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Long Term Effects of Exercise Shuvam Roy 5 th  semester Medical College
Two types of training <ul><li>Strength training </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance training </li></ul>
Musculo-skeletal system: Effect of optimal resistance  training on increase in muscle strength
 
Changes in hypertrophied muscle <ul><li>   muscle diameter </li></ul><ul><li>   no. of myofibrils </li></ul><ul><li>   ...
Changes in muscle cell due to aerobic training <ul><li>More myoglogin, bigger mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Increased oxi...
CVS: Increase in stroke volume <ul><li>Increased end diastolic volume </li></ul><ul><li>Enlargement of the heart chambers ...
 
Effect of specific sports training on LV cavity dimension or wall thickness in elite athletes, representing 27 different s...
Effects of exercise on heart rate
CVS: Cardiac output <ul><li>Maximal cardiac output is increased </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac output in submaximal exercise is...
CVS: Blood pressure <ul><li>Blood pressure at rest is decreased </li></ul><ul><li>Less increase in SBP due to exercise </l...
Physiological Basis for Differences in VO 2max
Vascular changes <ul><li>Increased capillarisation of trained muscle and improved dilation of existing capillaries </li></...
Respiratory system <ul><li>Ventilatory equivalent of oxygen is decreased in submaximal exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum ...
Oxygen Deficit and Debt
Blood lactate as a function of training
Other changes <ul><li>Increase in thickness and strength of  tendons . </li></ul><ul><li>Increased flexibility of  ligamen...
Strength-Endurance Continuum High  Strength High Power Hypertrophy Olympic lifting Power lifting Throwing   Rowing   F...
Reversibility
Exercise prolongs life <ul><li>Lowered blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered blood cholesterol and LDL </li></ul><ul><l...
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Long term effects of exercise shubham

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2nd and 3rd September 2011,a General Lecture Theatre, Dr Chirantan Mandal, Dr Avik Basu, Dr Dipayan Sen Dr Ushnish Adhikari,Dr Srimanti Bhattacharya, Dr Shubham Presided by Dr Arnab Sengupta (Physiology Dept Medical College Kolkata)

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Long term effects of exercise shubham

  1. 1. Long Term Effects of Exercise Shuvam Roy 5 th semester Medical College
  2. 2. Two types of training <ul><li>Strength training </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance training </li></ul>
  3. 3. Musculo-skeletal system: Effect of optimal resistance training on increase in muscle strength
  4. 5. Changes in hypertrophied muscle <ul><li> muscle diameter </li></ul><ul><li> no. of myofibrils </li></ul><ul><li> sarcoplasmic volume </li></ul><ul><li> contractile protein </li></ul><ul><li> mass of fast twitch fibres </li></ul>
  5. 6. Changes in muscle cell due to aerobic training <ul><li>More myoglogin, bigger mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Increased oxidative enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in stores and utilization of fat </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in glycogen stores </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen sparing </li></ul><ul><li>Better recruitment of slow twitch muscle fibres </li></ul>
  6. 7. CVS: Increase in stroke volume <ul><li>Increased end diastolic volume </li></ul><ul><li>Enlargement of the heart chambers and increased thickness/strengthening of its muscular walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater elastic recoil of myocardium </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased peripheral resistance </li></ul>
  7. 9. Effect of specific sports training on LV cavity dimension or wall thickness in elite athletes, representing 27 different sporting disciplines. Maron B J , Pelliccia A Circulation 2006;114:1633-1644 Copyright © American Heart Association
  8. 10. Effects of exercise on heart rate
  9. 11. CVS: Cardiac output <ul><li>Maximal cardiac output is increased </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac output in submaximal exercise is decreased </li></ul>
  10. 12. CVS: Blood pressure <ul><li>Blood pressure at rest is decreased </li></ul><ul><li>Less increase in SBP due to exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased myocardial oxygen consumption </li></ul>
  11. 13. Physiological Basis for Differences in VO 2max
  12. 14. Vascular changes <ul><li>Increased capillarisation of trained muscle and improved dilation of existing capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in blood volume is attributed to an increase in plasma volume and number of red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased elasticity and thickness of smooth muscle of arterial walls </li></ul>
  13. 15. Respiratory system <ul><li>Ventilatory equivalent of oxygen is decreased in submaximal exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum exercise ventilation is increased </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory rate at rest is decreased </li></ul>
  14. 16. Oxygen Deficit and Debt
  15. 17. Blood lactate as a function of training
  16. 18. Other changes <ul><li>Increase in thickness and strength of tendons . </li></ul><ul><li>Increased flexibility of ligaments . </li></ul><ul><li>Thickening and improved elasticity of cartilage . </li></ul><ul><li>Improved capability of cartilaginous tissue to absorb and expel synovial fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening of bone tissue due to increased depositing of calcium, therefore reduced risk of injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Acclimatization to heat </li></ul>
  17. 19. Strength-Endurance Continuum High Strength High Power Hypertrophy Olympic lifting Power lifting Throwing   Rowing   Football 100m   Decathalon     Swimming   Marathon  Basketball  High Capillarity High VO 2max Aerobic Power High Mitochondria Bodybuilding Rugby 400m Mile Run Soccer 10K 10 sec 5 min > 2hrs Endurance Strength
  18. 20. Reversibility
  19. 21. Exercise prolongs life <ul><li>Lowered blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered blood cholesterol and LDL </li></ul><ul><li>Raised HDL </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Greater cardiac and respiratory reserve </li></ul><ul><li>Greater strength of bones and joints </li></ul>
  20. 22. Thank you

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