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  2. 2. Telecommunication system INTRODUCTION of telecommunication system Telecommunication, is the exchange of information over significant distances by electronic means. Transceiver: Combination of transmitter and a receiver in a single device Wire less The free-space transmission and reception of data by means of electromagnetic fields
  3. 3. The simplest form of telecommunications takes place between two stations. However, it is common for multiple transmitting and receiving stations to exchange data among themselves. Such an arrangement is called a telecommunications network. The Internet is the largest example. On a smaller scale, examples include:  Corporate and academic wide-area networks (WANs)  Telephone networks  Police and fire communications systems  Taxicab dispatch networks  Groups of amateur radio operators
  4. 4. Basic elements A basic telecommunication system consists of three primary units that are always present in some form: 1) A transmitter that takes information and converts it to a signal. 2) A transmission medium, also called the "physical channel" that carries the signal. An example of this is the "free space channel". 3) A receiver that takes the signal from the channel and converts it back into usable information.
  5. 5. Analog versus digital communications Communications signals can be either by analog signals or digital signals. For an analog signal, the signal is varied continuously with respect to the information. In a digital signal, the information is encoded as a set of discrete values (for example, a set of ones and zeros).
  6. 6. Communication channels The term "channel" has two different meanings. In one meaning, a channel is the physical medium that carries a signal between the transmitter and the receiver. The other meaning of the term "channel" in telecommunications is seen in the phrase communications channel, which is a subdivision of a transmission medium so that it can be used to send multiple streams of information simultaneously.
  7. 7. Modulation The shaping of a signal to convey information is known as modulation. Modulation can be used to represent a digital message as an analog waveform. This is commonly called― keying" – a term derived from the older use of Morse Code in telecommunications – and several keying techniques exist (these include phase-shift keying, frequency-shift keying, and amplitude-shift keying).
  8. 8. Economic impact Microeconomics On the microeconomic scale, companies have used telecommunications to help build global business empires. This is self-evident in the case of online retailer but, according to academic Edward Lenert, even the conventional retailer Wal-Mart has benefited from better telecommunication infrastructure compared to its competitors. In cities throughout the world, home owners use their telephones to order and arrange a variety of home services ranging from pizza deliveries to electricians.
  9. 9. Macroeconomics On the macroeconomic scale, Lars-Hendrik Röller and Leonard Waverman suggested a causal link between good telecommunication infrastructure and economic growth. Few dispute the existence of a correlation although some argue it is wrong to view the relationship as causal. Because of the economic benefits of good telecommunication infrastructure, there is increasing worry about the inequitable access to telecommunication services amongst various countries of the world—this is known as the digital divide.
  10. 10. Social impact Telecommunication has played a significant role in social relationships. Nevertheless devices like the telephone system were originally advertised with an emphasis on the practical dimensions of the device (such as the ability to conduct business or order home services) as opposed to the social dimensions. It was not until the late 1920s and 1930s that the social dimensions of the device became a prominent theme in telephone advertisements. New promotions started appealing to consumers' emotions, stressing the importance of social conversations and staying connected to family and friends.
  11. 11. Telecommunication services in Pakistan by following companies
  12. 12. Telecommunication services in Pakistan by following companies Mobilink In addition to its cellular service, Mobilink began providing DSL/Wimax Internet service to 26 major cities in Pakistan, includingKarachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Faisalabad, P eshawar, Multan, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sialkot, Hyderabad, Tharushah,Mardan, Rahim Yar Khan, Sahiwal, Wah, Sargodha, Sheikhupura, Abbotabad, Quetta, Dera Ghazi Khan, Ghazi Kot, Bahawalpur,Sukkur, Nawabshah, and Larkana.
  13. 13. Continue…….. Pakistan Mobile Communications Limited, or Mobilink, is the leading telecommunications service provider in Pakistan, with 37 million subscribers and market share of 34% as of October 2013. Its headquarters are in Islamabad.Mobilink started operations in 1994 as the first GSM cellular mobile service in Pakistan by Motorola Inc., which later sold it to Orascom Telecom, an Egypt-based multinational company. In addition to cellular service, the Orascom Group is diversifying its service portfolio by setting up new businesses and expanding through acquisitions. Recently, they started offering DSL broadband through a wholly owned subsidiary called Link.Net. In addition to Mobilink, the Orascom group also owns TWA (Transworld Associates) which operates an undersea fiber-optic cable from Karachi, Pakistan, to Fujairah, UAE. As of June 2010 Mobilink had issued two listed bonds valued at R$3.2 billion and R$6 billion.
  14. 14. Ufone GSM is a Pakistani GSM cellular service provider. It is one of the five major GSM Mobile companies in Pakistan. In January 2001 Pak Telecom Mobile Limited (PTML) a wholly owned subsidiary of Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL)started its operations under the brand name ‘Ufone’.
  15. 15. After the partial privatization of the parent company PTCL, 26% of shares and control was sold to Etisalat and Ufone became a part of the Emirates Telecommunication Corporation Group. In 2012 Ufone launched their social networking service for their Ufone customers Club Ufone, available in English and Urdu languages.
  16. 16. ZONG is the first international brand of China Mobile, launched in Pakistan in 2008.The company is often cited as China Mobile (Pakistan) or CMPak. As of March 2014, it had a subscriber base of more than 25 million.
  17. 17. Partnership with Manchester United F.C In October 2011, ZONG signed a three-year partnership deal with the English football club Manchester United F.C. The deal allowed the club's Pakistani fans to see all the goals scored, as well as exclusive interviews, news and behind-the-scenes access. ZONG also made a television commercial featuring the Manchester United players Dimitar Berbatov, Rio Ferdinand, Darren Fletcher and Ashley Young playing street football with Pakistani children.
  18. 18. Corporate social responsibility Zong's corporate social responsibility efforts include supporting scholarships to students at the University of Engineering and Technology (Peshawar).
  19. 19. Warid Telecom International is an Abu Dhabi-based mobile telecommunication investment firm whose portfolio companies provide telephony services in the Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, and Uganda. In 2004, Warid Telecom International LLC, purchased a license for operating a nationwide mobile telephony network, (WLL) and long distance international (LDI) for $291 million US dollars and was the first venture of Warid Telecom International LLC. The licence was bid for and acquired by a team led by Bashir Tahir Zuberi the former CEO of the Abu Dhabi Group, which is the parent company of all Warid operations
  20. 20. continue…. Warid Pakistan launched its services in May 2005. Within 80 days of launch Warid Pakistan claims to have attracted more than 1 million. users. On June 30, 2007, Singapore Telecommunications Limited (SingTel) and Warid Telecom announced that they have entered into a definitive agreement subsequent to which SingTel will acquire a 30 percent equity stake in Warid Telecom for an estimated $758 million, valuing the company at an enterprise value of $2.9 billion.
  21. 21. Telenor Group
  22. 22. Telenor is a Norwegian multinational telecommunications company headquartered at Fornebu in Bærum, close to Oslo. It is one of the world's largest mobile telecommunications companies with operations in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe and Asia. In addition, it has extensive broadband and TV distribution operations in four Nordic Countries, and a 10-year-old research and business line for Machine-to-Machine technology. Telenor owns networks in 12 countries, with operations in 29 countries if included their 33% ownership in VimpelCom Ltd. Telenor is listed on Oslo Stock Exchange with a market capitalization per November 2013 of kr 223 billion, top three of all companies listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange