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  1. 1. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF FABRIC CUTTING MACHINE A PROJECT REPORT Submitted By G.SAMI DURAI (08MER092) B.SATHISH KUMAR (08MER102) R.VIMALANATHAN (08MER119) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF BUILDING AND MECHANICAL SCIENCES KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE (Autonomous) PERUNDURAI, ERODE – 638 052 NOVEMBER 2011
  2. 2. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE (Autonomous) PERUNDURAI ERODE – 638052 NOVEMBER-2011 BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Project report entitled “DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF FABRIC CUTTING MACHINE” is the bonafide record of project work done by G.SAMI DURAI (08MER092) B.SATHISH KUMAR (08MER102) R.VIMALANATHAN (08MER119) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering in Anna University, Coimbatore during the year 2011 - 2012. SUPERVISOR HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Date: Submitted for the end semester viva voce examination held on ___________ INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER
  3. 3. iii DECLARATION We affirm that the Project Report titled “DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF FABRIC CUTTING MACHINE” being submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Engineering is the original work carried out by us. It has not formed the part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Date: G.SAMI DURAI (08MER092) B.SATHISH KUMAR (08MER102) R.VIMALANATHAN (08MER119) I certify that the declaration made by the above candidates is true to the best of my knowledge Date: SUPERVISOR
  4. 4. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We thank our beloved Correspondent Thiru. R.K.VISHWANATHAN and all the members of Kongu Vellalar Institute of Technology Trust at this high time for providing us with plethora of facilities to complete my project successfully. We take privilege to express my profound thanks to our beloved Principal Prof. S. KUPPUSWAMI who has been a bastion of moral strength and a source of incessant encouragement to us. We express our sincere thanks to Dr. K. KRISHNAMURTHY, Dean, School of Building and Mechanical Sciences, for his valuable guidance and suggestions. We express our sincere thanks to Dr. P. NAVANEETHAKRISHNAN, Head of the Department Mechanical Engineering, for his valuable guidance and suggestion. We take immense pleasure to express our heartfelt thanks to our beloved project guide, Mr. M.VIJAY ANAND for his valuable suggestions, excellent guidance and constant support provided all through the course of our project. We thank our project coordinator Dr. V.HARIHARAN and review committee members for their valuable suggestions for completion of the project successfully. We also thank the teaching and non teaching staff members of Mechanical Engineering Department and all our fellow students who stood with us to complete our project successfully.
  5. 5. v ABSTRACT Nowadays, the textile industry is the fastest growing sector in India. For such a sector, the productivity and the quality of the product should be enhanced. In this project, we enhance the product quality of the textile industry. The fabrics cutting is the major process carried out in textile industries. At present, the cutting process in the textile industry is carried out manually by using cutting and tools, this result in improper cutting of fabric materials. The main reason for the above problems is due to fatigue nature of the employees and improper measuring and cutting. To overcome these problems, an automated fabric cutting machine is designed and fabricated. In this machine, the fabric material is fed between the rollers. The measurement of the required length is fed in the microcontroller as an input. As soon as the desired length is obtained, the roller will stop its rotation and the metal cuter which is placed horizontally will cut the fabric material. The function of the cutter is attained with the help of the pneumatic circuit. The machine is mainly designed and fabricated to avoid the improper alignment of the fabric and increase the productivity and quality of the product.
  6. 6. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO. ABSTRACT v LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ix LIST OF NOMENCLATURE x INTRODUCTION 01 1.1 COMPONENTS USED 02 1.1.1 Power Supply 02 1.1.2 Step down Transformer 02 1.1.3 Voltage Regulator 02 1.1.4 Capacitor 03 1.1.5 Resistor 03 1.1.6 Relay 03 1.1.7 1 viii Microcontroller Interfacing with Motor 03 1.1.8 Roller 04 1.1.9 DC Motor 04 1.1.10 Flow Control Valve 05 1.1.11 Five-Port / Two-Way Directional Valve 1.1.12 Pneumatic Cylinder 05 05 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 07 3 PROBLEM DEFINITION 10
  7. 7. vii 4 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT 11 4.1 DESIGN PHASE 11 4.1.1 Design of Bearing 11 4.1.2 Cutting Mechanism 11 4.1.3 Clamping Mechanism 12 4.1.4 Design of Electrical Circuit 12 4.1.5 Design of Pnuematic Circuit 13 4.1.6 Design of Setup 15 4.2 16 4.3 5 OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY 16 17 5.1 6 FABRICATION PROCESS 17 PROCESS DESCRIPTION 19 6.1 7 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 20 ADVANTAGES CONCLUSION 21 APPENDIX 22 REFERENCES 23
  8. 8. viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. 4.1 TITLE COST ESTIMATION PAGE NO. 16
  9. 9. ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. 1.1 TITLE BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A REGULATED POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM 1.2 PAGE NO. 02 INTERFACING OF MICROCONTROLLER 04 4.1 DIMENSION OF PNEUMATIC CYLINDER 11 4.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT 13 4.3 SEQUENCIAL CIRCUIT DESIGN 14 4.4 MODEL OF FABRIC CUTTING MACHINE 5.1 15 PARTS AND DIMENSION OF BASE SETUP 6.1 18 FABRICATION PROJECT 19
  10. 10. x LIST OF NOMENCLATURE SYMBOLS NOTATIONS A Area, cm2 D Diameter of the shaft,cm d1 Bore diameter ,mm d2 Piston rod diameter, mm F Force,N L Bearing length,cm L1 Stroke Length of cylinder,mm N Speed of the shaft,rpm P Pressure,bar DCV Direction control valve PS Push Button SOL Solenoid V Voltage
  11. 11. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In this technological and sophisticated world, automation becomes an important factor in every field. So in every industry, automation of machines is promoted to increase the accuracy and quality of the products. Insufficient in human resource also leads to automation of machines in the industry. Thus for every industry automation is a necessary one which includes textile industry. As textile industry is the fast growing industry in India which contributes about 14% to the country's industrial output and about 17% to export earnings. But still there is less accuracy and man power is more in one field that is none other than textile industries. In textile industry, fabric material is the only raw material. The cutting operation of fabric materials is done by high cost machine in large scale industries. But in small scale industries, the cutting operation is performed by manually i.e., by using cutting tools. In small scale industries, the cutting operation is done manually because the industry cannot afford huge amount for the cutting machine. This process of cutting requires skilled person for cutting the fabric materials. Sometimes accuracy of the cut cannot be obtained by the above stated process. This leads to wastage of fabric materials The major problem in these industries are improper measuring and cutting of fabric materials, this leads to wastage of materials and reduce the productivity which intern increases the cost of the product. . If the above problems are rectified at the low cost, then the productivity of the products can be increased. To overcome this problem, an Automatic Fabric Cutting Machine is designed and fabricated, which is used to cut the fabric material for the required length accurately. The project proceeds with fabrication of cutting machine at low cost which is an automated one. The components used in the projects are electrical components, pneumatic components and mechanical components. They are described in the next section.
  12. 12. 2 1.1 COMPONENTS USED The components used in the project are described as follows. 1.1.1 Power Supply A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source. The Figure 1.1 shows the block diagram of a regulated power supply system. Figure 1.1 Block Diagram of a Regulated Power Supply System 1.1.2 Step down Transformer Step down transformers convert electrical voltage from one level or phase configuration usually down to a lower level. The transformer takes in the high voltage at a low current and puts out a low voltage at a high current. In this project 220 V AC is converted to 5-12 V DC. 1.1.3 Voltage Regulator A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A simple voltage regulator can be made from a resistor in series with a diode. The power supply of most PCs generates power at 5 volts but most microprocessors require a voltage below 3.5 volts. The voltage regulator's job is to reduce the 5 volt signal to the lower voltage required by the microprocessor. Typically, voltage regulators are surrounded by heat sinks because they generate significant heat.
  13. 13. 3 1.1.4 Capacitor A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. It is used in this circuit to help keep the voltage regulator’s output voltage constant over time. The rate of change of the voltage across a capacitor is proportional to the current flowing out of it divided by the capacitance. Therefore, the larger the capacitor, the small changes in voltage at the output of the regulator over time for a fixed current drain. 1.1.5 Resistor A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current through the circuit is called resistance. 1.1.6 Relay A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an Electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. 1.1.7 Microcontroller Interfacing With Motor The AT89C51 is a low power, high performance C-MOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4k bytes of flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a
  14. 14. 4 conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with flash on the monolithic chip, the AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. Figure 1.2 shows the microcontroller interfacing with motor. Figure 1.2 Interfacing of Microcontroller 1.1.8 Roller Roller is made up of sheet metal. In this sheet is rolled and wielded by using electric arc wielding. The ends of rolled sheets are closed by using sheet plates machined to proper dimensions and the shaft is provided at centre of roller. The material of plate and shaft is MS steel. Thus desired roller is obtained. The dimensions are specified below. The specifications of roller are as follows:  Outer diameter  Length of the roller = 305 mm = 76 mm 1.1.9 DC Motor A DC Motor is high quality low cost DC geared motor. It has steel gears and pinions to ensure longer life and better wear and tear properties. Stall Torque is the torque which is produced by a motor when the output rotational speed is zero, it may also mean the torque load that causes the output rotational speed of a motor to become zero - i.e. to cause stalling. The motor is used to rotate the roller at constant speed.
  15. 15. 5 The specifications of the motor are described as follows  Input voltage = 12 V  Type = DC motor  Speed = 30 RPM  Shaft Diameter = 8 mm  Motor weight = 1 ½ Kg  Load withstanding capacity = 75 Kg 1.1.10 Flow Control Valve Flow control valves, also known as volume control valves, are used to regulate the volumetric flow of the compressed air to different parts of a pneumatic system. In this project, two flow control valves are used for two pneumatic cylinders. By using this, the flow can be controlled during the operation of ejecting, holding and cutting operation. 1.1.11 Five-Port / Two-Way Directional Valve Two-way valves are also available with five external ports, one pressure port, two actuator ports, and two exhaust ports. Such valves provide the same basic control of flow paths as the four-ported version, but have individual exhaust ports. In the fluid power field this is referred to as a "five-ported, two-way valve." This type of valve brings all flow paths to individual external ports. The pressure port is connected to system pressure after a regulator. Actuator ports are connected to inlet and outlet ports of a cylinder or motor. Each exhaust port serves an actuator port. 1.1.12 Pneumatic Cylinder Pneumatic cylinders are the devices used for converting the pressure energy of air (also called pneumatic energy) into linear mechanical force and motion to perform useful work. Pneumatic cylinder mainly consists of a piston, a cylinder, and valves or ports. Mainly pneumatic cylinder is classified into single acting and double acting cylinder. Pneumatic cylinders employ a smooth-bore cylinder with a piston
  16. 16. 6 affixed to a piston rod, with several seals between the piston and cylinder. They most often consist of metal components, although many composites are used for special applications. They are available with a variety of end fittings and pneumatic piping and tubing connections. In double-acting cylinders, air pressure can be applied to either side of the piston, therefore producing pneumatic force in both directions. They perform work in both directions of movement. These cylinders do not require a return whenever the device is not powered. In this project, two double-acting cylinders are used. The dimension of the pneumatic cylinders are specified below,  Cylinder diameter = 140 mm  Bore diameter = 100 mm  Stroke length = 100 mm  Piston rod diameter = 50 mm
  17. 17. 7 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Borelli et al (2002) convey about the hot cutting fabric by using infrared images to cut. In the hot cutting of fabric, one of the variables of great importance in the control of the process is the contact temperature between the tool and the fabric. This work presents a technique for the measurement of the temperature based on the processing of infrared images. The cutting mechanism used in this was thermal degradation. Thilagavathi et al (2010) about Fiber structures, yarn structures, and mechanical properties of fibers namely tensile modulus, tenacity, and elongation, are the key performance indicators of fabric cut resistance. P-aramid and UHDPE (Ultra High Density Polyethylene) based high performance fibers are most commonly used for protection against mechanical risks. Specially engineered composite yarns and fabrics enhance cut resistance. This paper discusses the influence of textile structure configuration on the performance of cut resistant textiles. A three tier laminate composite was made using knitted Kevlar fabric, as the outer surface, polyurethane foam in the middle and a knitted nylon fabric as the skin contact layer. This specially engineered laminate showed a 20% increase in cut resistance when compared with the Kevlar fabric used for lamination. The combination of breathable PU foam and knitted fabric yielded high stretch with improved breathability and dexterity. Kothari et al (2006) reports about the cutting behavior of textile fabrics have been developed. It has been tried to identify the forces involved in cutting a material with a reciprocating knife and also to derive an expression for the sliding distance, which is a measure of the cut resistance of the material. The cut resistance increase with the increase in inch of the fabric. ASTM committee (2002) reports that the hydraulic bursting strength of textile fabrics. This deal with the strength of the fabrics can be determined by pressure applied on the fabrics. The various methods used to determine the strength clamping,
  18. 18. 8 hydraulic pressure system and gauges. The different types of fabrics material are taken for the determination of strength. Zheng et al (2008) report about a new creditable and effective multiaxial circular tensile tester (MACTT) with 16 load sensors installed around a circumference has been developed. The new tester could be used to measure tensile properties in various directions with one sample simultaneously under the same initial conditions. As a result, not only an error could be reduced, but also the experiment samples and time could be saved. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical approximate values calculated based on Hooke’s Law. For general fabrics, the anisotropic tensile properties could be measured easily with the new tester, although it was difficult to understand their structures and mechanical characteristics systematically. Therefore, the new tester showed more important results. Hace et al (2002) convey about the working of water jet cutting machine that has been built for cutting of leather or synthetic textile in shoe industry. The main parts of the machine are the transport system, the XY system with the cutting head, and the high-pressure (HP) pump. The transport system feeds material into the cutting section and holds it during the cutting period. It consists of three sections. In the input section the material is laid down on a transport table. The table then transports material toward the cutting section. When cutting, the gripper holds down the material and the transport system is stopped. Afterward, the cut pieces are transported to the output section. Electrical motors and pneumatic cylinders power the transport system. Chiang, L.E (1994) describes the design and construction of a low power laser cutting machine with three degrees of freedom for applications such as wood, textile fabrics and the like. An available 10 Watt laser gun is used to provide the cutting mechanism. The results show that such a machine is feasible at a reasonable cost for applications where speed and repeatability are more important than high precision and power. CO2 laser cutting machine uses focus lens to make CO2 laser beam focus on material surface to melt materials, at the same time uses compressed gas which is
  19. 19. 9 coaxial with the laser beam to blow melting materials, and laser beam and materials are in relative motion along certain tracks, thus forming cutting slotting in a definite shape. Since 1970s, with the unceasing development and perfection CO 2 laser and numerical control technology, CO2 laser cutting machine has become an advanced processing device for plates cutting in industry. In 1950s &1960s the main methods for plates cutting are as follows: cutting medium thickness plate, adopting method is oxyacetylene flame cutting method; for thin plate, forming by shearing mass complex components by stamping, sheet by adopting the vibration shears. All cutting methods have their flaws, but still have their applications in specific fields. The hydraulic cutting machine is specifically designed to cut Emery Cloth, Rubber and Leather with precision and speed. The salient features of the hydraulic cutting machines are  The accuracy of the programme is 0.01 mm 0.001 inches. Conversion from mm to inch fraction is also possible.  The worm gear drive has ground worm and needs less power than any other conventional drive. The gears are running in oil bath.  It has a new drive mechanism for clamping. The special features of this machine are double clamping pressure and gentle setting of the clamp on the materials to be cut. The clamping pressure is adjustable with a knob positioned under the table at a convenient place.  The knife can be changed easily by lift system and safely by a single operator.  A set of infra red light beams are projected in front of the cutting zone just above the table to avoid an accident. 2.1 Summary From the above study there are different types of cutting mechanism used in fabric. In that cost of cutting in each machine is higher and manual work operation is maximum in cutting a fabric. This project deals with the reduction in cost and to reduce manual work. In this various kinds of fabric material are used for cutting with required force mentioned in the above study tension of the fabric is determined.
  20. 20. 10 CHAPTER-3 PROBLEM DEFINITION In textile shop all the fabric materials are measured and cut manually with the help of cutting tools and measuring tools. In this process of cutting is not obtained accurately and time taken for cutting is also quite high. If the measurement is not accurate, wastage of materials will be more and then the quality will also be reduced. Nowadays quality is the main aspect of customer. Mostly the length of the cutting will vary according to the type of the fabric material. In those machines, bulk orders of fabrics and same size of cutting is only possible. The size cannot be changed immediately for cutting a fabric. It has large procedure and that should be followed for changing the size. This project deals with above the defined problems and rectifies them in order to reduce manual work and also the continuous process of cutting is obtained. Adjusting the size can be made easily in this machine. Cost is much less compared to the large machine used in textile industries.
  21. 21. 11 CHAPTER 4 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT The design and development section deals with the designing of various components that are used in the project. The design can be carried out for various components are bearing design, clamping and cutting mechanism, design of electrical circuit, design of pneumatic circuit and design of model. 4.1 DESIGN PHASE The designing of various parts of the model is described as below 4.1.1 Design of Bearing Diameter of the shaft, D = 20mm Speed of the shaft, N = 42.8 rpm Assumed allowable bearing pressure is 0.016 N per sq.mm Area, A = L × D Area, A = 20 × L sq.mm Pressure, P= Load Area 58.86 = 20×L (20×L)×0.016 = 58.86 L = 183.93mm For this bearing length and shaft diameter p204 bearing is selected. 4.1.2 Cutting Mechanism Figure 4.1 shows the dimensions of the pneumatic cylinder. Figure 4.1 Dimensions of Pneumatic Cylinder
  22. 22. 12 Bore diameter d1= 100 mm Piston rod diameter d2= 50 mm Stroke length L = 100 mm Pressure p = 6 bar Force needed for cutting fabrics is less compared to clamping force, F= F= π 4 π 4 [p × (d12 - d22)] × [6 × e5× (0.12 -0.052)] F = 3.534 KN 4.1.3 Clamping Mechanism Bore diameter d1= 100 mm Piston rod diameter d2= 50 mm Stroke length L = 100 mm Pressure p = 8 bar Force needed for cutting fabrics is less compared to clamping force, F= π F= 4 π 4 [p × (d12 - d22)] × [8 × e5× (0.12 -0.052)] F = 4.71 KN 4.1.4 Design of Electrical Circuit The entire circuit consists of three major blocks power supply unit, data processing unit and controller unit. In this circuit, it requires 5V DC supply which is step down from a 230V AC supply using 15-0-15 step down transformer. This 15V AC supply is converted into 15V DC using rectifier circuit. The rectified DC supply is filtered using 1000 µF capacitor and finally 5V DC supply is acquired using 7805
  23. 23. 13 regulator. This 5V DC supply is given to the DC motor, Variable Resistor and Microcontroller. The input to the Microcontroller is given in the form of Keypad which acts as a controller unit. Based on the signal given, corresponding signal will be generated in the Microcontroller unit. The generated signal is given to the DC Motor, which makes the motor to run. The motor speed can be varied using a variable resistor through which the motor runs at a desired speed. Figure 4.2 shows the circuit design of electrical components. Figure 4.2 Block Diagram of Electrical Circuit 4.1.5 Design of Pnuematic Circuit The operating sequence of the cylinders is A+B+B-A-. The cylinder A is used to clamp the fabrics and cylinder B is used to cut the fabrics. This operation is done as follows. When PS A is in normally close condition ,the SOL A is actuated and the cylinder A extracts.Then the clamping of fabrics occurs. When PS B is in normally close condition ,the SOL B is actuated and the cylinder A extracts.Then the cutting of fabrics occurs. Figure 4.3 shows the sequential circuit design of the pneumatic circuit.
  24. 24. 14 SOL A = Solenoid A SOL B PS A PS B = Push button A = Solenoid B = Push button B Figure 4.3 Sequential Circuit Design When PS B is in normally open condition ,the spring pulls the piston in 5/2 DCV. This forces air in opposite direction and the cylinder B retracts.Thus the knife retracts. When PS A is in normally open condition ,the spring pulls the piston in 5/2 DCV. This forces air in opposite direction and the cylinder A retracts.Thus the clamping of fabrics releases.
  25. 25. 15 4.1.6 Design of Setup By using PRO-ENGINEER WILDFIRE 4.0, the first prototype is designed. This model is assembled by different parts. The part diagram is designed with the help of different icon in Pro/E. Some of the icons used to create this model are line, rectangle, pattern, extrude, trim etc. The parts we designed by using PRO-E are roller, cylinder, base table, knife and motor. After designing the various parts of the model with the help of PRO-E, the assembly section of the model begins. To assemble these parts we changed the module as assembly and then the base table is opened by using open icon. The base table is fixed by choosing default in the placement tab. After fixing the base table, the roller part is opened by using open icon. Then the alignment of roller is done by using align and mate icon in the placement tab. Thus the roller is fitted on the base table. Similarly same size of roller is fitted on the other side of the base table. Figure 4.4 shows the assembly diagram of the fabric cutting machine. Figure 4.4 Model of Fabric Cutting Machine A stand like arrangement is made to hold the cutting mechanism i.e., two cylinders. Then the cylinder part is opened and fitted to the stand arrangement. This
  26. 26. 16 is done by using mate and fix icon. After fixing the cylinders, knife and clamp are assembled at the end of piston rod of the cylinders. The motor is fixed at the one end of the roller which is used to roll the fabrics. The shaft in the roller is used to couple with the motor. Thus the complete assembly of this model is done with the help of Pro/E WILDFIRE 4.0. 4.2 OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY The motor is operated by means of the microcontroller when input is given. Its operation is fully based on the microcontroller. After the length is measured it moves to second process automatically with the help of microcontroller. When the clamping process is over it moves to the cutting automatically. Its operation is based on microcontroller only thing is input should be entered after that all the process are carried out. It does not require any skilled labor to operate the machine. 4.3 ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY The cost of the pneumatic components is only higher but for accuracy and automation we have to choose pneumatic components. Table 4.1 shows the cost of the fabricated model and it is economical one. Table 4.1 Cost Estimation S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 List of Components 30rpm DC motor Pneumatic cylinders 5/2 DCV Flow control valve Hoses Distributors Electrical circuit Rollers Electrical wire Switches Stand for rollers & cylinders QUANTITY 1 2 2 2 5m 4 1 2 4m 2 Total COST in Rs. 800.00 1000.00 1600.00 400.00 150.00 150.00 1250.00 550.00 70.00 30.00 625.00 6625.00
  27. 27. 17 CHAPTER 5 FABRICATION PROCESS In this chapter, the electrical and pneumatic circuits of the fabric cutting machine are discussed. The working principle and the process description of the fabric cutting machines are discussed below. 5.1 PROCESS DESCRIPTION In this method, cutting and clamping of fabrics is done by automatically. Two rollers are used for obtaining the desired length of the fabric. First, two rollers are mounted on the roller stand. One is act as a driver and another one is driven. First roller is driven by a 30 rpm DC motor and second roller is driven by first roller. Normally, fabric is rolled on the first roller and another end of the fabric is attached to the driven roller. The motor is operated by means of microcontroller when the input is given. The operation is fully based on the microcontroller. The entire circuit consists of three major blocks Power Supply unit, Data Processing unit and Controller unit. In this circuit, it requires a 5V DC supply which is step down from a 230V AC supply using 15-0-15 step down transformer. This 15V AC supply is converted into 15V DC using rectifier circuit. The rectified DC supply is filtered using 1000 µF capacitor and finally 5V DC supply is acquired by using 7805 regulator. This 5V DC supply is given to the DC motor, Variable Resistor and Microcontroller. The input to the Microcontroller is given through the Keypad which acts as a controller unit. Based on the signal given, corresponding signal will be generated in the Microcontroller unit. The generated signal is given to the DC Motor, which makes the motor to run. The time required to rotate the rollers is fed to the microcontroller as the input through the keypad. The power supplied to various electronic components by using a variable resistor. Based on the input given the corresponding signal will be sent to the microcontroller, which controls the rotation of the roller by enabling the dc motor. So, the desired length of the fabric is obtained by this electrical circuit. If the given input to
  28. 28. 18 the controller unit is 30 sec means, then the motor runs for 30 sec and the corresponding length of the fabric is obtained. If the desired length is obtained then the clamping and cutting operations are done by actuated the pneumatic cylinders. These double acting pneumatic cylinders are actuated by using 5/2 direction control valves controlled by the solenoid and flow control valves. The operating cylinder sequence is A+B+B-A-. When the air supplied to the pneumatic circuits, the power supply is also given to the solenoid A which operates direction control valve. Thus the pneumatic cylinders extraction and retraction is done by pressing the push buttons. When the pneumatic cylinder A extracts, then the clamping is carried out and then the cylinder B extracts to carry out cutting operation. Then the fabric is cut by using sharp knife and the cylinder B retracts so that the knife arrangement returns back to original place. When the push button A is in off state, then the cylinder A retracts releasing the clamp. Thus the required length of the fabric is obtained by using electrical and pneumatic circuit. Figure 5.1 shows the working procedure of the fabric cutting machine. Figure 5.1 Parts and Dimensions of Base Setup
  29. 29. 19 CHAPTER 6 RESULT AND DISCUSSION This project is fabricated with the help of electrical and pneumatic components. The model is fabricated mainly to reduce the manual cutting of fabrics. The required length of the fabric was obtained by using the micro controller. Then the clamping and cutting operation is done by using pneumatic circuit design. Because of vertical motion of the knife, the fabric is not cut in good manner. Thus the fabric is cut by using electrical and pneumatic circuit. Figure 6.1 Fabrication Project Figure 6.1 shows the fabrication model of fabric cutting machine. This project gives the accurate result in cutting a different kind of materials in fabric. Cutting force is depends on the material which is used.
  30. 30. 20 6.1 ADVANTAGES The advantages of the fabric cutting machines are,  In this machine, skilled labours are not required to operate.  This machine very compact in size compared to the existing machine.  Cost of cutting is minimum and cost of this machine is also minimum.  This machine is produced even for a textile shops  Accuracy of cutting is maximum  Manual operation is less in this machine
  31. 31. 21 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION The fabric cutting machine is used to cut the fabrics for the desired length. This project is mainly used to increase the productivity, efficiency of the industry and avoid manual errors. This machine is very accurate and compact. The machine can be purchased at affordable cost. Because of the vertical movement of the knife, the cutting operation is not effective. So in the future we are going to use the shearing motion of the knife. This shearing mechanism will cut the fabric more effectively and the cost will be quite low.
  32. 32. 22 APPENDIX Air Consumption of Double-Acting Cylinders OPERATING PRESSURE (BAR) BORE ROD Ø ACTION 2 8 4 10 4 12 6 16 6 20 8 25 10 32 12 40 16 50 20 63 20 80 25 100 25 125 32 160 40 200 40 Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi Vo Vi 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.006 0.005 0.009 0.008 0.015 0.012 0.024 0.021 0.038 0.030 0.059 0.051 0.093 0.072 0.150 0.139 0.236 0.214 0.368 0.346 0.603 0.565 0.942 0.904 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.003 0.008 0.007 0.013 0.011 0.020 0.017 0.032 0.028 0.050 0.040 0.079 0.068 0.125 0.109 0.200 0.186 0.314 0.286 0.490 0.462 0.804 0.754 1.256 1.206 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.006 0.004 0.010 0.009 0.016 0.013 0.025 0.021 0.040 0.035 0.063 0.050 0.098 0.085 0.156 0.136 0.250 0.232 0.382 0.357 0.613 0.578 1.005 0.942 1.570 1.507 0.003 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.007 0.005 0.012 0.010 0.019 0.016 0.030 0.025 0.048 0.042 0.076 0.060 0.118 0.102 0.187 0.164 0.301 0.279 0.471 0.429 0.736 0.694 1.206 1.130 1.884 1.809 0.004 0.003 0.005 0.004 0.008 0.006 0.014 0.012 0.022 0.019 0.034 0.029 0.056 0.049 0.088 0.070 0.137 0.120 0.218 0.191 0.351 0.325 0.549 0.500 0.859 0.809 1.407 1.319 2.198 2.110 0.004 0.003 0.005 0.004 0.009 0.007 0.016 0.014 0.025 0.021 0.039 0.0337 0.064 0.056 0.100 0.080 0.157 0.137 0.249 0.218 0.402 0.372 0.628 0.571 0.981 0.925 1.608 1.507 2.512 2.412 0.005 0.003 0.006 0.005 0.010 0.008 0.018 0.016 0.028 0.024 0.044 0.037 0.072 0.063 0.113 0.090 0.177 0.154 0.280 0.245 0.452 0.418 0.706 0.643 1.104 1.040 1.809 1.696 2.826 2.713 0.005 0.004 0.007 0.006 0.011 0.008 0.020 0.017 0.031 0.026 0.049 0.041 0.082 0.070 0.126 0.100 0.196 0.170 0.312 0.273 0.502 0.464 0.785 0.714 1.226 1.156 2.010 1.884 3.140 3.014 0.006 0.004 0.007 0.006 0.012 0.009 0.022 0.019 0.035 0.029 0.054 0.045 0.088 0.076 0.188 0.110 0.216 0.188 0.343 0.300 0.552 0.510 0.862 0.786 1.349 1.272 2.211 2.072 3.454 3.316
  33. 33. 23 REFERENCES 1. Chiang.L.E, Ramos.J (1994), “CNC control of a laser cutting machine”, IEEE Journal, Vol.58,pp.236 -241 2. “Standard Test Method for Hydraulic Bursting Strength of Textile FabricsDiaphragm Bursting Strength Tester Method”, ASTM Committee (2001), D 3786–79. 3. Borelli.J.E, Verdério.L.A, Ruffino.R.T, Gonzaga.A (2002), “Hot tool temperature analysis though infrared images”, J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci., Vol.24 no.4, pp.197-213 4. Hace.A and Jezernik.K (2002), “Control System for The Water jet Cutting Machine”, IEEE Journal, Vol.22. 5. Jiaming Zheng, Masayuki Takatera, Shigeru Inui and Yoshio Shimizu (2008), “Measuring Technology of The Anisotropic Tensile Properties of Woven Fabrics”, Textile Research Journal, Vol 78(12), pp.1116–1123 6. Kothari, A Das.,Sreedevi., September (2007), Cut Resistance of textile Fabric., Indian Journal of Fibres & Textile Research., Vol. 32, pp.306-311 7. Thilagavathi.G, Rajendrakumar.K, and Kannaian.T,(2010), “Development of Textile Laminates for Improved Cut Resistance”, Journal of Engineered Fibres and Fabrics, Vol.5, Issue 2,pp.40-44. 8. Khurmi.R.S & Gupta.J.K (2009), “A text book on Machine Design”, S. Chand & Company Ltd, pp.247-253. 9. “PSG Design Data Book” (2010), Kalaikathir Achagam, pp.4.1-4.38.

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