Ch11

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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©2001 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.
  • Chapter outline
  • Figure 11-2 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Montepare, J. M., & Lachman, M. E. (1989). “You’re only as old as you feel”: Self perceptions of age, fears of aging, and life satisfaction from adolescence to old age. Psychology and Aging, 4 , 73-78.
  • Section outline
  • Figure 11-3 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Figure 11-4 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Peterson, A. C. (1984). The early adolescence study: An overview. Journal of Early Adolescence, 4 , 103-106.
  • Figure 11-5 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Peterson, A. C. (1984). The early adolescence study: An overview. Journal of Early Adolescence, 4 , 103-106.
  • Figure 11-7 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Smetana, J. G. (1988). Concepts of self and social convention: Adolescents’ and parents’ reasoning about actual and hypothetical family conflicts. In M. R. Gunnar & W. A. Collins (Eds.), Development during the transition to adolescence: Minnesota symposium on child psychology (vol. 21, 79-122). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Figure 11-8 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Larson, R. W., Richards, M. H., Moneta, G., Holmbeck, G., & Duckert, E. (1996). Changes in adolescents’ daily interactions with their families from ages 10 to 18: Disengagement and transformation. Developmental Psychology, 32, 744-754.
  • Figure 11-9 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Larson, R. W., Richards, M. H., Moneta, G., Holmbeck, G., & Duckert, E. (1996). Changes in adolescents’ daily interactions with their families from ages 10 to 18: Disengagement and transformation. Developmental Psychology, 32, 744-754.
  • Source: Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. American Psychologist, 54 , 317-326. Quote is taken from page 324.
  • Figure 11-6 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Colby, A., Kohlberg, L., Biggs, J., & Lieberman, M. (1983). A longitudinal study of moral judgment. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 48 (1-2, Serial number 200).
  • Section outline
  • Figure 11-5 from Davis, S.F., & Palladino, J.J. (1997). Psychology , 2nd edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census
  • Figure 11-10 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology , second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Berry, J. M., West, R. L., Dennehey, D. M. (1989). Reliability and validity of the memory self-efficacy scale. Developmental Psychology, 25 , 701-713.
  • Figure 11-11 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Schaie, K. W., & Willis, S. L. (1993). Age differences in patterns of psychometric intelligence in adulthood: Generalizabililty within and across ability domains. Psychology and Aging, 8 , 44-55.
  • Figure 11-12 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Schaie, K. W., & Willis, S. L. (1993). Age differences in patterns of psychometric intelligence in adulthood: Generalizabililty within and across ability domains. Psychology and Aging, 8 , 44-55.
  • Figure 11-13 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source:
  • Figure 11-14 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Levinson, D. J., Darrow, C. N., Klein, E. B., Levinson, M. H., & McKee, B. (1978). The seasons of a man’s life . New York: Knopf.
  • Figure 11-15 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology , third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Inglehart, R. (1990). Culture shift in advanced industrial society . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Figure 11-16 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology , second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1990). Personality in Adulthood . New York: Guilford Press.
  • Figure 11-17 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology , second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Gatz, M., & Hurwicz, M. L. (1990). Are old people more depressed? Cross-sectional data on Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale factors. Psychology and Aging, 5 , 284-290.
  • Ch11

    1. 1. Adolescence and Adulthood
    2. 2. Adolescence and Adulthood <ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Adulthood and Old Age </li></ul>
    3. 3. Thoughts About Adolescence and Adulthood <ul><li>Adulthood, as we define it in our society, really constitutes about four-fifths of the life cycle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bernice Neugarten </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When I was a boy of 14, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the man around. But when I got to be 21, I was astonished at how much he had learnt in 7 years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark Twain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We do not count a man’s years until he has nothing else to count. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ralph Waldo Emerson </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Subjective Age <ul><li>Younger people tend to feel older than they are </li></ul><ul><li>Older people tend to feel younger than they are </li></ul><ul><li>This effect is most pronounced in the oldest and youngest </li></ul>
    5. 5. Milestones <ul><li>Some people mark off their life in years, others in events. I am one of the latter … I did not become a young man at a particular year, like 13, but when a kid strolled into the store where I worked and called me ‘mister.’” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Cohen </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Adolescence Biological Development Cognitive Development Social Development Adolescence and Mental Health
    7. 7. Adolescence <ul><li>Adolescence : The period of life from puberty to adulthood, corresponding roughly to the ages of 13 to 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty : The onset of adolescence, as evidence by rapid growth, rising levels of sex hormones, and sexual maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Menarche : A girl’s first menstrual period </li></ul><ul><li>Spermarche : A boy’s first ejaculation </li></ul>
    8. 8. Adolescent Growth Spurt <ul><li>At about age 13 for girls, 16 for boys, there is a final maturational growth spurt in height </li></ul>
    9. 9. Puberty and Body Image in Girls <ul><li>Girls who mature earlier than their peers are usually less satisfied with their size, weight, and figure. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Puberty and Body Image in Boys <ul><li>Boys who mature later than their peers have only temporary decreases in body image. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Erikson’s Eight Stages - I <ul><li>Trust vs. Mistrust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infancy (0-1 year) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toddler (1-2 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiative vs. Guilt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preschool (3-5 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industry vs. Inferiority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary School (6-12 years) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Erikson’s Eight Stages - II <ul><li>Identity vs. Role confusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence (13-19 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intimacy vs. Isolation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young adulthood (20-40 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generativity vs. Stagnation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle adulthood (40-65 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrity vs. Despair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late adulthood (65 and older) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Social Development <ul><li>Identity Crisis : An adolescent’s struggle to establish a personal identity, or self-concept </li></ul>
    14. 14. Who Am I? <ul><li>Think about this question and write down 10 different answers to the question. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Answers could be: <ul><li>social roles </li></ul><ul><li>responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>groups you belong to </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>personality characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>needs, feelings or behavior patterns </li></ul>
    16. 16. RANK THEM IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE <ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>2. </li></ul><ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>4. </li></ul><ul><li>5. </li></ul><ul><li>6. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Etc. </li></ul>
    17. 17. What Do Parents and Teenagers Fight About?
    18. 18. Adolescent Disengagement <ul><li>The proportion of time spent with the family decreases almost 3% per year </li></ul><ul><li>Not true for time spent alone with parents </li></ul>
    19. 19. Adolescent Transformation <ul><li>Boys feel worse while in family settings from grades 5-8, then improve </li></ul><ul><li>Girls feel worse while in family settings from grades 5-10 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improvement later </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Debunking the Myth: Adolescence is Not Always Stormy <ul><li>“Storm and stress in adolescence is not something written indelibly into the human life course. On the contrary, there are cultural differences in storm and stress, and within cultures there are individual differences.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>J. J. Arnett </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. A Kohlberg Dilema <ul><li>In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. the drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $400 for the radium and charged $4,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>together about $2,000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying, and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, &quot;No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from if.&quot; So, having tried every legal means, Heinz gets desperate and considers breaking into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Questions <ul><ul><ul><li>1. Should Heinz steal the drug? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1a. Why or why not? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Is it actually right or wrong for him to steal the drug? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2a. Why is it right or wrong? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Does Heinz have a duty or obligation to steal the drug? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3a. Why or why not? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><ul><ul><li>4. If Heinz doesn't love his wife, should he steal the drug for her? Does it make a difference in what Heinz should do whether or not he loves his wife? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4a. Why or why not? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Suppose the person dying is not his wife but a stranger. Should Heinz steal the drug for the stranger? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5a. Why or why not? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Suppose it's a pet animal he loves. should Heinz steal to save the pet animal? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><ul><ul><li>6a. Why or why not? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7. Is it important for people to do everything they can to save another's life? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7a. Why or why not? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8. It is against the law for Heinz to steal. Does that make it morally wrong? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8a. Why or why not? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9. In general, should people try to do everything they can to obey the law? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><ul><ul><li>9a. Why or why not? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9b. How does this apply to what Heinz should do? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10. In thinking back over the dilemma, what would you say is the most responsible thing for Heinz to do? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10a. Why? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning <ul><li>Preconventional Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment and obedience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental relativism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conventional Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good boy-nice girl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society-maintaining </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postconventional Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal ethical principles </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Moral Reasoning <ul><li>Most 7-10 year olds are reasoning at the preconventional level </li></ul><ul><li>Most 13-16 year olds are reasoning at the conventional level </li></ul><ul><li>Few subjects show the post-conventional type of reasoning </li></ul>
    29. 29. Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory <ul><li>Cultural Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cultural differences not reflected in this theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical support for this claim is weak </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connection between moral reasoning and moral behavior is often indirect </li></ul>
    30. 30. Quiz on Aging <ul><li>1. All five senses tend ot decline in old age. </li></ul><ul><li>2. People lose about 1/3 of their brain cells by late adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Drivers over 65 years of age have fewer traffic accidents per person than those under 30. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Older people are more alike than younger people. </li></ul><ul><li>5.People become less susceptible to short-term illnesses, such as the common cold, as they age. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Quiz on Aging (cont.) <ul><li>6. Recognition memory declines sharply with old age. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Reaction time becomes slower with age. </li></ul><ul><li>8. About 1/4 of those over 65 live in nursing homes. </li></ul><ul><li>9. People become more fearful of death as they grow older. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Widows outnumber widowers about </li></ul><ul><li>3 to 1. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Adulthood & Old Age Biological Development Cognitive Development Social Development Dying and Death
    33. 33. Adulthood and Old Age <ul><li>Life Span : The maximum age possible for members of a given species. </li></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy : The number of years that an average member of a species is expected to live. </li></ul><ul><li>Menopause : The end of menstruation and fertility. </li></ul>
    34. 34. The Aging of America
    35. 35. Defining Middle Age <ul><li>“When 1,200 Americans were asked when middle age begins, 41% said it’s when you worry about health care, 42% said it was when the last child moves out, and 46% said it was when you no longer recognize the names of music groups on the radio.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsweek magazine, 1992 </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. How Good is Your Memory? <ul><li>Older people are consistently less confident of their memory than younger people. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Alzheimer’s Disease <ul><li>Alzheimer’s Disease : A progressive brain disorder that mostly strikes older people, causing memory loss and other symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts for 40%-50% of nursing home admissions </li></ul><ul><li>Cost is at least $80 billion per year </li></ul>
    38. 38. Intelligence and Age <ul><li>Measures of fluid intelligence decline steadily through middle and late adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial ability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measures of crystallized intelligence remain stable into the 70’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numeric ability </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Timed vs. Untimed Vocabulary Tests <ul><li>Some abilities are less affected by age than others. </li></ul>
    40. 40. “ Typical” Career Trajectory <ul><li>Productivity tends to peak about 20 years into a career </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak is more determined by career point than age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This typically corresponds with ages in the late 30’s or early 40’s </li></ul>
    41. 41. Levinson's ”Seasons&quot; of the Life Cycle <ul><li>Periods of change interspersed with periods of relative calm. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Life Satisfaction and Age <ul><li>In multiple cultures, 75-80% say they are satisfied with life. </li></ul><ul><li>This does not vary appreciably with age. </li></ul>
    43. 43. The Myth of a ”Midlife Crisis&quot; <ul><li>10,000 adults filled out a questionnaire that measured emotional instability </li></ul><ul><li>Neither males nor females showed increased instability during the 40’s or early 50’s </li></ul>
    44. 44. Are Old People More Depressed? <ul><li>Depression decreases from early adulthood into middle and later years </li></ul><ul><li>Depression is increased in the very old </li></ul>
    45. 45. Dying and Death <ul><li>Elisabeth Kübler-Ross proposed five stages in approaching death: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bargaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empirical evidence shows some support, but not all people experience all stages </li></ul>

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