotion comprises specializedmarketing efforts designed to offer anincentive for behavior such as coupons, in-store promotions, sampling, direct mailcampaigns, cooperative advertising, and tradefair attendance.
  21. 21. Unique forms of international promotion Government Role Trade Fair Barter And Countertrade Bribery Miscellaneous Measures
  22. 22. Public RelationsPublic relations consists of efforts aimed atenhancing a firm’s reputation and imagewith the general public, as opposed totouting the specific advantages of anindividual product or service.
  23. 23. Channels of DistributionFirms make use of two principles channels of distribution whenmarketing1) Indirect selling-also known as local or domestic channel ,is employed when amanufacture markets its product through another firm form the samecountry that acts as intermediary.2) Direct Selling-Is employed when a manufacturer develops an overseas channel Herethe firm directly deals with a foreign party without going through anintermediary in the home country.
  24. 24. Eight guidelines have been advocated to make multinational distributors partnership1) Select distributor , don’t let them select you.2) Treat the local distributors as long term partners , not temporary market entry vehicles.3) Support marketing entry by committing money, mangers , and proven marketing ideas4) From the start, maintain control over marketing strategy.5) Make sure distributors provide you with detailed market and financial performance data.6) Build links among national distributors at the earliest opportunity.7) Understand host country culture
  25. 25. Physical DistributionAverage time required to move a product from “firm to shelf “ isfour to five months .Although it takes only about seventeenminutes to produce a product, the rest of the time is spent onlogistical activities – storage handling ,transition, packaging etc .International logistics costs can account for 25 to 35 percent of thesales value of a product
  26. 26. MODES OF TRANSPORTATIONThe three fundamental means of transportation are:-1.Air2.Water (ocean and inland)3.Land (rail and truck)
  27. 27. Appropriate transportation mode depends on1. Market location2. Speed3. Cost
  28. 28. Que 1Are the 4 ps of international marketing of equalimportance to all the firms ?
  29. 29. Que 2Why do international firms use marketpricing ?
  30. 30. Que 3 Why are brand names an important market tool forinternational business ?
  31. 31. Que 4Bring out the benefits of internationalmarketing ?