Period 2 Chapter 9


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Period 2 Chapter 9

  1. 1. Iconic and Echoic Memory BY RILEY O’SHAUGHNESSY
  2. 2. <ul><li>Iconic mem- </li></ul><ul><li>ory is a type </li></ul><ul><li>of short term, </li></ul><ul><li>visual memory. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characters, numbers, and other stimuli can be remembered after brief exposure, but is forgotten by the person VERY quickly TEN SECONDS LATER
  4. 4. <ul><li>Suggests the idea that a sensory perception, when not enforced, decays faster than a rotting tree </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Echoic memory is the auditory counterpart to iconic memory </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>When an auditory stimuli occurs, a brief mental echo occurs too. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Echoic memory lasts a little longer than iconic memory, but still is forgotten within ten seconds </li></ul>Speedy, isn’t it?
  8. 8. Three-Stage Processing <ul><li>Method developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin </li></ul><ul><li>Contains three steps to learning memory </li></ul>
  9. 9. ’ How many symbols do you recognize from above? At one point, most if not all of these symbols were registered through your sensory memory!
  10. 10. <ul><li>All of Dory’s thoughts end up in her short-term memory and is forgotten in her case, but not in ours. The few thoughts we want to remember then go to our long-term memory. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Long-term memory <ul><li>Elephants are supposed to have great long-term memories! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Next-in-Line Theory
  13. 13. <ul><li>The next-in-line effect is when one does not pay attention to the thing or person in front of them because they are focused on themselves. It is like buying the i-Wood. </li></ul>
  14. 14. ENCODING
  15. 15. <ul><li>Encoding is when you organize a memory’s meaning and image so that it can be stored. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>This is a memory being encoded. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Storage
  18. 18. <ul><li>Storage us keeping things in sensory, working/short-term, or long-term memory for later recall. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>A forgetful person’s brain. </li></ul><ul><li>A rememberful person’s brain. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Misinformation Effect
  21. 21. <ul><li>Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event </li></ul>
  22. 22. Which one is real? Because of the misinformation effect… You may never know!!!
  23. 23. Source Amnesia Cookies Are GOOD!!!
  24. 24. <ul><li>Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined </li></ul>Cookies are GOOD!!!
  25. 25. Source amnesia isn’t like regular amnesia where you forget everything. It’s only when you forget where you heard something.
  26. 26. Memory
  27. 27. Facts People experience emotions Abnormal things places procedures culture
  28. 28. memory I remember because I can retrieve facts, experience, etc…
  29. 29. Flashbulb memory
  30. 30. I feel so emotional!
  31. 31. I remember so vividly! It was the third of June on a hot sunny day …
  32. 32. What does it mean…?! Mnemonics and Chunking…
  33. 33. Mnemonics – memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices. Like the colors of the rainbow!
  34. 34. PEMDAS – Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally Is a common mnemonic to remember the order of operations (this flow of power from power plant to home shows PEMDAS.
  35. 35. Mnemonic devices act in many ways like this file cabinet. They act as organizational memory devices.
  36. 36. Chunking != Chunky. Chunking == organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
  37. 37. We chunk things such as phone numbers into groups of 3 or 4 to help encode them to memory better.
  38. 38. Chunking helps us to identify words and symbols of our language.
  39. 39. Teenagers are independent and don’t care what their parents think Implicit memory is independent of conscious recollection
  40. 40. He might not remember last night when he wakes up, but the effects are still there Like implicit memory !!!!
  41. 41. We all have these moments But implicit memory is the concept behind “ practice makes perfect”
  42. 42. Explicit memory: memory of facts that once can consciously know and declare
  43. 43. Explicit Memory Master
  44. 44. This moment will be in their explicit memory for the rest of their lives Explicit memory also applies to experiences