INTRODUCTION of telecommunication system
Telecommunication, is the exchange of information over
significant distances by electronic means.
Combination of transmitter and a receiver in a single device
The free-space transmission and reception of data by means of
The simplest form of telecommunications takes place between
two stations. However, it is common for multiple transmitting
and receiving stations to exchange data among themselves. Such
an arrangement is called a telecommunications network.
The Internet is the largest example. On a smaller scale, examples
Corporate and academic wide-area networks (WANs)
Police and fire communications systems
Taxicab dispatch networks
Groups of amateur radio operators
A basic telecommunication system consists of three primary
units that are always present in some form:
1) A transmitter that takes information and converts it to
2) A transmission medium, also called the "physical
channel" that carries the signal. An example of this is
the "free space channel".
3) A receiver that takes the signal from the channel and
converts it back into usable information.
Analog versus digital
Communications signals can be either by analog
signals or digital signals. For an analog signal, the signal is
varied continuously with respect to the information. In a
digital signal, the information is encoded as a set of discrete
values (for example, a set of ones and zeros).
The term "channel" has two different meanings. In one
meaning, a channel is the physical medium that carries a
signal between the transmitter and the receiver. The other
meaning of the term "channel" in telecommunications is seen
in the phrase communications channel, which is a subdivision
of a transmission medium so that it can be used to send
multiple streams of information simultaneously.
The shaping of a signal to convey information is known
as modulation. Modulation can be used to represent a digital
message as an analog waveform. This is commonly called―
keying" – a term derived from the older use of Morse Code in
telecommunications – and several keying techniques exist
(these include phase-shift keying, frequency-shift keying,
and amplitude-shift keying).
On the microeconomic scale, companies have used
telecommunications to help build global business empires.
This is self-evident in the case of online
retailer Amazon.com but, according to academic Edward
Lenert, even the conventional retailer Wal-Mart has
benefited from better telecommunication infrastructure
compared to its competitors. In cities throughout the
world, home owners use their telephones to order and
arrange a variety of home services ranging from pizza
deliveries to electricians.
On the macroeconomic scale, Lars-Hendrik Röller
and Leonard Waverman suggested a causal link between good
telecommunication infrastructure and economic growth. Few
dispute the existence of a correlation although some argue it
is wrong to view the relationship as causal.
Because of the economic benefits of good telecommunication
infrastructure, there is increasing worry about the inequitable
access to telecommunication services amongst various
countries of the world—this is known as the digital divide.
Telecommunication has played a significant role in social
relationships. Nevertheless devices like the telephone system
were originally advertised with an emphasis on the practical
dimensions of the device (such as the ability to conduct
business or order home services) as opposed to the social
dimensions. It was not until the late 1920s and 1930s that the
social dimensions of the device became a prominent theme in
telephone advertisements. New promotions started appealing
to consumers' emotions, stressing the importance of social
conversations and staying connected to family and friends.
Telecommunication services in
Pakistan by following companies
Telecommunication services in Pakistan by
In addition to its cellular service, Mobilink began providing DSL/Wimax
Internet service to 26 major cities in
Pakistan, includingKarachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Faisalabad, P
eshawar, Multan, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sialkot, Hyderabad,
Tharushah,Mardan, Rahim Yar
Khan, Sahiwal, Wah, Sargodha, Sheikhupura, Abbotabad, Quetta, Dera
Ghazi Khan, Ghazi Kot, Bahawalpur,Sukkur, Nawabshah, and Larkana.
Pakistan Mobile Communications Limited, or Mobilink, is the leading
telecommunications service provider in Pakistan, with 37 million
subscribers and market share of 34% as of October 2013. Its headquarters
are in Islamabad.Mobilink started operations in 1994 as the
first GSM cellular mobile service in Pakistan by Motorola Inc., which
later sold it to Orascom Telecom, an Egypt-based multinational company.
In addition to cellular service, the Orascom Group is diversifying its
service portfolio by setting up new businesses and expanding through
acquisitions. Recently, they started offering DSL broadband through a
wholly owned subsidiary called Link.Net. In addition to Mobilink, the
Orascom group also owns TWA (Transworld Associates) which operates
an undersea fiber-optic cable from Karachi, Pakistan, to Fujairah, UAE.
As of June 2010 Mobilink had issued two listed bonds valued at R$3.2
billion and R$6 billion.
is a Pakistani GSM cellular service provider. It is one of the
five major GSM Mobile companies in Pakistan. In January
2001 Pak Telecom Mobile Limited (PTML) a wholly owned
subsidiary of Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited
(PTCL)started its operations under the brand name ‘Ufone’.
After the partial privatization of the parent company PTCL, 26% of shares
and control was sold to Etisalat and Ufone became a part of the Emirates
Telecommunication Corporation Group.
In 2012 Ufone launched their social networking service for their Ufone
customers Club Ufone, available in English and Urdu languages.
is the first international brand of China Mobile, launched
in Pakistan in 2008.The company is often cited as China
Mobile (Pakistan) or CMPak. As of March 2014, it had a
subscriber base of more than 25 million.
Partnership with Manchester United F.C
In October 2011, ZONG signed a three-year partnership deal with the
English football club Manchester United F.C. The deal allowed the club's
Pakistani fans to see all the goals scored, as well as exclusive interviews,
news and behind-the-scenes access. ZONG also made a television
commercial featuring the Manchester United players Dimitar
Berbatov, Rio Ferdinand, Darren Fletcher and Ashley Young playing street
football with Pakistani children.
Corporate social responsibility
Zong's corporate social responsibility efforts include
supporting scholarships to students at the University of
Engineering and Technology (Peshawar).
Warid Telecom International
is an Abu Dhabi-based mobile telecommunication investment firm whose
portfolio companies provide telephony services in the Republic of the
Congo, Pakistan, and Uganda.
In 2004, Warid Telecom International LLC, purchased a license for
operating a nationwide mobile telephony network, (WLL) and long
distance international (LDI) for $291 million US dollars and was the first
venture of Warid Telecom International LLC. The licence was bid for and
acquired by a team led by Bashir Tahir Zuberi the former CEO of the Abu
Dhabi Group, which is the parent company of all Warid operations
Warid Pakistan launched its services in May 2005. Within 80 days of
launch Warid Pakistan claims to have attracted more than 1 million. users.
On June 30, 2007, Singapore Telecommunications Limited (SingTel) and
Warid Telecom announced that they have entered into a definitive
agreement subsequent to which SingTel will acquire a 30 percent equity
stake in Warid Telecom for an estimated $758 million, valuing the
company at an enterprise value of $2.9 billion.
is a Norwegian multinational telecommunications company headquartered
at Fornebu in Bærum, close to Oslo. It is one of the world's largest mobile
telecommunications companies with operations in Scandinavia, Eastern
Europe and Asia. In addition, it has extensive broadband and TV
distribution operations in four Nordic Countries, and a 10-year-old
research and business line for Machine-to-Machine technology. Telenor
owns networks in 12 countries, with operations in 29 countries if included
their 33% ownership in VimpelCom Ltd.
Telenor is listed on Oslo Stock Exchange with a market capitalization per
November 2013 of kr 223 billion, top three of all companies listed on the
Oslo Stock Exchange