Texts, sentences, words, sounds• The example:• The ability both to recognize and to produce well-formed sentences is an essential part of learning a second language. 1 2 3 4 5 We are not at home. They are at work. Dad is In hospital. I am In bed.
• What was he misunderstood?*The function of the question.• What we do when we process the language?*Make sense the words and the grammar.*infer the speaker’s intention (the function of what they are saying or writing)
Grammar syllabuses*Meaning *Two sets of decisiona. pre-planned a. selectionb. itemized usefulnessc. account of the route frequency b. grading*Purpose complexity to tell the teacher learnability what is to be covered teachability and in what order.
Grammar syllabuses• Grammar Rules:1. Prescriptive rule A principle or order which guides behavior, says how things are to be done etc2. Descriptive rule The usual way that something happens.3. Pedagogic rule.*Rules of form*Rules of use
4.How to Teach Grammar from Examples• TWO BASIC WAYS TO ACHIEVE UNDERSTANDING OF A RULE:*Deductive learning*Inductive learning (rule-discovery path) Without having met the rule. Learner studies examples. Derives on understanding of the rule.
Inductive learningThe advantages• Fitting students’ existing mental structures.• Involving a greater degree of cognitive depth.• The activity of students.• Favoring pattern recognition and problem solving.• Getting the opportunity for extra language practice.• Preparing students for greater self-reliance.
Inductive learningThe disadvantages• Misleading students• The effectiveness of time• Wrong conclusion• Heavy demanding in planning lesson• Resisting easy rule-formulation• Frustates students.
5.How to teach Grammar through texts.Texts and contexts.• Language is context-sensitive.Kind of context.• Co-text• Context of situation• Context of culture The term text will be used from now on to refer to both written and spoken English.
5.How to teach Grammar through texts.The forms of texts:• Postcards• Novels• Sermons• Football commentaries• Street signs• Jokes• Air safety instructionsSo, it is easier to use examples taken out of context.
5.How to teach Grammar through texts.Sources of textsAt least 4 possible sources of texts• Course books• Authentic sources ( Newspapers, songs, literary texts, the internet)• Teacher• The students