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  1. 1. Representations In Music Videos<br />
  2. 2. Music videos contain material which can be analysed to show the processes of representation. For example: gender, sexuality, race, nationality, culture and place, and of messages and values relating to personal and political life, such as war, drugs and crime.<br />
  3. 3. Voyeurism<br />
  4. 4. Sigmund Freud’s theory refers to the notion that erotic pleasure may be gained by looking at a sexual object (preferably when the object is unaware of being watched). When viewing a film, it is argued, we are all voyeurs, however, film presents us with a variety of pleasures, not exclusively sexual.<br />
  5. 5. Laura Mulvey(1975) proposed that as filmmakers are predominantly male, the presence of women in film is often solely for the purposes of display, rather than for narrative purposes. It is argued that the purpose of this display is to facilitate a voyeuristic response in spectators. This presumes a ‘male gaze’ which is a powerful, controlling gaze at the female on display, who is effectively objectified and passive.<br />
  6. 6. Women that feature for display purposes are shown through a combination of camerawork and editing with fragmented body shots which emphasise a sexualised treatment of them.<br />
  7. 7. The idea becomes increasingly complex when we see the male body on display. The post-feminist ‘female gaze’ is where women are no longer just objects of the look, but look at men as sex objects too. <br />
  8. 8. The idea of voyeurism is also evident in music videos through a system of screens with screens. This is when characters watch performers or others on television, via webcams, as images on video camera screens or CCTV within the world of narrative.<br />
  9. 9. Exhibitionism<br />
  10. 10. Exhibitionism is the opposite of voyeurism. Powerful female artists of recent years have added to the complexity of general/cultural debates, by being sexually provocative and apparently in control of, and inviting, a sexualised gaze. This is called exhibitionism. <br />
  11. 11. In rap music videos and the recent trend for sexually explicit Jamaican dance-hall moves which have influenced some mainstream performance styles. Debate is increasingly polarised, as it is on pornography – who is exploiting whom? Is the female flesh on display a cynical exploitation of the body to increase male profit margins, or an assertion of female self-confidence and sexual independence?<br />