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Madina book1-notes

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Madina book1-notes

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Madina book1-notes

  1. 1. ِ‫م‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ح‬َّ‫الر‬ ِ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ح‬َّ‫الر‬ ِ‫هلل‬‫ا‬ ِ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ب‬ ARIC – Arabic Class Notes Part 1 (ver. 1.1) 1 Topics Parts of Speech – English vs. Arabic Arabic Alphabets Arabic Vowel Signs Indefinite & Definite Noun Endings The Nominal Sentence Visiit ResourcesMoreforhttp://AbdurRahman.Org/
  2. 2. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 1 (ver. 1.1) Revision History 2 Date Ver Author Revision Comments Mar. 1, 2010 1 Zahid Naeem Initial version Mar. 10, 2010 1.1 Zahid Naeem Multiple Corrections (e.g., ٌ‫ة‬ّ‫م‬‫د‬ to ٌ‫ة‬ّ‫م‬‫ض‬, genetive to genitive) There are no copyrights reserved for this material. You may make copies and distribute them Fi Sabilillah – ٌِ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٌال‬ِ‫يل‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫يٌس‬ِ‫ف‬ Report any errors, omissions or suggestions to arabic.aric@gmail.com
  3. 3. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 1 (ver. 1.1) Parts of Speech – English vs. Arabic  English has eight parts of speech 1. Noun (A word which refers to a person, a place, or a thing, e.g. teacher, town, bus) 2. Pronoun (A word like he, they, and we used to replace a noun) 3. Adjective (A word that describes a noun, e.g. a tall man) 4. Adverb (A word that gives additional information about how, when or where an action takes place, e.g. He walked slowly, They will arrive tomorrow) 5. Interjection (A word that is independent of other words and is used as is, e.g. hello and hi) 6. Verb (The action or doing word, e.g. sleep, eat, drink) 7. Conjunction (A word joining two clauses in a sentence, e.g. and, because, but) 8. Preposition(A word used to relate a noun or pronoun to some other part, e.g. of, at)  Arabic has only three parts of speech 1. Noun ٌ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬ 2. Verbٌ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬ِ‫ف‬ 3. Particleٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬ 3
  4. 4. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 1 (ver. 1.1) Parts of Speech – English vs. Arabic 4 English Arabic Noun Noun ٌ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬ Pronoun Adjective Adverb Interjection Verb Verb ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬ِ‫ف‬ Conjunction Particle ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬ Preposition
  5. 5. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 1 (ver. 1.1) Arabic Alphabets  Arabic has 29 letters of alphabet  Consonants (have speech sound) : 28  Alif: serves two purposes  Elongates a consonant, e.g. ٌ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬  Act as a bearer of ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬ (hamza), e.g. ٌ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ 5 ‫ر‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫د‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ‫ف‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ش‬ ‫س‬ ‫ز‬ 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 ‫ء‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ق‬ 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21
  6. 6. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 1 (ver. 1.1) Arabic Vowel Signs  There are 3 short vowel signs in Arabic  Fathah (ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ت‬َ‫ف‬) – denoting “a”, e.g. da (ٌَ‫د‬)  Kasrah (ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫َس‬‫ك‬) – denoting “i”, e.g. di (ٌِ‫د‬)  Dummah (ٌ‫ة‬َّ‫م‬ َ‫ض‬) – denoting “u”, e.g. du (ٌ‫د‬)  Absence of a vowel sign is denoted by Sukun (ٌ‫ن‬ْ‫و‬‫ك‬‫س‬), e.g. notice ٌْ‫د‬ in ٌ‫ة‬َ‫س‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫د‬َ‫م‬  Long vowels are formed by adding the associated letters to the short vowels  ٌ‫ا‬ to elongate fathah, e.g. daa (‫ا‬َ‫د‬)  ‫ي‬ to elongate kasrah, e.g. dii (‫ي‬ِ‫د‬)  ‫و‬ to elongate dummah, e.g. duu (‫و‬‫د‬) 6
  7. 7. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 1 (ver. 1.1) Indefinite & Definite  Like English, Arabic nouns can be indefinite (ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ِ‫َك‬‫ن‬) or definite (ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫م‬)  An indefinite noun is indicated by ٌ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫و‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ت‬, which doubles the vowel sign at the end of the word, e.g.  A book – ٌ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬  A chair - ٌ‫ي‬ِ‫س‬ْ‫ر‬‫ك‬  A Definite noun is indicated by ٌْ‫ل‬َ‫ا‬ prefixed to the noun. This also results in eliminating the ٌ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫و‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ت‬ at the end of the word, e.g.  The book - ٌ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ا‬  The chair - ٌ‫ي‬ ِ‫س‬ْ‫ر‬‫ك‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ا‬  ٌْ‫ل‬َ‫ا‬ and ٌ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫و‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ت‬ cannot coexist. So ٌ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ا‬ will be incorrect  Please note many proper nouns, e.g. ٌ‫د‬َّ‫م‬َ‫ح‬‫م‬,ٌ‫د‬ِ‫ال‬َ‫خ‬ end with ٌ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫و‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ت‬, but they are still definite 7
  8. 8. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 1 (ver. 1.1) Noun Endings  In Arabic, nouns have different endings to show their function in a sentence  These are called noun cases (ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ك‬ْ‫ش‬َّ‫ت‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ا‬) 8 English Name Arabic Name Ending Vowel Sign Function in a sentence Examples Nominative ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫و‬‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫م‬ Dummah Subject ٌ‫الكتاب‬,ٌٌ‫كتاب‬,ٌ‫محمد‬, ٌ‫باب‬ Accusative ٌ‫ب‬ْ‫و‬‫ص‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ Fathah Object of a verb ٌَ‫الكتاب‬,ٌ‫كتابا‬,ٌ‫محمد‬,ٌٌ‫بابا‬ Genitive ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ Kasrah Possessor of a thing, or comes after a preposition or an adverb ٌِ‫الكتاب‬,ٌ‫كتاب‬,ٌ‫محمد‬,ٌ ٌ‫باب‬
  9. 9. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 1 (ver. 1.1) The Nominal Sentence (ٌ‫ة‬َّ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ٌالإ‬‫ة‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ا‬)  A sentence that starts with a noun  Has a subject (ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬‫م‬) and a predicate (ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬)  The subject is always nominative (ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫و‬‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫م‬)  The predicate is always nominative (ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫و‬‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫م‬), if it is one word  The subject is mostly definite (ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫م‬)  The predicate is mostly indefinite (ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ِ‫َك‬‫ن‬) 9 ٌٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬‫م‬ ٌٌ‫ع‬ْ‫و‬‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫م‬ ٌٌ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫م‬ ٌٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌٌ‫ع‬ْ‫و‬‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫م‬ ٌٌ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ِ‫َك‬‫ن‬ ٌ‫د‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ٌٌج‬‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ا‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬‫س‬ْ‫ك‬َ‫م‬ٌٌٌ‫م‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ا‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ب‬ٌٌٌٌ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬
  10. 10. ِ‫م‬ِ‫ي‬ِ‫ح‬َّ‫الر‬ ِ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ح‬َّ‫الر‬ ِ‫هلل‬‫ا‬ ِ‫م‬ِ‫س‬ِ‫ب‬ ARIC – Arabic Class Notes Part 2 (ver. 1) 1 Topics This (‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬) vs. That (ََ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬) Solar vs. Lunar Letters The Joining Hamza (َِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ص‬ َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬) َِ‫ع‬ ْ‫َط‬‫ق‬ْ‫َُال‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬ Examples from Quran ( ُ‫ة‬َّ‫ِي‬‫ر‬َ‫م‬َ‫ق‬‫َال‬‫و‬ ُ‫ة‬َّ‫ِي‬‫س‬ِ‫م‬ََّ‫ش‬‫ال‬ ُ‫ف‬ِ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ُ‫حل‬‫ا‬,ِ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُ‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ِ‫م‬َ‫ه‬,ِ‫ع‬ْ‫ط‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُ‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ِ‫م‬َ‫ه‬ ) What (‫ا‬َ‫م‬) vs. Who (َْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬) Particle of Interrogation and Answer Visiit ResourcesMoreforhttp://AbdurRahman.Org/
  11. 11. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 2 (ver. 1) This (‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬) vs. That (ََ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬) 2 This is a book (َ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬َ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬) That is a door (َ‫اب‬َ‫ب‬َََ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬)  Demonstrative pronoun (َِ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬‫ا‬ َ‫ش‬ِ‫ا‬ْ‫ل‬‫َا‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬)  ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ : َِ‫ب‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ر‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬ِ‫َل‬ِ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬‫ا‬ َ‫ش‬ِ‫ا‬ْ‫ل‬‫َا‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬  ََ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬ : َِ‫د‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ع‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ل‬ِ‫َل‬ِ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬‫ا‬ َ‫ش‬ِ‫ا‬ْ‫ل‬‫َا‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬  Like all pronouns, these are definite  These are masculine , i.e. these are used when pointing to masculine nouns  They have feminine counterparts – will learn later  ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ and ََ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬ are pronounced as ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬‫ا‬َ‫ه‬ and ََ‫ك‬ِ‫ال‬َ‫ذ‬ respectively, but are written without the alif
  12. 12. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 2 (ver. 1) Solar vs. Lunar Letters (1 of 2) 3  Of 28 consonant letters, 14 letters are called solar letters ( َُ‫ف‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ُ‫الح‬ََُ‫ة‬َّ‫ي‬ ِ‫س‬ْ‫م‬َّ‫الش‬ ) and 14 are called lunar letters ( َُ‫ر‬ُ‫الح‬َُ‫ة‬َّ‫ي‬ِ‫ر‬َ‫م‬َ‫ق‬‫َال‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫و‬ )  This distinction is only for pronunciation of words starting with these letters when prefixed with ‫ال‬ (the definite article)  Articulation of solar letters involves the tip of the tongue, e.g., ‫ت‬,‫س‬,‫ش‬,‫ن‬,‫ر‬  Tip of the tongue plays no role for lunar letters, e.g., ‫ب‬,‫ق‬,‫م‬,‫ك‬,‫و‬  When ‫ال‬ is prefixed to a noun beginning with a solar letter, the ‫ل‬ of the ‫ال‬ is assimilated to the solar letter, e.g., al-shamsu is pronounced as ash-shamsu  The assimilation is indicated by the shaddah on the first letter of the noun  In writing, the ‫ل‬ is not assimilated, e.g., َُ‫س‬ْ‫م‬َّ‫الش‬  No such assimilation takes place for lunar letters, e.g., al-qamaru is pronounced as al-qamaru (َُ‫ر‬َ‫م‬َ‫ق‬‫ال‬)
  13. 13. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 2 (ver. 1) Solar vs. Lunar Letters (2 of 2) 4 َُ‫س‬ْ‫م‬َّ‫الش‬ ‫ش‬ َُ‫ر‬ِ‫اج‬َّ‫ت‬‫ال‬ ‫ت‬ َُ‫ر‬ْ‫د‬ َّ‫الص‬ ‫ص‬ َُ‫ب‬ْ‫و‬َّ‫ث‬‫ال‬ ‫ث‬ َُ‫ف‬ْ‫ي‬ َّ‫الض‬ ‫ض‬ َُ‫ك‬ْ‫ي‬ِّ‫د‬‫ال‬ ‫د‬ َُ‫ب‬ِ‫ل‬‫ا‬َّ‫ط‬‫ال‬ ‫ط‬ َُ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َّ‫ذ‬‫ال‬ ‫ذ‬ َُ‫ر‬ْ‫ه‬َّ‫ظ‬‫ال‬ ‫ظ‬ َُ‫ل‬ُ‫ج‬َّ‫ر‬‫ال‬ ‫ر‬ َُ‫م‬ْ‫ح‬َّ‫ل‬‫ال‬ ‫ل‬ َُ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ه‬َّ‫ز‬‫ال‬ ‫ز‬ َُ‫م‬ْ‫ج‬َّ‫ن‬‫ال‬ ‫ن‬ َُ‫ك‬َ‫م‬َّ‫الس‬ ‫س‬ َُ‫م‬َ‫ف‬‫ال‬ ‫ف‬ َُ‫ب‬ّّ‫ا‬‫ال‬ َ‫ا‬ َُ‫ر‬َ‫م‬َ‫ق‬‫ال‬ ‫ق‬ َُ‫اب‬َ‫الب‬ ‫ب‬ َُ‫ب‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬‫ال‬ ‫ك‬ َُ‫ة‬َّ‫ن‬َ‫الج‬ ‫ج‬ َُ‫اء‬َ‫م‬‫ال‬ ‫م‬ َُ‫ر‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ِ‫الح‬ ‫ح‬ َُ‫د‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬‫ال‬ ‫و‬ َُ‫ز‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫الخ‬ ‫خ‬ َُ‫اء‬َ‫و‬َ‫اله‬ ‫ه‬ َُ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ع‬‫ال‬ ‫ع‬ َُ‫د‬َ‫الي‬ ‫ي‬ َُ‫َاء‬‫د‬َ‫غ‬‫ال‬ ‫غ‬
  14. 14. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 2 (ver. 1) The Joining Hamza (َِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬) 5  The ‫ا‬ in ‫ال‬ (the definite article) is called َِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬  If it is preceded by another word, it is not pronounced  E.g., َُ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ا‬ (the house) is pronounced al-baitu and َُ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫و‬ (and the house) is pronounced as wa l-baitu and not wa al-baitu  َِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬ also appears words without the ‫ال‬, e.g.,  َ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬ (name) – َِ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫َال‬ِ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ب‬  َ‫ن‬ْ‫ب‬ِ‫ا‬ (son) – ََ‫م‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ر‬َ‫م‬َُ‫ن‬ْ‫ب‬‫ىَا‬َ‫س‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ع‬  To signify ‫ا‬ as َِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬, look for one of the following three conditions:  A symbol on alif, as  Without any or ‫ء‬ symbol on alif  Completely omitted in writing, e.g., َِ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫َال‬ِ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ب‬  Both ‫ا‬ and ‫ل‬ in ‫ال‬ are not pronounced when a word starts with a solar letter and is preceded with another word  E.g., ََ‫و‬َُ‫م‬ْ‫ج‬َّ‫ن‬‫ال‬ is pronounced as wan-najmu and not wa al-najmu or wa an-najmu َ‫ل‬ ْ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ (Joining, uniting, attaching)
  15. 15. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 2 (ver. 1) َِ‫ع‬ْ‫ط‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬ 6  As opposed to َِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬ , َِ‫ع‬ْ‫ط‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬ is always pronounced, regardless of its position in the sentence  َِ‫ع‬ْ‫ط‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬ is usually written with a ‫ء‬ symbol on (or below) the Alif, as follows:  ‫أ‬  ‫إ‬  Examples:  َ‫د‬َ‫ح‬ّّ‫ا‬ (one) – َ‫د‬َ‫ح‬ّّ‫ا‬َُ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫َال‬َ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬َْ‫ل‬ُ‫ق‬  َْ‫ذ‬ِ‫ا‬ (when) – َ َ‫ك‬ُّ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ََ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ق‬َْ‫ذ‬ِ‫ا‬َ‫و‬... َ‫ع‬ْ‫ط‬َ‫ق‬ (Cutting, Discontinuing, Separating)
  16. 16. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 2 (ver. 1) Examples from Quran ( َُ‫ة‬َّ‫ي‬ِ‫ر‬َ‫م‬َ‫ق‬‫ال‬َ‫َو‬ُ‫ة‬َّ‫ي‬ِ‫س‬ْ‫م‬َّ‫َالش‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ُ‫الح‬,َِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬,َِ‫ع‬ْ‫ط‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬ ) 7 ََ‫ٱ‬َ ِّ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬َِ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬ِ‫َُل‬‫د‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٱ‬َ‫۝‬َ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ع‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٱ‬َِ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ح‬َّ‫ر‬‫ل‬‫ٱ‬َِ‫م‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ي‬َ ِ‫ك‬ِ‫ال‬َ‫م‬َ‫۝‬ِ‫م‬ْ‫ي‬ ِ‫ح‬َّ‫ر‬‫ل‬‫ٱ‬َ‫۝‬ِ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬ِّ‫د‬‫ل‬ َ‫۝‬ُ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ع‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫َس‬‫ن‬ََ‫ك‬‫ا‬َّ‫ي‬ِ‫ا‬َ‫َُو‬‫د‬ُ‫ب‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ََ‫ك‬‫ا‬َّ‫ي‬ِ‫ا‬َِ‫ٱ‬َ‫َا‬‫ن‬ِ‫د‬ْ‫ه‬‫ٱ‬ََ‫اط‬َ‫ر‬ ِّ‫لص‬‫ٱ‬ََ‫اط‬َ‫ر‬ِ‫۝َص‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ق‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫س‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬ ‫ٱ‬َِ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫غ‬َْ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬َ َ‫ت‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ع‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ََ‫ين‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٱ‬َ‫ا‬َ‫ل‬َ‫َو‬ْ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬َ ِ‫ب‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ض‬ْ‫غ‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٱ‬َ‫۝‬َ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬ِّ‫ل‬‫ا‬ َّ‫لض‬ Find solar letters (َُ‫ة‬َّ‫ي‬ ِ‫س‬ْ‫م‬َّ‫َالش‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ُ‫الح‬), lunar letters (َُ‫ة‬َّ‫ي‬ِ‫ر‬َ‫م‬َ‫ق‬‫َال‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ُ‫الح‬) and instances of َِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬ and َِ‫ع‬ْ‫ط‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬ in Surah Al-Fatiha Solar letter َِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬Lunar letter َِ‫ع‬ْ‫ط‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫َُا‬‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ه‬
  17. 17. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 2 (ver. 1) What (‫ا‬َ‫م‬) vs. Who (َْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬) 8 ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ َْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ Meaning “What” “Who” Usage Used for irrational things (َ‫ل‬ِ‫اق‬َ‫ع‬َُ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫غ‬), e.g. non-living things, animals, plants etc. Used for rational beings (َ‫ل‬ِ‫اق‬َ‫ع‬). Three categories include humans, jinns, and angels. Example What is this? (‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ا‬َ‫م‬) Who is he? (‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬َْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬)
  18. 18. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 2 (ver. 1) Particle of Interrogation and Answer 9  This is a house (َ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬)  Is this a house? (‫؟‬‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ّّ‫ا‬)  Prefixing َّّ‫ا‬ to a statement turns it into a question  Used in this context َّّ‫ا‬ is called َِ‫م‬‫ا‬َ‫ه‬ْ‫ف‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫َالا‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬ (particle of interrogation)  ‫لا‬ means “no”  َْ‫م‬َ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ means “yes”  ‫لا‬ and َْ‫م‬َ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ are called َِ‫اب‬َ‫و‬َ‫َالج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ُ‫ح‬ (particles of answer)
  19. 19. ِ‫م‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ح‬َّ‫الر‬ ِ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ح‬َّ‫الر‬ ِ‫هلل‬‫ا‬ ِ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ب‬ ARIC – Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3) 1 Topics Preposition (‫ر‬َ‫ج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬) & Genitive Case (‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬) Detached Pronoun (‫ل‬ِ‫َص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬ َ‫ض‬) Possessed & Possessor (ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬)
  20. 20. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) Revision History 2 Date Ver Author Revision Comments Mar. 7, 2010 1 Zahid Naeem Initial version Mar. 14, 2010 2 Zahid Naeem Added section for ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ and more description for ‫ل‬ِ‫َص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬ َ‫ض‬ Mar. 20, 2010 3 Zahid Naeem Added more content for َ‫و‬ ٌّ‫ر‬‫ا‬َ‫ج‬‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ and ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ There are no copyrights reserved for this material. You may make copies and distribute them Fi Sabilillah – ِ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫إل‬ ِ‫يل‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫س‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ Report any errors, omissions or suggestions to arabic.aric@gmail.com
  21. 21. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) Preposition (‫ر‬َ‫ج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬) & Genitive Case (‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬) 3  Literal meaning of ‫ر‬َ‫ج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬ is “a particle of pulling”  Examples of preposition (‫ر‬َ‫ج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬):  In – ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬  On – ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬  From – ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬  To – ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬  When a noun is preceded by a preposition, it is said to be in genitive case (‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬)  The house - ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫لب‬َ‫إ‬, In the house – ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫إلب‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬  A house - ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ب‬, In a house – ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ب‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬  ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫إلب‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ is a ِ‫ة‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫إلج‬ ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ب‬ ِ‫ش‬ (phrase) – It looks like a sentence but is not one ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫إلب‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ ‫ر‬َ‫ج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫إ‬ Same as ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ٌّ‫ر‬‫ا‬َ‫ج‬ ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫لب‬َ‫إ‬ ُ‫ت‬ got pulled to ِ‫ت‬ because of the preceding ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬
  22. 22. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) 4 More Prepositions and Examples from Quran (59:21) Had We sent down this Quran on a mountain … َ‫ن‬‫إ‬ْ‫ر‬ُ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬ ‫إ‬َ‫ذ‬ٰ‫ـ‬َ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ز‬‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ْ‫و‬َ‫ل‬‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬‫ل‬َ‫ب‬َ‫ج‬... On ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ (96:2) He created man from a clot َ‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫نس‬ِ‫إ‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬ َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ From ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ (26:50) we shall but return to our Lord ‫َّا‬‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬‫ى‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ن‬‫و‬ُ‫ب‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ق‬‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ِّ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ To ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ (97:1) We have indeed revealed this (Message) in the Night of Power ُ‫ه‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ز‬‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫َّا‬‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫د‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬ ِ‫ة‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ In ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ (2:119) And thou will not be asked about the owners of hell- fire ُ‫ل‬ّّ‫ا‬ْ‫س‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫إ‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬‫ي‬ ِ‫ح‬َ‫ج‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬ ِ‫اب‬َ‫ح‬ ْ‫ص‬ّّ‫إ‬ About, concerning ْ‫ن‬َ‫ع‬ (2:284) To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. ِ‫ل‬‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ ِ‫ه‬‫ـ‬َّ‫ل‬ٰ‫م‬َّ‫إلس‬ِ‫إت‬َ‫و‬‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬ ِ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬ّّ‫إ‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬ Belongs to, for ِ‫ل‬‫ي‬ (2:153) O ye who believe! seek help with patient perseverance and prayer; for Allah is with those who patiently persevere. ‫وإ‬ُ‫ن‬‫ي‬ِ‫ع‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫إس‬ ‫وإ‬ُ‫ن‬َ‫م‬‫إ‬ َ‫ين‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫إ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ه‬ُّ‫ي‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ب‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ب‬ َّ‫الص‬ َ‫ِين‬‫ر‬ِ‫ب‬‫ا‬ َّ‫إلص‬ َ‫ع‬َ‫م‬ َ‫ه‬‫ـ‬َّ‫ل‬‫إل‬ َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ ۚ ِ‫ة‬‫َا‬‫ل‬ َّ‫إلص‬َ‫و‬ By, at, in ِ‫ب‬‫ي‬
  23. 23. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) Nominal Sentence with ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ٌّ‫ر‬‫ا‬َ‫ج‬ 5 Muhammad is in the mosque the mosque in Muhammad ِ‫د‬ ِ‫ج‬ْ‫س‬َ‫م‬‫إل‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ ‫د‬َّ‫م‬َ‫ح‬ُ‫م‬ ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫إ‬‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ ‫ر‬َ‫ج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬ ‫َإ‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ٌّ‫ر‬‫ا‬َ‫ج‬‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ،ِ‫ة‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫إلج‬ ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ب‬ ِ‫ش‬ ،‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ It is on a table a table on It ‫ب‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ك‬َ‫م‬ ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ َ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫إ‬‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ ‫ر‬َ‫ج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬ ‫َإ‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ٌّ‫ر‬‫ا‬َ‫ج‬‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ،ِ‫ة‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫إلج‬ ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ب‬ ِ‫ش‬ ،‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬
  24. 24. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) Detached Pronoun (‫ل‬ِ‫َص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬ َ‫ض‬) 6 3rd Person Masculine Singular He, It َ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫د‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫م‬ ‫ر‬َّ‫ك‬َ‫ذ‬ُ‫م‬ ‫ب‬ِ‫ي‬‫ا‬َ‫غ‬ “Dual” They (2) ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬َّ‫ن‬َ‫ث‬ُ‫م‬ Plural They ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ج‬ Feminine Singular She, It َ‫ي‬ِ‫ه‬ ‫د‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫م‬ ‫َّث‬‫ن‬َ‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬“Dual” They (2) ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬َّ‫ن‬َ‫ث‬ُ‫م‬ Plural They َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ج‬ 2nd person Masculine Singular You َ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫د‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫م‬ ‫ر‬َّ‫ك‬َ‫ذ‬ُ‫م‬ ‫ب‬َ‫ط‬‫ا‬َ‫خ‬ُ‫م‬ “Dual” You (2) ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫ى‬َّ‫ن‬َ‫ث‬ُ‫م‬ Plural You (>2) ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ج‬ Feminine Singular You ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫د‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫م‬ ‫َّث‬‫ن‬َ‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬“Dual” You (2) ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫ى‬َّ‫ن‬َ‫ث‬ُ‫م‬ Plural You (>2) َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ج‬ 1st person Masc. & Fem. Singular I ‫َا‬‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫د‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫م‬ ‫َّث‬‫ن‬َ‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬َ‫و‬ ‫ر‬َّ‫ك‬َ‫ذ‬ُ‫م‬ ‫م‬ِّ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬َ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ Plural We ُ‫ن‬ْ‫َح‬‫ن‬ ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ج‬
  25. 25. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) Detached Pronoun (‫ل‬ِ‫َص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬ َ‫ض‬) 7 َ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ َ‫ي‬ِ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ َ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ‫َا‬‫ن‬ّّ‫إ‬ ُ‫ن‬ْ‫َح‬‫ن‬  Are never attached with any other word  Are always ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫م‬ (definite)  Are considered ‫ع‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫م‬ (nominative case), even though most of them do not have a ‫ة‬َّ‫م‬ َ‫ض‬ (dummah) ending  Are fixed in their case, i.e. their ending does not change  In Arabic such nouns are called ٌّ‫ي‬ِ‫ن‬ْ‫ب‬َ‫م‬ (fixed)
  26. 26. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) 8 ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ – Possessed & Possessor ‫َال‬‫ل‬ِ‫ب‬ ُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ (of) Bilal book Bilal’s book ِ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫د‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ك‬َ‫م‬ (of) the teacher table The teacher’s table  Used to convey a “possession” relationship between two nouns  Also referred to as ُ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬‫ا‬ َ‫ض‬ِ‫لإ‬َ‫إ‬ (Al-Idaafatu)  English uses “of” or “’s” for such relationship, e.g. Book of Bilal or Bilal’s book  Made up of two parts:  Possessed (or possession) – ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬  Possessor – ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ Possessed - ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬  Can take any case ending, as the need be  Never takes ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫و‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ت‬ (tanwin) or ‫إل‬ (the definite article)  Is ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫م‬ (definite) by position Possessor - ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬  Is always ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ (genitive case)  Can take ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫و‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ت‬ (tanwin) or ‫إل‬ (the definite article)  Can be ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ِ‫َك‬‫ن‬ (indefinite) or ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫م‬ (definite)
  27. 27. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) Definite vs. indefinite ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ Different case endings for ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ Noun after َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ is always ‫ب‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ 9 Examples of Valid ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ِ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫د‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬ ِ‫ب‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ك‬َ‫م‬ ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ (of) the teacher table on On the teacher’s table ِ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫د‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬ َ‫ب‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ك‬َ‫م‬ َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ (of) the teacher table Verily Verily the teacher’s table ِ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫د‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ك‬َ‫م‬ (of) the teacher table The teacher’s table ‫ب‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ ‫ع‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫م‬ ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ ِ‫ب‬ِ‫ل‬‫ا‬َّ‫ط‬‫إل‬ ُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ (of) the student book The student’s book ‫ب‬ِ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ط‬ ُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ (of) a student book A student’s book ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫م‬ ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ِ‫ك‬َ‫ن‬
  28. 28. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) 10 Incorrect vs. Correct ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ‫َال‬‫ل‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ cannot have ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫و‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ت‬ ‫َال‬‫ل‬ِ‫ب‬ ُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫إلك‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ cannot have ‫إل‬ ‫َال‬‫ل‬ِ‫ب‬ ُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ cannot be ‫ع‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫م‬ ‫َال‬‫ل‬ِ‫ب‬ ُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ‫َال‬‫ل‬ِ‫ب‬ ُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ cannot be ‫ب‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬
  29. 29. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) 11 More on ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ Whose book? (of) who book ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ ُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ Even though ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ is ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ , it does not have ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫َس‬‫ك‬ (kasrah) ending, because it is ٌّ‫ي‬ِ‫ن‬ْ‫ب‬َ‫م‬ (indeclinable). Other similar examples:  ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ ُ‫م‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ق‬ (Whose pen?)  ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ ُ‫ن‬ْ‫ب‬ِ‫ٱ‬ (Whose son?) Mosque of Allah’s Prophet (of) Allah (of the) prophet mosque ‫إلل‬ِ‫ه‬ ِ‫ول‬ُ‫س‬َ‫ر‬ ُ‫د‬ ِ‫ج‬ْ‫س‬َ‫م‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ Notice two sets of ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬. ِ‫ول‬ُ‫س‬َ‫ر‬ is ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ in ُ‫د‬ ِ‫ج‬ْ‫س‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ول‬ُ‫س‬َ‫ر‬ and it is ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ in ِ‫ه‬‫إلل‬ ِ‫ول‬ُ‫س‬َ‫ر‬.
  30. 30. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) 12 Examples from Quran - ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ (110:1) When comes the help of Allah … َ‫اء‬َ‫ج‬ ‫إ‬َ‫ذ‬ِ‫إ‬‫إلل‬ ُ‫ر‬ ْ‫َص‬‫ن‬ِ‫ه‬ (114: 1) Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind ِ‫ب‬ ُ‫ذ‬‫و‬ُ‫ع‬ّّ‫إ‬ ْ‫ل‬ُ‫ق‬ِ‫س‬‫ا‬َّ‫ن‬‫إل‬ ِّ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ (24:35) Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth ‫لل‬َ‫إ‬ُ‫ه‬ٰ‫م‬َّ‫إلس‬ ُ‫ر‬‫ُو‬‫ن‬ِ‫إت‬َ‫و‬ِ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬ّّ‫إ‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬َ‫و‬ (7:73) This is the she camel of Allah ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬‫إلل‬ ُ‫ة‬َ‫ق‬‫َا‬‫ن‬ِ‫ه‬ (48:29) Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah ‫د‬َّ‫م‬َ‫ح‬ُ‫م‬‫إلل‬ ُ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫س‬َ‫ر‬ِ‫ه‬ (6:127) For them is the home of safety ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫م‬َ‫ا‬‫ل‬َّ‫إلس‬ ُ‫ر‬‫إ‬َ‫د‬ (40:55 & 77) Therefore have patience (O Muhammad). Lo (surely, certainly)! The promise of Allah is true َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ ْ‫ر‬ِ‫ب‬ ْ‫اص‬َ‫ف‬ِ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫إل‬ َ‫د‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫و‬ٌّ‫ق‬َ‫ح‬
  31. 31. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 3 (ver. 3) Nominal Sentences with ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ 13 Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (of) Allah Messenger Muhammad ِ‫ه‬‫إلل‬ ُ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫س‬َ‫ر‬ ‫د‬َّ‫م‬َ‫ح‬ُ‫م‬ ،ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ،ِ‫ة‬َ‫ل‬‫َا‬‫ل‬َ‫ج‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬ ُ‫ظ‬ْ‫ف‬َ‫ل‬‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫و‬ ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ‫َإ‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ The student’s pen is broken broken (of) the student pen ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫س‬ْ‫ك‬َ‫م‬ ِ‫ب‬ِ‫ل‬‫ا‬َّ‫ط‬‫إل‬ ُ‫م‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ق‬ ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ‫َإ‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬َ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫و‬‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬
  32. 32. ِ‫م‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ح‬َّ‫الر‬ ِ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ح‬َّ‫الر‬ ِ‫هلل‬‫ا‬ ِ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ب‬ ARIC – Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5) 1 TopicsTopics Gender Introduction Substitute (ٌ‫َل‬‫د‬َ‫ب‬) Adverb (ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ظ‬) Adjective (ٌ‫َعت‬‫ن‬) The Relative Pronoun (ٌُ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫الا‬) The Past Tense Verb (‫ي‬ِ‫اض‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬ِ‫ف‬‫ال‬)
  33. 33. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) Revision History 2 Date Ver Author Revision Comments Mar. 27, 2010 1 Zahid Naeem Initial version Apr. 4, 2010 2 Zahid Naeem Added Substitute and Adverb slides Apr. 10, 2010 3 Zahid Naeem Added Adjective slides Apr. 24, 2010 4 Zahid Naeem Added more slides for Adjective and the Past Tense Verb May 1, 2010 5 Zahid Naeem Added slides for The Relative Pronoun ٌِ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٌال‬ِ‫يل‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫يٌس‬ِ‫ف‬There are no copyrights reserved for this material. You may make copies and distribute them Fi Sabilillah – ٌِ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٌال‬ِ‫يل‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫يٌس‬ِ‫ف‬ Report any errors, omissions or suggestions to arabic.aric@gmail.com
  34. 34. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) Gender Introduction 3  All nouns in Arabic are either masculine or feminine ٌ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫د‬ُ‫م‬ٌ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫د‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫د‬ُ‫م‬ٌ‫ة‬َ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫د‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ب‬ِ‫ال‬َ‫ط‬ٌ‫ب‬ِ‫ال‬َ‫ط‬ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ب‬ِ‫ال‬َ‫ط‬ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ب‬ِ‫ال‬َ‫ط‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ِ‫ب‬ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ِ‫ب‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫خ‬ّْ‫ا‬ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫خ‬ّْ‫ا‬ ٌ‫ن‬ْ‫ب‬ِ‫ا‬ٌ‫ن‬ْ‫ب‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌ‫خ‬ّّ‫ا‬ٌ‫خ‬ّّ‫ا‬ ٌُ‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ح‬ٌُ‫ة‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ح‬ Usually a masculine noun can be changed to feminine, by: 1. Adding a ‫ة‬(closed ta – ٌُ‫ة‬َ‫ط‬‫و‬ُ‫ب‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫اء‬َّ‫ت‬‫ال‬) at the end and, 2. Putting a ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ت‬َ‫ف‬ (fathah) on the letter before ‫ة‬ Not all feminine nouns have a ‫ة‬or ‫ت‬ ending Not all nouns ending with ‫ة‬ or ‫ت‬ are feminine ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ب‬ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ب‬ Two feminine nouns with a ‫ت‬(open ta – ٌُ‫ة‬َ‫وح‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ف‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫اء‬َّ‫ت‬‫ال‬) ending ٌ‫م‬ّْ‫ا‬ٌ‫م‬ّْ‫ا‬ ٌ‫س‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ش‬ٌ‫س‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ش‬
  35. 35. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) ٌِ‫ه‬ِ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ ٌَ‫ك‬ْ‫ل‬ِ‫ت‬Feminine: This (ٌِ‫ه‬ِ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬) vs. That (ٌَ‫ك‬ْ‫ل‬ِ‫ت‬) 4  ٌِ‫ه‬ِ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ is pronounced as ٌِ‫ه‬ِ‫ذ‬‫ا‬َ‫ه‬ but is written without the alif ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫ك‬َ‫ز‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫َّث‬‫ن‬َ‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ ٌِ‫ه‬ِ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ ٌِ‫ب‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ر‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬ِ‫ٌل‬ِ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬‫ا‬َ‫ش‬ِ‫ا‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٌا‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌَ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬ ٌَ‫ك‬ْ‫ل‬ِ‫ت‬ ٌِ‫د‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ع‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ل‬ِ‫ٌل‬ِ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬‫ا‬َ‫ش‬ِ‫ا‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٌا‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬ This is a watch (ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ع‬‫ا‬َ‫ٌٌس‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬)This is a watch (ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ع‬‫ا‬َ‫ٌٌس‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬) That is a car (ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬‫ا‬َّ‫ي‬َ‫كٌٌَس‬ْ‫ل‬ِ‫ت‬)That is a car (ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬‫ا‬َّ‫ي‬َ‫كٌٌَس‬ْ‫ل‬ِ‫ت‬)
  36. 36. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) Gender of Body Members 5 ٌ‫س‬ْ‫ا‬َ‫ر‬ (head) ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ (nose) ٌ‫ه‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫و‬ٌ‫ه‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫و‬ (face) ٌ‫م‬َ‫ف‬ٌ‫م‬َ‫ف‬ (mouth) ٌ‫د‬َ‫ي‬ٌ‫د‬َ‫ي‬ (hand) ٌ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ع‬ٌ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ع‬ (eye) ٌ‫ن‬ُ‫ذ‬ّْ‫ا‬ٌ‫ن‬ُ‫ذ‬ّْ‫ا‬ (ear) ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫ِج‬‫ر‬ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫ِج‬‫ر‬ (leg) Double members are usually feminine Single members are usually masculine
  37. 37. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) Gender and Nominal Sentence 6  Gender of ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ and ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ must be the same ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫ك‬َ‫ز‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫َّث‬‫ن‬َ‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫د‬َّ‫م‬َ‫ح‬ُ‫م‬ٌٌ‫ب‬ِ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ط‬ ٌُ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫اط‬َ‫ف‬ٌٌ‫ة‬َ‫ب‬ِ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ط‬ ٌُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫لك‬َ‫ا‬ٌٌ‫يد‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ٌُ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬‫ا‬َّ‫ي‬َّ‫لس‬َ‫ا‬ٌٌ‫َة‬‫د‬‫ي‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ٌٌ‫يك‬ِ‫د‬ ٌِ‫ه‬ِ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ٌٌ‫ة‬َ‫اج‬َ‫ج‬َ‫د‬ ٌَ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬ٌٌ‫اب‬َ‫ب‬ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ذ‬ِ‫َاف‬‫ن‬ٌ َ‫لك‬ِ‫ت‬
  38. 38. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) ٌ‫يد‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ٌُ‫يت‬َ‫الب‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ (is) new The house This This house This house is new ٌ‫َل‬‫د‬َ‫ب‬Substitute - ٌ‫َل‬‫د‬َ‫ب‬ 7 ٌ‫يد‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ ٌ‫يد‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ٌُ‫يت‬َ‫الب‬ This is new ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ The house is new ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫َل‬‫د‬َ‫ب‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ A substitute (ٌ‫َل‬‫د‬َ‫ب‬) is a definite noun (ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬ِ‫ر‬‫ع‬َ‫م‬ٌ‫سم‬ِ‫ا‬) following a demonstrative pronoun (ٌِ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬‫ا‬َ‫ش‬ ِ‫ٌالا‬ُ‫م‬‫س‬ِ‫ا‬)
  39. 39. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ظ‬Adverb - ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ظ‬ Examples of Adverb of Place (ٌِ‫ان‬َ‫ك‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٌا‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ظ‬Examples of Adverb of Place (ٌِ‫ان‬َ‫ك‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٌا‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ظ‬)  ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ظ‬ is a noun that indicates the place or time  ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ظ‬ acts like a ٌ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ , so the noun following it is ٌ‫اف‬ َ‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ٌِ‫ه‬‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬  ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ظ‬ can never be a ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ (subject), even if the sentence starts with it ٌَ‫ت‬ْ‫ح‬َ‫ت‬ (under)ٌَ‫ت‬ْ‫ح‬َ‫ت‬ (under) ٌَ‫ف‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬ (behind)ٌَ‫ف‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬ (behind) ٌَ‫م‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ّّ‫ا‬ٌَ‫م‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ّّ‫ا‬ (in front) Examples of Adverb of Time (ٌِ‫ان‬َ‫م‬َّ‫ز‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٌا‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ظ‬Examples of Adverb of Time (ٌِ‫ان‬َ‫م‬َّ‫ز‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٌا‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ظ‬) ٌَ‫ك‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ (there)ٌَ‫ك‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ (there) ‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ (here)‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ (here) ٌَ‫ق‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ف‬ (over)ٌَ‫ق‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ف‬ (over) ٌَ‫م‬‫و‬َ‫الي‬ٌَ‫م‬‫و‬َ‫الي‬ (today) ٌَ‫رب‬ُ‫ق‬ (near)ٌَ‫رب‬ُ‫ق‬ (near) ٌَ‫ين‬َ‫ب‬ (between)ٌَ‫ين‬َ‫ب‬ (between) ٌ‫دا‬َ‫غ‬ (tomorrow)ٌ‫دا‬َ‫غ‬ (tomorrow)ٌِ‫س‬‫م‬ّّ‫ا‬ (yesterday)ٌِ‫س‬‫م‬ّّ‫ا‬ (yesterday) ٌ‫يلا‬َ‫ل‬ٌ‫يلا‬َ‫ل‬ (night) ٌ‫اح‬َ‫ب‬ َ‫ص‬ (morning)ٌ‫اح‬َ‫ب‬ َ‫ص‬ (morning) ٌ‫اء‬َ‫س‬َ‫م‬ٌ‫اء‬َ‫س‬َ‫م‬ (evening)ٌ‫هرا‬ُ‫ظ‬ٌ‫هرا‬ُ‫ظ‬ (noon)
  40. 40. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) Examples from Quran - ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ظ‬ 9 (16:88) Those who disbelieved and averted [others] from the way of Allah - We will increase them in punishment over [their] punishment for what corruption they were causing. ٌ‫ا‬‫اب‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ع‬ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬‫َا‬‫ن‬ْ‫د‬ِ‫ز‬ٌِ‫ه‬‫ـ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٌال‬ِ‫يل‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫نٌس‬َ‫ع‬ٌ‫ُّوا‬‫د‬ َ‫ص‬َ‫واٌو‬ُ‫َر‬‫ف‬َ‫ك‬ٌَ‫ين‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ا‬ٌَ‫ق‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ف‬ٌ ‫ٌٌَ﴿النحل‬‫ن‬‫ُو‬‫د‬ِ‫س‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫ي‬ٌ‫ُوا‬‫ن‬‫َا‬‫ك‬ٌ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ب‬ٌ ِ‫اب‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ع‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬:٨٨﴾ (48:18) Allah was pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree and He knew what was in their hearts. Therefore, He sent down tranquility upon them and rewarded them with a victory close by. ٌ َ‫َك‬‫ن‬‫و‬ُ‫ع‬ِ‫ي‬‫ا‬َ‫ب‬ُ‫ي‬ٌْ‫ذ‬ِ‫ٌا‬َ‫ين‬ِ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ْ‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٌا‬ِ‫ن‬َ‫ع‬ٌُ‫ه‬‫ـ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٌال‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ض‬َ‫ر‬ٌْ‫د‬َ‫ق‬َّ‫ل‬ٌَ‫ت‬ْ‫ح‬َ‫ت‬ٌٌِ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬َ‫ج‬َّ‫الش‬ ٌ‫ا‬‫ِيب‬‫ر‬َ‫ق‬ٌ‫ا‬‫ح‬ْ‫ت‬َ‫ف‬ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫ب‬‫َا‬‫ث‬ّّ‫ا‬َ‫ٌو‬ْ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ٌَ‫ة‬َ‫ن‬‫ي‬ِ‫ك‬َّ‫ٌالس‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ز‬‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬َ‫ف‬ٌْ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬‫و‬ُ‫ل‬ُ‫ق‬ٌ‫ي‬ِ‫اٌف‬َ‫م‬ٌَ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬َ‫ف‬ ٌ‫﴿الفتح‬:١٨﴾ (4:159) And there is none from the People of the Scripture but that he will surely believe in Jesus before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection he will be against them a witness. ٌٌِۖ‫ه‬ِ‫ت‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬ٌَ‫ل‬ْ‫ب‬َ‫ق‬ٌِ‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬ٌَّ‫ن‬َ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ْ‫ؤ‬ُ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ٌ‫ا‬َّ‫ل‬ِ‫ٌا‬ ِ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٌِا‬‫ل‬ْ‫ه‬ّّ‫ا‬ٌْ‫ن‬ِّ‫م‬ٌ‫ن‬ِ‫ا‬َ‫و‬ٌَ‫م‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ي‬َ‫و‬ٌٌِ‫ة‬َ‫م‬‫ا‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫اٌٌ﴿النساء‬‫يد‬ِ‫ه‬َ‫ٌش‬ْ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ٌُ‫ن‬‫و‬ُ‫ك‬َ‫ي‬:١٥٩﴾ (18:23-24) And never say of anything, "Indeed, I will do that tomorrow," . Except [when adding], "If Allah wills." And remember your Lord when you forget [it] and say, "Perhaps my Lord will guide me to what is nearer than this to right conduct." ٌ َ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬ََٰ‫ذ‬ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫اع‬َ‫ف‬ٌ‫ِّي‬‫ن‬ِ‫ٌا‬ٍ‫ء‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ش‬ِ‫ٌل‬َّ‫ن‬َ‫ل‬‫ُو‬‫ق‬َ‫ت‬ٌ‫ا‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬‫د‬َ‫غ‬ٌٌ‫﴿الكهف‬:٢٣ٌ‫ا‬َّ‫ل‬ِ‫﴾ٌا‬ ٌِ‫ن‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫د‬ْ‫ه‬َ‫ي‬ٌ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ٌٰ‫ى‬َ‫س‬َ‫ع‬ٌْ‫ل‬ُ‫ق‬َ‫ٌو‬ َ‫يت‬ ِ‫َس‬‫ن‬ٌ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬ِ‫ٌا‬ َ‫ك‬َّ‫ب‬َّ‫ر‬ٌ‫ُر‬‫ك‬ْ‫ذ‬‫ا‬َ‫ٌۚو‬ٌُ‫ه‬‫ـ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٌال‬َ‫اء‬َ‫ش‬َ‫ي‬ٌ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ ‫اٌٌ﴿الكهف‬‫د‬َ‫ش‬َ‫ر‬ٌ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َٰ‫ـ‬َ‫ه‬ٌْ‫ن‬ِ‫ٌم‬ َ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ق‬ّّ‫ا‬ِ‫يٌل‬ِّ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬:٢٤﴾ (2:285) All of them have believed in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers, [saying], "We make no distinction between any of His messengers." And they say, "We hear and we obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination." ٌُ‫ق‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫ف‬ُ‫ن‬ٌ‫ا‬َ‫ل‬ٌِ‫ه‬ِ‫ل‬ُ‫س‬ُ‫ر‬َ‫ٌو‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬ُ‫ت‬ُ‫ك‬َ‫ٌو‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ت‬َ‫ك‬ِ‫ئ‬‫َا‬‫ل‬َ‫م‬َ‫ٌو‬ِ‫ه‬‫ـ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ال‬ِ‫ب‬ٌَ‫ن‬َ‫م‬‫ٌا‬‫ُل‬‫ك‬ٌَ‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ب‬ٌٌ‫ن‬ِّ‫م‬ٌٍ‫د‬َ‫ح‬ّّ‫ا‬ ٌٌُ‫ير‬ِ‫ص‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٌا‬ َ‫ك‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬َ‫اٌو‬َ‫ن‬َّ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ٌ َ‫َك‬‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫غ‬ٌٌۖ‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ط‬ّّ‫ا‬َ‫اٌو‬َ‫ن‬ْ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫واٌس‬ُ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ٌۚو‬ٌِ‫ه‬ِ‫ل‬ُ‫س‬ُّ‫ر‬ ‫﴿البقرة‬:٢٨٥﴾
  41. 41. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬Adjective - ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬  In Arabic the ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ (adjective) comes after the ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬.  In English, the adjective comes before the noun it qualifies A new house ٌ‫يد‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ٌ‫يت‬َ‫ب‬ A noun that describes or qualifies another noun is called ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ (adjective) The noun being described or qualified is called ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ A house ٌ‫يت‬َ‫ب‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ is also called ٌ‫َة‬‫ف‬ِ‫ص‬ Adjective = ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ = ٌ‫َة‬‫ف‬ِ‫ص‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ is also called ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬ Noun Qualified = ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ = ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬
  42. 42. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬Agreements between ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ and ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬  ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ and ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ should be in agreement in the following: This is a small boy ٌ‫ير‬ِ‫غ‬ َ‫ص‬ ٌ‫د‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ This is a small girl ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ير‬ِ‫غ‬ َ‫ص‬ ٌ‫نت‬ِ‫ب‬ ٌِ‫ه‬ِ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬Gender 1 The new teacher is in the class ٌِ‫َصل‬‫ف‬‫ال‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ ٌُ‫د‬‫ي‬ِ‫د‬َ‫الج‬ ٌُ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫د‬ُ‫م‬‫ال‬ Bilal is a new teacher ٌ‫يد‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ٌ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫د‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫َال‬‫ل‬ِ‫ب‬ Indefinite vs. definite Indefinite vs. definite 2 I am in a new house ٌٍ‫د‬‫ي‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ٌٍ‫يت‬َ‫ب‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ ‫نا‬ّّ‫ا‬ This is a new house ٌ‫يد‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ٌ‫يت‬َ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬Case 3 That is a new student ٌ‫يد‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ٌ‫ب‬ِ‫ال‬َ‫ط‬ ٌَ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬ Those are new students ٌ‫ُد‬‫د‬ُ‫ج‬ ٌ‫َّاب‬‫ل‬ُ‫ط‬ ٌَ‫ك‬ِ‫ئ‬َ‫ل‬‫و‬ّْ‫ا‬Number 4 ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬
  43. 43. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) 12 ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫ٌو‬‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬Nominal Sentence with ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫ٌو‬‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ The broken chair is in the room ٌِ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬ُ‫غ‬‫ال‬ ٌ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ ٌُ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫س‬ْ‫ك‬َ‫م‬‫ال‬ ٌُّ‫ي‬ ِ‫س‬ْ‫ر‬ُ‫ك‬‫ال‬ ٌ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬ٌٌ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ٌج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫،ٌخ‬ِ‫ة‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫ٌالج‬ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ب‬ ِ‫،ٌش‬‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ٌَ‫ٌو‬‫ار‬َ‫ج‬ The sparrow is a small bird ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫غ‬ َ‫ص‬ ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫ئ‬‫ا‬َ‫ط‬ ٌُ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ف‬ ْ‫ص‬ُ‫ع‬‫ال‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ I am in the secondary school ٌِ‫ة‬َّ‫ي‬ِ‫و‬َ‫ن‬‫َّا‬‫ث‬‫ال‬ ٌِ‫ة‬َ‫س‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫د‬َ‫م‬‫ال‬ ٌ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ ‫َا‬‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ٌ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ٌج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫،ٌخ‬ِ‫ة‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫ٌالج‬ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ب‬ ِ‫،ٌش‬‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫م‬ٌَ‫ٌو‬‫ار‬َ‫ج‬
  44. 44. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) 13 ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫ٌو‬‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬References from Quran - ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫ٌو‬‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ (5:15) Undoubtedly, there has to come to you from Allah light and a luminous Book. ٌَ‫ٌو‬‫ُور‬‫ن‬ٌِ‫ه‬‫ـ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٌال‬َ‫ن‬ِّ‫م‬ٌ‫ُم‬‫ك‬َ‫اء‬َ‫ٌج‬ْ‫د‬َ‫ق‬ٌ‫ين‬ِ‫ب‬ُّ‫م‬ٌ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬‫﴿اسورةٌالمائدة‬:١٥﴾ (68:4) And undoubtedly, you possess excellent manners. ٌٰ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬َ‫ل‬ٌ َ‫َّك‬‫ن‬ِ‫ا‬َ‫و‬ٌٍ‫م‬‫ي‬ِ‫ظ‬َ‫ع‬ٌٍ‫ق‬ُ‫ل‬ُ‫خ‬‫﴿سورةٌالقلم‬:٤﴾ (44:17) and an honourable Messenger came to them. ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫اء‬َ‫ج‬َ‫و‬ٌ‫ِيم‬‫ر‬َ‫ك‬ٌ‫ول‬ُ‫س‬َ‫ر‬‫﴿اسورةٌالدخان‬:١٧﴾ (1:6) Guide us in the straight path. ٌ‫َا‬‫ن‬ِ‫د‬ْ‫ه‬‫ا‬ٌَ‫م‬‫ي‬ِ‫ق‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫س‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ٌا‬َ‫اط‬َ‫ر‬ ِّ‫الص‬﴾﴿﴿‫سورةٌالفاتحة‬:٦﴾ (45:10) And for them is a great torment. ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ٌ‫يم‬ِ‫ظ‬َ‫ع‬ٌ‫اب‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ع‬﴿‫سورةٌالجاثية‬:١٠﴾ (8:274) For them is forgiveness and honourable provision. ٌَ‫ٌو‬‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ِ‫ف‬ْ‫غ‬َّ‫م‬ٌ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬ٌ‫ِيم‬‫ر‬َ‫ك‬ٌ‫ق‬ْ‫ز‬ِ‫ر‬ٌ‫نفال‬‫﴿سورةٌالا‬:٧٤﴾ (61:13) help from Allah and a near victory ‫﴿سورةٌالصف‬:١٣﴾ ٌِ‫ه‬‫ـ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٌال‬َ‫ن‬ِّ‫م‬ٌ‫ر‬ ْ‫َص‬‫ن‬ٌ‫ِيب‬‫ر‬َ‫ق‬ٌ‫ح‬ْ‫ت‬َ‫ف‬َ‫و‬ٌۗ
  45. 45. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) 14 ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬Where is the ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬? ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ه‬َ‫س‬ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫غ‬ُ‫ل‬ ٌُ‫ة‬َّ‫ي‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬َ‫ع‬‫ال‬ The Arabic is an easy language ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫ٌو‬‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ه‬َ‫س‬ ٌُ‫ة‬َّ‫ي‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬َ‫ع‬‫ال‬ ٌُ‫ة‬َ‫غ‬ُّ‫ل‬‫ال‬ The Arabic language is easy ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬ ٌٌٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬  Exercise  Make two additional sets of sentences on the above pattern. Write their meaning and the analysis, as shown above.
  46. 46. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) 15 ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ or not A new book ٌ‫يد‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ٌ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ The new book is heavy ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ق‬َ‫ث‬ ٌُ‫د‬‫ي‬ِ‫د‬َ‫الج‬ ٌُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬‫ال‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ٌ‫و‬ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬ The book is new ٌ‫يد‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ٌ ُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫الك‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ This book is new ٌ‫يد‬ِ‫د‬َ‫ج‬ ٌ ُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫الك‬ ٌ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫َل‬‫د‬َ‫ب‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ This new book is heavy ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ق‬َ‫ث‬ ٌُ‫د‬‫ي‬ِ‫د‬َ‫الج‬ ٌ ُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬‫ال‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫ٌو‬‫َل‬‫د‬َ‫ب‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ Abbas is a merchant ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫اج‬َ‫ت‬ ٌ‫اس‬َ‫ب‬َ‫ع‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ 11 22 33 44 55 66  Exercise  Make two additional sets of sentences on the above pattern. Write their meaning and the analysis, as shown above.
  47. 47. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) 16 ٌُ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫الا‬The Relative Pronoun - ٌُ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫الا‬  ‫ي‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ا‬ is called the relative pronoun (ٌُ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫الا‬)  It is translated as:  “Who” – for all rational beings  “Which” – for all irrational beings and things  It is used for masculine singular. Feminine and plural will come later  It is always followed by a description, which is known as ٌِ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫ة‬َّ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬ The man, who left the room, is a merchant ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫اج‬َ‫ت‬ ٌِ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬ُ‫غ‬‫ال‬ ٌَ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ٌَ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ٌُ‫ل‬ُ‫ج‬َّ‫ر‬‫ال‬ ٌِ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫ة‬َّ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬ ٌُ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫الا‬ The book, which is on the table, belongs to the teacher ٌِ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫د‬ُ‫م‬‫ل‬ِ‫ل‬ ٌِ‫ب‬َ‫ت‬‫ك‬َ‫م‬‫ال‬ ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ٌُ‫اب‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬‫ال‬ ٌِ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫ة‬َّ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬ ٌُ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫الا‬
  48. 48. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) 17 ‫ي‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ٌ‫َعت‬‫ن‬‫ي‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ا‬ as ٌ‫َعت‬‫ن‬ The man, who left the room, is a merchant ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫اج‬َ‫ت‬ ٌِ‫ة‬َ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬ُ‫غ‬‫ال‬ ٌَ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ٌَ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ٌُ‫ل‬ُ‫ج‬َّ‫ر‬‫ال‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌِ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫ة‬َّ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬ ٌ‫َعت‬‫ن‬َ‫ٌو‬ُ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫الا‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬ ٌٌٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ The man is a merchant ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫اج‬َ‫ت‬ ٌُ‫ل‬ُ‫ج‬َّ‫ر‬‫ال‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ The tall man is a merchant ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫اج‬َ‫ت‬ ٌُ‫ل‬‫ِي‬‫و‬َّ‫ط‬‫ال‬ ٌُ‫ل‬ُ‫ج‬َّ‫ر‬‫ال‬ ٌ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬ ٌ‫وت‬ُ‫ع‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬ ٌٌٌ‫َا‬‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬
  49. 49. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) 18 The Past Tense Verb (‫ي‬ِ‫اض‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬ِ‫ف‬‫ال‬)The Past Tense Verb (‫ي‬ِ‫اض‬َ‫م‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬ِ‫ف‬‫ال‬)  Verb = Action = ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬ِ‫ف‬  Doer = Subject = ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫اع‬َ‫ف‬  Base form of all Arabic verbs is in the past tense (ٌٍ‫ض‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬)  The base form of the verb always corresponds to the 3rd person singular masculine pronoun, i.e. he (ٌَ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬)  The doer of the action (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫اع‬َ‫ف‬) is hidden (ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫ت‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫س‬ُ‫م‬) within the base form of the verb (ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬ِ‫ف‬). Notice the hidden “he” in ٌَ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ ٌَ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬(He left) ٌَ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬
  50. 50. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) 19 Anatomy of The Past Tense Verb  Almost all Arabic verbs can be traced back to a three letter verb. The remaining few exceptions are traced to a four letter verb.  To understand their structure, the three letter verbs are defined on the pattern of ‫فعل‬ as follows. ٌَ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬(He left) ٌَ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌَ‫ج‬ ٌَ‫ر‬ ٌَ‫خ‬ ‫فعل‬‫فعل‬‫ل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ف‬ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬ٌ‫ف‬ (1st radical) ٌ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬ٌ‫ع‬ (2nd radical) ٌ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬ٌ‫ل‬ (3rd radical)
  51. 51. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) 20 Anatomy of The Past Tense Verb  In the base form for all 3 letter past tense verbs:  ٌ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬ٌ‫ف‬ and ٌ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬ٌ‫ل‬ always have a ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ت‬َ‫ف‬  ٌ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬ٌ‫ع‬ can have a ٌ‫ة‬َّ‫م‬ َ‫ض‬, ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ت‬َ‫ف‬, orٌ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫َس‬‫ك‬ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬ٌ‫ل‬ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬ٌ‫ع‬ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬ٌ‫ف‬ Meaning ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬ِ‫ف‬ ٌَ‫ب‬ ٌَ‫ه‬ ٌَ‫ذ‬ He left ٌَ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ ٌَ‫س‬ ٌَ‫ل‬ ٌَ‫ج‬ He sat ٌَ‫س‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ج‬ ٌَ‫ر‬ ٌَ‫ص‬ ٌَ‫ن‬ He helped ٌَ‫ر‬ َ‫َص‬‫ن‬ ٌَ‫ع‬ ٌِ‫م‬ ٌَ‫س‬ He heard ٌَ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ ٌَ‫م‬ ٌُ‫ر‬ ٌَ‫ك‬ He became noble ٌَ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬
  52. 52. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) 21 Conjugation of The Past Tense Verb ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫اع‬َ‫ف‬ Suffix ٌَ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫ت‬َ‫ت‬‫س‬ُ‫م‬ ٌَ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ He ٌَ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌْ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ They (2) ٌُ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌْ‫و‬‫ا‬ ٌْ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬ ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ They (>2) ٌْ‫ت‬َ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫ت‬َ‫ت‬‫س‬ُ‫م‬ ٌْ‫ت‬ ٌَ‫ي‬ِ‫ه‬ She ٌَ‫ت‬َ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌْ‫ا‬َ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ They (2) ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌَ‫ن‬ ٌَ‫ن‬ ٌَ‫ن‬ ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ They (>2) ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌَ‫ت‬ ٌَ‫ت‬ ٌَ‫ت‬ ٌَ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You (2) ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You (>2) ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌِ‫ت‬ ٌِ‫ت‬ ٌِ‫ت‬ ٌِ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You (2) ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You (>2) ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌُ‫ت‬ ٌُ‫ت‬ ٌُ‫ت‬ ‫َا‬‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ I ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ ‫َا‬‫ن‬ ‫َا‬‫ن‬ ٌُ‫ن‬ْ‫َح‬‫ن‬ We All ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫اع‬َ‫ف‬ in this group are either ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫ت‬َ‫ت‬‫س‬ُ‫م‬ or have a sukun on them, so this group is called ٌ‫ن‬ِ‫ك‬‫ا‬َ‫س‬ All ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫اع‬َ‫ف‬ in this group have some vowel sign on them so this group is called ٌ‫ك‬ِّ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬َ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ This alif is called ٌِ‫ة‬َ‫ي‬‫ا‬َ‫ق‬ِ‫و‬‫ٌال‬ ُ‫ف‬ِ‫ل‬ّّ‫ا‬ (alif of protection). It protects the ‫و‬ from being mistaken for the conjunction ‫و‬ (and). It is written but not pronounced This is ٌِ‫ث‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ن‬‫ا‬َّ‫ت‬‫ٌال‬ُ‫اء‬َ‫ت‬(ta of feminine)
  53. 53. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 4 (ver. 5) 22 Conjugation of The Past Tense Verb Examples ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫اع‬َ‫ف‬ Suffix ٌَ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬ ٌَ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ ٌَ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ ٌَ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫ت‬َ‫ت‬‫س‬ُ‫م‬ ٌَ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ He ٌَ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌَ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌَ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌَ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌْ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ They (2) ٌُ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬ٌْ‫و‬‫ا‬ ٌُ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ٌْ‫و‬‫ا‬ ٌُ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ٌْ‫و‬‫ا‬ ٌُ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌْ‫و‬‫ا‬ ٌْ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬ ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ They (>2) ٌْ‫ت‬َ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬ ٌْ‫ت‬َ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ ٌْ‫ت‬َ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ ٌْ‫ت‬َ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫ت‬َ‫ت‬‫س‬ُ‫م‬ ٌْ‫ت‬ ٌَ‫ي‬ِ‫ه‬ She ٌَ‫ت‬َ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌَ‫ت‬َ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌَ‫ت‬َ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌَ‫ت‬َ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌْ‫ا‬ ٌْ‫ا‬َ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ They (2) ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬ٌَ‫ن‬ ٌْ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ٌَ‫ن‬ ٌْ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ٌَ‫ن‬ ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌَ‫ن‬ ٌَ‫ن‬ ٌَ‫ن‬ ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ They (>2) ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬ٌَ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ٌَ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ٌَ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌَ‫ت‬ ٌَ‫ت‬ ٌَ‫ت‬ ٌَ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You (2) ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You (>2) ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬ٌِ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ٌِ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ٌِ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌِ‫ت‬ ٌِ‫ت‬ ٌِ‫ت‬ ٌِ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You (2) ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ ٌَّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ You (>2) ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬ٌُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬ٌُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬ٌُ‫ت‬ ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬ٌُ‫ت‬ ٌُ‫ت‬ ٌُ‫ت‬ ‫َا‬‫ن‬ّّ‫ا‬ I ٌْ‫م‬ُ‫َر‬‫ك‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ ٌْ‫ع‬ِ‫م‬َ‫س‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ ٌْ‫ب‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ذ‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ ٌْ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬َ‫خ‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ ‫َا‬‫ن‬ ‫َا‬‫ن‬ ٌُ‫ن‬ْ‫َح‬‫ن‬ We
  54. 54. ِ‫ل‬‫ال‬ ِ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ب‬‫م‬ْ‫ح‬َّ‫ر‬‫ال‬ ِ‫ه‬ِ‫م‬ْ‫ي‬ ِ‫ح‬َّ‫ر‬‫ال‬ ِ‫ن‬ ARIC – Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 7) 1 TopicsTopics Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) Early Predicate and Late Subject ( ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫خ‬‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ا‬‫د‬‫بت‬ُ‫م‬‫و‬ ٌ‫م‬َّ‫د‬‫ق‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬‫ب‬‫خ‬) Plural (ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬) Numbers (ٌ‫د‬‫ا‬‫عد‬َ‫ا‬) Diptotes ( ِ‫رف‬ َّ‫الص‬ ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ُ‫ع‬‫و‬ُ‫ن‬‫م‬‫الم‬) Types of khabar (ِ‫ر‬‫ب‬‫الخ‬ ُ‫ع‬‫ا‬‫نو‬َ‫ا‬)
  55. 55. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) Revision History 2 Date Ver Author Revision Comments Apr. 24, 2010 1 Zahid Naeem Initial version May 1, 2010 2 Zahid Naeem Added more notes on Attached Pronoun May 8, 2010 3 Zahid Naeem Added Early Predicate and Late Subject ( ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫خ‬‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ا‬‫د‬‫بت‬ُ‫م‬‫و‬ ٌ‫م‬َّ‫د‬‫ق‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬‫ب‬‫خ‬) May 15, 2010 4 Zahid Naeem Added Plural (ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ج‬) slides Jun. 19, 2010 5 Zahid Naeem Added a slide for plurals of irrationals and adjective for muda’f vs. muda’f ilaihi Jun. 26, 2010 6 Zahid Naeem Added slides for Numbers (ٌ‫د‬‫ا‬‫عد‬َ‫ا‬) Jul. 10, 2010 7 Zahid Naeem Added slides for singular, dual and plural case endings, grammatical analysis & Diptotes Jul. 24, 2010 8 Zahid Naeem Added slide for types of khabar ِ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫ال‬ ِ‫يل‬ِ‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬There are no copyrights reserved for this material. You may make copies and distribute them Fi Sabilillah – ِ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫ال‬ ِ‫يل‬ِ‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ Report any errors, omissions or suggestions to arabic.aric@gmail.com
  56. 56. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) 3 Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬)Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) Muhammad’s book. ‫د‬َّ‫م‬‫ح‬ُ‫م‬ ُ‫اب‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ His book ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫اب‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ His book ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬‫و‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ Your book ‫ك‬ ُ‫اب‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ Your book ‫ك‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬‫و‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ُ‫ه‬ and ‫ك‬ are attached pronouns (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬)  An attached pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬), when attached to a noun, is always ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ and the noun it is attached to is ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬  The attached pronoun in this case is always ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬‫م‬ + +
  57. 57. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) 4 Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬)Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) From Muhammad ‫د‬َّ‫م‬‫ح‬ُ‫م‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ‫ار‬‫ج‬ٌ‫ر‬‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬‫م‬‫و‬ Him From ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬‫م‬ ٌ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬‫ج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬‫ح‬ From him ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ‫ار‬‫ج‬ٌ‫ر‬‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬‫م‬‫و‬ Them From ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬‫م‬ ٌ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬‫ج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬‫ح‬ From them ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ‫ار‬‫ج‬ٌ‫ر‬‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬‫م‬‫و‬ ُ‫ه‬ and ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ are attached pronouns (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬)  An attached pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬), when attached to a ‫ر‬‫ج‬ ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬‫ح‬ (preposition), is always ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬‫م‬ ٌ‫م‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ا‬ + +
  58. 58. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) vs. Detached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬)Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) vs. Detached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) 5 3rd Person Masculine Singular He, It ُ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ٌ‫د‬‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫ك‬‫ذ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ب‬ِ‫ي‬‫ا‬‫غ‬ “Dual” They (2) ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬َّ‫ن‬‫ث‬ُ‫م‬ Plural They ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬ Feminine Singular She, It ‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ه‬ ٌ‫د‬‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫َّث‬‫ن‬‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬“Dual” They (2) ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬َّ‫ن‬‫ث‬ُ‫م‬ Plural They َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬ 2nd person Masculine Singular You ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ٌ‫د‬‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫ك‬‫ذ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ب‬‫اط‬‫خ‬ُ‫م‬ “Dual” You (2) ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬َّ‫ن‬‫ث‬ُ‫م‬ Plural You (>2) ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬ Feminine Singular You ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ٌ‫د‬‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫َّث‬‫ن‬‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬“Dual” You (2) ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬َّ‫ن‬‫ث‬ُ‫م‬ Plural You (>2) َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬ 1st person Masc. & Fem. Singular I ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ٌ‫د‬‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫َّث‬‫ن‬‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬‫و‬ ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫ك‬‫ذ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫م‬ِّ‫ل‬‫ك‬‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ Plural We ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ُ‫ن‬ْ‫ح‬‫ن‬ ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬ ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬ (Detached Pronoun)ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬ (Detached Pronoun)ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬ (Attached Pronoun)ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬ (Attached Pronoun)
  59. 59. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) vs. Detached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬)Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) vs. Detached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) 6 ُ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ُ‫ن‬ْ‫ح‬‫ن‬ ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬  Always ٌ‫ة‬‫ِف‬‫ر‬ْ‫ع‬‫م‬ (definite)  Are ٌ‫ي‬ِ‫ن‬ْ‫ب‬‫م‬ (fixed)  Always ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬‫م‬ (nominative) ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬  Always ٌ‫ة‬‫ِف‬‫ر‬ْ‫ع‬‫م‬ (definite)  Are ٌ‫ي‬ِ‫ن‬ْ‫ب‬‫م‬ (fixed)  Always ٌ‫ر‬‫و‬ُ‫جر‬‫م‬ (genitive) or ٌ‫وب‬ ُ‫نص‬‫م‬ (accusative)  Can be attached to a noun, verb or a particle This ‫ي‬ is called ِ‫م‬ِّ‫ل‬‫ك‬‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُ‫اء‬‫ي‬ (ya-ul mutakallim) – Ya of the first person
  60. 60. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) 7 Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) as ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) as ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ة‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ٌ‫اب‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ His ُ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Their (2 mas.) ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Their (>2 mas.) ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Her ‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Their (2 fem) ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Their (>2 fem) َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ك‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ‫ك‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Your ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Your (2 mas.) ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Your (>2 mas.) ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ِ‫ك‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ِ‫ك‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Your (fem) ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Your (2 fem) ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Your (>2 fem) َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ My ْ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬‫ار‬َّ‫ي‬‫س‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ُ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ Our ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ُ‫ن‬ْ‫ح‬‫ن‬ The last letter of the ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ gets a ٌ‫ة‬‫سر‬‫ك‬ when attached to ِ‫م‬ِّ‫ل‬‫ك‬‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُ‫اء‬‫ي‬. A ٌ‫ة‬َّ‫م‬‫ض‬ on the last letter would have made the pronunciation difficult. The ُ‫ة‬‫وط‬ُ‫ب‬‫ر‬‫الم‬ ُ‫اء‬‫الت‬ changes to a ُ‫ة‬‫وح‬ُ‫ت‬‫ف‬‫الم‬ ُ‫اء‬‫الت‬ when it is followed by an attached pronoun.
  61. 61. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) 8 Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) with Special NounsAttached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) with Special Nouns ٌ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ ٌ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ه‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ه‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ك‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ك‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬ِ‫ك‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ ْ‫ي‬ ِ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ ْ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ن‬ ُ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ْ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ُ‫ن‬ْ‫ح‬‫ن‬ Notice the extra ‫و‬ between ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬ and ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬ُ‫م‬. By same token “Muhammad’s father” will be ‫د‬َّ‫م‬‫ح‬ُ‫م‬ ‫و‬ُ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ ٌ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬‫و‬ ٌ‫ب‬َ‫ا‬ are 2 of the 4 special nouns, which take this extra ‫و‬. Will learn the other two later. The rule for extra ‫و‬ does not apply when these nouns are followed by ِ‫م‬ِّ‫ل‬‫ك‬‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُ‫اء‬‫ي‬
  62. 62. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) 9 Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) as ٌ‫ر‬‫و‬ُ‫جر‬‫م‬ ٌ‫م‬‫اس‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ُ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ك‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ‫ك‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ِ‫ك‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ِ‫ك‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ْ‫ن‬‫ع‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ َّ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ْ‫ي‬ِّ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ْ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ْ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬َّ‫ن‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ُ‫ن‬ْ‫ح‬‫ن‬ َّ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ = ْ‫ي‬ + ‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ The ‫ورة‬ ُ‫ص‬ْ‫ق‬‫م‬ ‫ف‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ا‬ at the end of ‫ى‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ changes to a ‫ي‬ (ya) when it is followed by an attached pronoun. Also notice the change from ُ‫ه‬ to ِ‫ه‬ for the attached pronoun. Same is true for ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬
  63. 63. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) 10 Attached Pronoun (ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬) as ٌ‫ر‬‫و‬ُ‫جر‬‫م‬ ٌ‫م‬‫اس‬ ُ‫ه‬‫ل‬ ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬ ُ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬‫ل‬ ْ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬‫ل‬ َّ‫ن‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ك‬‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬‫ل‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ِ‫ب‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ِ‫ك‬‫ل‬ ِ‫ك‬ِ‫ب‬ ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬‫ل‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ِ‫ب‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ب‬ ْ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ُ‫ن‬ْ‫ح‬‫ن‬ The preposition gets a ٌ‫ة‬‫ح‬ْ‫ت‬‫ف‬ when it is followed by an attached pronoun, with one exception; see below. The preposition retains its ٌ‫ة‬‫سر‬‫ك‬ when it is attached to ِ‫م‬ِّ‫ل‬‫ك‬‫ت‬ُ‫م‬‫ال‬ ُ‫اء‬‫ي‬
  64. 64. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) 11 Past Tense Verb Suffix vs. ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬ vs. ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬ Past Tense Verb Suffix ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬ ٌ‫ل‬ِ‫ص‬‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ض‬ ُ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫و‬‫ا‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ه‬ ‫ت‬ْ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ن‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ِ‫ت‬ ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫ُم‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ك‬ َّ‫ن‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ُ‫ت‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ُ‫ن‬ْ‫ح‬‫ن‬
  65. 65. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) 12 ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫خ‬‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ا‬‫د‬‫بت‬ُ‫م‬‫و‬ ٌ‫م‬َّ‫د‬‫ق‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬‫ب‬‫خ‬Early Predicate and Late Subject ( ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫خ‬‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ا‬‫د‬‫بت‬ُ‫م‬‫و‬ ٌ‫م‬َّ‫د‬‫ق‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬‫ب‬‫خ‬) The man is in the house ِ‫يت‬‫الب‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ ُ‫ل‬ُ‫ج‬َّ‫ر‬‫ال‬ ‫و‬ ‫ار‬‫ج‬ٌ‫ر‬‫ب‬‫خ‬ ،ِ‫ة‬‫ل‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫الج‬ ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ب‬ ِ‫ش‬ ،ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬‫م‬ ٌ‫ا‬‫د‬‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ A man is in the house ٌ‫ل‬ُ‫ج‬‫ر‬ ِ‫يت‬‫الب‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ A ِ‫ة‬‫ل‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫الج‬ ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ب‬ ِ‫ش‬ (phrase), e.g. ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬‫م‬‫و‬ ‫ار‬‫ج‬ (prepositional phrase) or ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬‫ظ‬ (adverbial phrase) can never beٌ‫ا‬‫د‬‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ (subject), even though a sentence may begin with it. ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫خ‬‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ا‬‫د‬‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫ار‬‫ج‬ٌ‫م‬َّ‫د‬‫ق‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬‫ب‬‫خ‬ ،ِ‫ة‬‫ل‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫الج‬ ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ب‬ ِ‫ش‬ ،ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬‫م‬ A garden is in front of the masjid ٌ‫ة‬‫يق‬ِ‫د‬‫ح‬ ِ‫د‬ ِ‫سج‬‫الم‬ ‫ام‬‫م‬َ‫ا‬ ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫خ‬‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ا‬‫د‬‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫اف‬‫ض‬‫م‬ِ‫ه‬‫ي‬‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ٌ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬‫ظ‬ٌ‫م‬َّ‫د‬‫ق‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ر‬‫ب‬‫خ‬ ،ِ‫ة‬‫ل‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫الج‬ ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ب‬ ِ‫ش‬ ،
  66. 66. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) 13 ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬Plural ( ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬) Plural ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬Plural ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬ Broken Plural ٌ‫ر‬‫ي‬ ِ‫كس‬‫ت‬ ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬Broken Plural ٌ‫ر‬‫ي‬ ِ‫كس‬‫ت‬ ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬ ٌ‫م‬ِ‫ال‬‫س‬ ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬Sound Plural ٌ‫م‬ِ‫ال‬‫س‬ ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬ Sound Masculine PluralSound Masculine Plural ٌ‫م‬ِ‫ال‬‫س‬ ٌ‫ر‬َّ‫ك‬‫ذ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬ Sound Feminine PluralSound Feminine Plural ٌ‫م‬ِ‫ال‬‫س‬ ٌ‫َّث‬‫ن‬‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬ ٌ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬‫ج‬ The singular word is broken to create the plural, e.g. ٌ‫ب‬ِ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ط‬ -> ٌ‫َّاب‬‫ل‬ُ‫ط‬ , ٌ‫م‬‫ل‬‫ق‬ -> ٌ‫م‬‫ا‬‫ل‬ْ‫ق‬َ‫ا‬. Broken plurals have many patterns, as explained later. The singular word stays intact in the plural, e.g. ٌ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬‫د‬ُ‫م‬ -> ‫ن‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫س‬ِّ‫ر‬‫د‬ُ‫م‬ Has an ûna ( ‫ن‬ْ‫و‬) ending, e.g. ٌ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬‫س‬ُ‫م‬ -> ‫ن‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬‫س‬ُ‫م‬ Has an âtun ( ٌ‫ات‬) ending, e.g. ٌ‫ة‬‫م‬ِ‫ل‬‫س‬ُ‫م‬ -> ٌ‫ات‬‫م‬ِ‫ل‬‫س‬ُ‫م‬ Some nouns have multiple plural forms, e.g., ٌ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ has two plural forms 1) ٌ‫ة‬‫و‬ْ‫ِخ‬‫ا‬ and 2) ُ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫و‬ْ‫ِخ‬‫ا‬
  67. 67. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ع‬ُ‫ف‬ 14 Patterns of Broken Plural ٌ‫م‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ُج‬‫ن‬ٌ‫م‬ْ‫ج‬‫ن‬ ٌ‫خ‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ي‬ُ‫ش‬ٌ‫خ‬ْ‫ي‬‫ش‬ ٌ‫ل‬ُ‫ع‬ُ‫ف‬ ٌ‫ب‬ُ‫ت‬ُ‫ك‬ٌ‫اب‬‫ت‬ِ‫ك‬ ٌ‫ل‬ُ‫س‬ُ‫ر‬ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫س‬‫ر‬ ٌ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ع‬ِ‫ف‬ ٌ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ب‬ِ‫ج‬ٌ‫ل‬‫ب‬‫ج‬ ٌ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ج‬ِ‫ر‬ٌ‫ل‬ُ‫ج‬‫ر‬ ٌ‫ل‬‫ا‬َّ‫ع‬ُ‫ف‬ ٌ‫ر‬‫ا‬َّ‫ج‬ُ‫ت‬ٌ‫ر‬ِ‫اج‬‫ت‬ ٌ‫اب‬َّ‫ل‬ُ‫ط‬ٌ‫ب‬ِ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ط‬
  68. 68. ARIC Arabic Class Notes – Part 5 (ver. 8) ٌ‫ل‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫م‬‫ز‬ ٌ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ع‬ْ‫ف‬َ‫ا‬ 15 Patterns of Broken Plural ٌ‫د‬‫ا‬‫ل‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ا‬ُ‫د‬‫ل‬‫و‬ ٌ‫م‬‫ا‬‫م‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ا‬‫م‬‫ع‬ ُ‫اء‬‫ل‬ِ‫ع‬ْ‫ف‬َ‫ا‬ ُ‫اء‬‫ق‬ِ‫د‬ ْ‫ص‬َ‫ا‬ٌ‫ق‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫د‬‫ص‬ ُ‫اء‬َّ‫ب‬ِ‫ط‬َ‫ا‬ٌ‫ب‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ب‬‫ط‬ ٌ‫ة‬‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬ِ‫ف‬ ٌ‫ة‬‫و‬ْ‫خ‬ِ‫ا‬ٌ‫خ‬َ‫ا‬ ٌ‫ة‬‫ي‬ْ‫ت‬ِ‫ف‬‫تى‬‫ف‬ ُ‫اء‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ُ‫ف‬ ُ‫اء‬‫ل‬‫م‬ُ‫ز‬ ُ‫اء‬‫ر‬‫ق‬ُ‫ف‬ٌ‫ر‬ْ‫ي‬ِ‫ق‬‫ف‬ ُ‫اء‬‫ب‬ِ‫ب‬ْ‫ط‬َ‫ا‬ We will learn more patterns later Diptote ( ِ‫ف‬ْ‫ر‬ َّ‫الص‬ ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ُ‫ع‬‫و‬ُ‫ن‬ْ‫م‬‫لم‬‫ا‬)

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