IN THE EXAM COVER THESE FOURELEMENTS…But what are they?LITERARY DEVICESWord choiceContextFigurative LanguageSimiles, MetaphorsLINGUISTICSType of TalkSpoken language featuresGrammarSyntax (word order)Rhetorical DevicesPersuasive LanguageHyperbole/ exaggerationrhetorical QuestionsDramatic EffectWhat the audience might think orfeel in reaction to the events, plot,characters, relationships, mood,ideas and themes.
WORD CHOICEGRAMMERFIGURATIVE LANGUAGEImagery= Simile, metaphor, etc.TONE and MANNERCONTEXTFORMSTRUCTURECapitalsPunctuationSyntax Exclamation EllipsesSemantic FieldSuperlativesThe effect from the choice of wordThe way the text or sentence is structured tomake an effect- e.g Anti- ClimaxTYPE OF TALKWarmFormalityRevengefulPoliteAuthoritiveWhat is the form? A transcript orliteral representation e.g novel, scriptLocation, topic, purpose, time(the context of the scene)On next page
Referential Talk-Interactional Talk-Expository Talk-The speaker provides information- e.g The train station is on your leftMain purpose is social- e.g between two friends.The speaker explains something clearlyExpressive Talk- The speaker reveals feelings and emotions through talkDirective Talk (Instructive Talk)-Phatic Talk- ‘Small talk;’ Maintains social relationships e.g ‘how’re you?’Speaker wants listener to do somethingTransactional Talk- Purpose is to get something done e.g salesman ‘whatre you looking for?’Persuasive Talk- Persuasive Language is used to persuadeCollaborative Talk- Agreeing, the participants are collaborating with each other.
• QUESTIONS • STATEMENTS• COMMANDS• EXCLAMATIONSThe speaker mayDECLARE something-they are thereforemaking a statementThe speaker mayask questions to beINTERROGATIVEWhen the utterance iscommanding the speaker mayuse imperatives or directivesIf a speaker uses exclamationsthey may be expressing anemotion such as fright ‘Johndon’t scare me!- she exclaimed.
LiteratureLifeTRANSCRIPTRecorded conversation, RadioConversation, a Speech.LITERARY REPRESENTATION-A part of a Novel, a script for play or a poem• Talk is Spontaneous• Talk is likely to follow conventions oftalk (more non fluency features) withmore fillers, contractions and pauses.• More paralinguistic features• Purpose can be to chat, gossip, socialize.• Talk will depend on context• Talk is crafted for effect.• Purposes of talk -1. To further plot 2.Develop the characters 3. To create orbuild the atmosphere 4. To express orreveal an opinion, feeling or attitude and3. To address audiences and encouragethem to feel a certain way.• Talk in literature has an audience.THE CONVENTIONS OF TALK IN LIFE?CONVENTIONS OF TALK IN LITERATURE?
Grice’sMaximsQualityQuantityRelevanceMannerIn talk you must betruthful and not say whatyou think to be falseYou must give as muchinformation that is needed.Be relevant to theconversationWhere one avoids obscurity orambiguity as well as being clearand brief.
TABOOExpletive Taboo-Expressing emotion, not directedat someone.Abusive Taboo-Used to offendAuxiliary Taboo-Swearing attached tosomething ‘bloody rain’Humorous Taboo-Swearing used to tease toshow relationship.AMBIGUOUS LANGUAGEPun- ‘Play on words’. Words or phrases that have adouble meaning e.g. Butter Battle SpreadsIrony- This means saying or writing the opposite ofwhat is actually meant like sarcasm. DRAMATICIRONY occurs when something said in the playhas a deeper meaning or significance, which isunderstood by the audience but not by thecharacters.Oxymoron- This occurs when contradictory words orphrases are brought together, like theexpression bitter sweet.
Language that is typical of aparticular person which can beeffected by grammar, gender,age, background, religion.Emphasise on a word for effect.NON FLUENCYFEATURESWhen a speaker wants to showorientation with anotherspeaker e.g. changing speechto sound more or less formal(Upper convergence/downward convergence)Paralinguistics are the aspects of spokencommunication that do not involve words.These may add emphasis or shades ofmeaning to what people say. E.g. Bodylanguage/gestures.
Theory of Gender TalkWomen are more likely to talkabout embarrassing storiesMen are competitive inconversations with the same sex.Less likely to gointo detail.More elaborateWomen ask morequestionsThey show interest in what the speakersare saying encouraging them to talkInitiate more topicsof conversationPut more effort intogetting others to take partMore likely tointerruptAre confident inexpressingdisagreement.Ignore the otherpersons utterances.They can show reluctance to pursue topicsinitiated by others.
Elements Of ConversationOpening and closing aconversationTurn Taking Adjacency Pairs e.g.‘hello’ – ‘hello’‘dad?’- ‘yeah’Topics of conversationTopic Marker- Establishes Topic at the start of the conversationTopic Shifts- Changes of topicTopic Loop- Conversation returns to an earlier topic.Agenda- Setting- Initiating topics and controlling changes of topic. A person who doesthis is a ‘Agenda Setter’Feedback (BackChannelling) Verbal responsesOral SignalsNon- Verbal Responses‘Yeah?’ ‘Really?’Nods/ Smiles‘mmmm’ , ‘uhuh’‘sighs’
VIOLATING THE MAXIMSFLOUTING THE MAXIMSOOOPS!Doing it onpurpose!Not on purpose- Too muchinformation, or rambling on in airrelevant way. May suggestspeaker is lonely or needs totalk.