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Logic and science as a foundation of research


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Logic and science as a foundation of research

  1. 1. Logic and Science <br />as<br />foundations of research<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Model and understanding of phenomena<br />Facts and reasoning from given facts<br />Logical reasoning<br />Nature of science<br />Product of science<br />Scientific process<br />
  3. 3. logic as a basis of research<br />
  4. 4. facts vs opinion<br />Facts are characteristics of objects.<br />Opinion is our ideas or attitudes towards objects.<br />e.g. “ Mr. Beatle is a Loyalty person.”<br />
  5. 5. facts<br />Identification: name, ID number<br />Observation: data<br />Measurement: numerics<br />
  6. 6. reasoning by given facts<br />Giving data of a family, one kid names John 2 years<br />older than other kid names Pam. The youngest kid <br />is 4 years younger than his brother. Pam is in the<br />first grade.<br />1. How many children in this family?<br /> 2. How many girl and boy ?<br /> 3. What are their age?<br />
  7. 7. Logical reasoning<br />Inductive <br />= <br />specific to general<br />Deductive<br />= <br />general to specific<br />generalization<br />statistics<br />causal inference<br />Strong ?<br />Valid ?<br />
  8. 8. logical reasoning: deductive<br />Good doctor has high moral <br />Good doctor is happy<br />Good doctor is smart and clever<br />Clever and smart doctor is rich<br />Dr.Boy is clever and smart<br />So which answer is incorrect<br />Dr.Boy is happy<br />Dr.Boy is good doctor<br />Dr.Boy is rich<br />Dr.Boy is a good doctor but may have low moral<br />Dr.Boy is rich but may be unhappy<br />
  9. 9. logical reasoning: inductive<br />In annual examination during 5 years of medical students in 4 Faculties, from total 500, we found that Fac. A had mean grade of 320, Fac.B got 300, Fac.C got 300 and Fac.D got 260, shown in this table: Can you show which Faculty had highest performance and which one had low.<br />
  10. 10. logical reasoning: inductive<br />From the national telephone survey in Thailand, the total household of 10000 were asked about number of residence and employment status of the household member. It was concluded that ‘Unemployment rate in 2008 was 20%.<br />How do you feel about this figure?<br />
  11. 11. logical reasoning: inductive<br />One researcher reported a statistical data that children under 5 from poor family had 2.5 incidence of infectious diseases than children from rich family. So he concluded that economic status had serious health impact than cancer.<br />What do you think about his conclusion?<br />
  12. 12. Science as a basis of research<br />
  13. 13. The nature of science I<br />People by nature are curious about the world around them<br />Question<br />Answer<br />
  14. 14. Consider these<br />Pam said Pepsi is the best.<br />Boy said Coke is better and cheaper.<br />Pam shouted that not real, Pepsi is 13 Bht,<br />Coke is 14 Bht.<br />Boy remarked that it’s not fare, Pepsi had<br />325 cc. while Coke had 400 cc.<br />Which one is better?<br />
  15. 15. The nature of science I<br />Scientific disciplines (e.g. physics, biology, sociology, …) differ in objects of study but <br />share in characteristics.<br />Scientific questions are questions that <br />can be answered by identifying <br />observable events.<br />
  16. 16. Consider these<br />a)Doing research is difficult ?<br />b)Does Boy run faster than girl?<br />Which one is more scientific (as a question) ?<br />(a) or (b)<br />
  17. 17. The nature of science I<br />Scientific disciplines (e.g. physics, biology, sociology, …) differ in objects of study but <br />share in characteristics.<br />1. Scientific questions are questions that can be answered by identifying <br /> observable events.<br />2. Answers to the questions take a form of description, <br />explanation, prediction, or understanding.<br />
  18. 18. The nature of science I<br />Science<br />product<br />process<br />knowledge<br />method<br />Description / explanation / prediction / causation<br />
  19. 19. Knowledge as description<br />We must describe objects and events before we can <br />understand and explain the relationships among them.<br />Observations must be carefully defined,organized and <br />classified in meaningful way,precisely and reliably <br />reported with clear references.<br />Language usage in science: one word one meaning, <br /> precise and consistent,<br /> judged by its usefulness<br />
  20. 20. Operational Definition<br />A state of emotional stress or feelings that occur when faced with problems that make you feel uncomfortable or frustrate, high stress level cause mental suffering, feeling confused, angry or sad. Stress that there is not much is an incentive for people to overcome obstacles and fight for their living.<br />Or ‘Stress is the level of emotional disturbance that causes physical alteration, e.g. difficult to sleep, less appetite, weight loss, etc. as we can measure it by the Stress test.’<br />
  21. 21. Knowledge as explanation & prediction<br />Explanation satisfies curiosity by citing a general rule – <br />change in one general class of events relates to change <br />in another class of events under certain conditions.<br />We explain the pastand thepresent and predict the future.<br />Prediction is carried out before the event occurs and <br />explanation afterward.<br />More general rule is a theory. Best theory involves the <br />fewest assumptions, explains the broadest range of <br />phenomena, provides the most accurate prediction. <br />
  22. 22. Knowledge as understanding in science: causation<br />A sense of understanding is provided by describing <br />the causal process that connects events. <br />Judgment of causation:<br /><ul><li>Strength of association
  23. 23. Known association
  24. 24. Temporal relationship
  25. 25. Dose response relationship
  26. 26. Consistency with other investigations</li></li></ul><li>Scientific process<br />Theory<br />Prediction (hypotheses)<br />Empirical generalization<br />observation<br />
  27. 27. Scientific process<br />If we have a theory that<br />Community with lacking of family bonding has higher potential of suicide<br />Empirical <br />generalization<br />hypothesis<br />Married people has lower suicide rate<br />Analysis<br />observation<br />Collect data of marital status and suicidal rate<br />
  28. 28. Scientific process<br />Empiricism = observable, directly or indirectly, <br /> through some tangible manifestation<br />Objectivity = intersubjective testability = repeatability<br />Control = clean from preventable error<br />
  29. 29. Research process: hypothetical-deductive method<br />deduc<br />t<br />i<br />ve<br />formulate hypothesis<br />inductive<br />Deduce consequence <br />from hypothesis<br />Draw inference<br />Check through observation<br />
  30. 30. Step of Research<br />Design<br />Formulate R.Question<br />Review your interest<br />Data Management and analysis<br />Collection Data<br />Research dissemination<br />Data Interpretation<br />
  31. 31. Practice<br />
  32. 32. Research Question<br /><ul><li>Asking the right question at the right time
  33. 33. Good research question</li></ul>1. Simple<br />2. Understandable<br /> 3. Feasible<br />4. Cover all we need to know<br />
  34. 34. How to formulate Research Question<br /><ul><li>ASK Yourself: “What do you want to know?”
  35. 35. Repeat asking: “What are specific that you want to know?”
  36. 36. Assess your Qs: Is your Qs had at least2 components?</li></ul>People (children, family with stress?)<br />and problems (Depression, ARI, Cholera)<br /><ul><li>Repeat again : What are specific group of people?
  37. 37. and again : What are specific problems?</li></li></ul><li>Design<br />What variables of what units are to be studied ?<br />1. Define variables and measure.<br />2. Identify population and select samples.<br />
  38. 38. Design<br />Good Questions<br />Variables<br />Unit of analysis<br />Association of variables<br />Measurement<br />Population<br />Sample<br />Tools (Ques’nair, Observa, exam?)<br />
  39. 39. Practice<br />
  40. 40. Questions ????????????????<br />