Politics of india


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Politics of india

  1. 1. Electoral Politics Done by: MVS. Charan Class : IX- A KVG
  2. 2. Republic of India • A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government • capital: New Delhi
  3. 3. A federal system • 28 states and 7 centrally administered Union Territories – 2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China
  4. 4. Federal system • Relatively centralized • federal government controls the most essential government functions – defense – foreign policy – taxation – public expenditures – economic (industrial) planning
  5. 5. The time is after midnight. An expectant crowd sitting for the past five hours in chowk of the town is waiting for its leader for its leader to come. The organizers assure and reassure the crowd that he would be here any moment. Whenever passing vehicle comes that way. It arouses hopes that he has come. The leader is Mr. Devilal , chief of the Haryana sangharsh samittee, who was to address a meeting in Karnal on Thusrsday night. The 76 years old leader, is a very busy man these days. His day starts at 8 AM, and ends after 11PM……..he had already addressed 9 election meetings since morning….. Mr.Devi Lal has no new philosophy or slogans to give to people of Haryana as he had been constantly addressing public meetings for the past 23 months & preparing for this election. Devi lal’s approach to his audience is direct. He does not mince words in telling his audience that they should response their in the Lok dal and he would build for them a ‘new Haryana’. His slogan “Bhrastachar band aur pani prabandh.” (End to corruption for water” is old as the agiation launched by his sangharsh samitee.
  6. 6. On the basis of the above narrative, give examples to prove or refuse the following assertion : i. The party that ruled before the elections and the one that formed government after the elections was the same. Name the party. ii. Devi Lal was very popular among the people at that time. iii. Lok dal did not make any promises to the people. iv. devilal fulfilled his promises to waive off farmer loans on becoming chief minister. v. Devi lal had not given any manifesto to the people. What are the other means by which people could know about their priorities. vi. What are the different methods used by political parties during the election campaign to seek vote.
  7. 7. Topic For Disscusion • Is Elections Democratic in India??
  8. 8. Current composition • 43 parties in the 13th Lok Sabha (1999) • 39 parties in the 14th Lok Sabha (2004) • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 184 138 • Indian National Congress (INC) 109 145 • Communist Party of India (M) 34 43 • other political parties 218 217 • total 545 543
  9. 9. 1. Releasing election manifesto 2. counting of votes 3. Making of voters list 4. Election campaign 5. Declaration of election results 6. Casting of Votes 7. Ordering of re-poll 8. Announcing election schedule 9. Filing Nomination
  10. 10. Indian National Congress • India’s oldest political party – since 1885 • India’s premier political party – until 1990s • in 1960s many regional parties started challenging INC’s monopoly on power
  11. 11. Indian National Congress • Indira Gandhi – created a top-down structure – party leaders appoint party officials – some limited party elections • left-of-center, pro-poor political platform
  12. 12. Indian National Congress • INC moved toward the ideological center – Beginning in 1984 • INC today tilts right-of-center – economic efficiency – business interests – limited government spending
  13. 13. Indian National Congress • INC has always attracted support from diverse social groups • in the 1990s INC has lost some of its traditional constituencies among the poor and Muslims
  14. 14. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) • The major political party in India today • right-leaning, Hindu-nationalist party – first major party to mobilize explicitly on the basis of religious identity
  15. 15. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) • better organized than INC – disciplined party members – carefully selected party cadres – clear and respected authority line within the party
  16. 16. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) • Traditional supporters – urban, lower-middle-class groups • base of support widened since mid-1980s – Hindu nationalism – north-central India – decline of Indian National Congress – Muslims as convenient scapegoat for frustration
  17. 17. BJP’s rapid rise to power • electoral success from 1989 to 1999 – difficulty in forming alliance with other parties • break with past traditions – relatively moderate, centrist position • BJP formed governing coalition in 1998 – collapsed in 1999 • BJP formed a new coalition in 1999 – more broadly based than previous coalition
  18. 18. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) • economic liberalization and stability • privilege the interests of the Hindu majority
  19. 19. Federal system • state governments formally control – agriculture – education – law and order within states – dependent on central government for funds
  20. 20. Federal system • Balance of power between central and state governments – varies by time and place – state power was constrained • during the rule of Nehru and Indira Gandhi – state governments have more room to maneuver • when central government is weak • since 1998
  21. 21. Federal system • considerable center-state conflict when ruling political party in a state is different from national ruling party
  22. 22. Parallel state structure • Formal political structure of the states parallels that of the national government • national state • President Governor • Prime Minister Chief Minister • Parliament Assembly • Supreme Court High Court
  23. 23. The legislature • Parliamentary system of government – the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament
  24. 24. The legislature • bicameral Parliament – Rajya Sabha (Council of States) – Lok Sabha (House of the People)
  25. 25. Rajya Sabha (Council of States) • The Upper House
  26. 26. Upper House • Rajya Sabha (Council of States) • not more than 250 members – 12 are nominated by the President of India – the rest are indirectly elected • by state Legislative Assemblies • The Council of States can not be dissolved – members have terms of 6 years – 1/3 members retire at end of every 2nd year
  27. 27. Lok Sabha • House of the People
  28. 28. Lower House • Lok Sabha (House of the People) • 545 members – 2 are appointed by the President of India – the rest are directly elected from single- member districts • 5-year terms unless dissolved • Lok Sabha elects its presiding officer – the Speaker
  29. 29. Lok Sabha • Elections held at least every 5 years • Prime Minister may call elections earlier • 543 single-member districts of roughly equal population • party nomination • 1st-past-the-post – winner-take-all • women’s share
  30. 30. Elections to Lok Sabha • Vote share of 3 major political parties
  31. 31. Prime Minister • Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister • prime minister nominates a cabinet – members of Parliament in the ruling coalition – Council of Ministers • effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister – where most of the important policies originate
  32. 32. Prime Ministers of India • 38 years in the Nehru-Gandhi family • more and more rapid turnover
  33. 33. The President of India • Head of the State • Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces • elected by an electoral college – national Parliament – state legislature • 5-year terms • can be reelected
  34. 34. The President of India • Ceremonial office – symbolize national unity – supposedly above partisan politics • mostly acts on the advice of the prime minister • President plays a significant role when the selection of a prime minister is complex – in 1998 President requested BJP to form govt.
  35. 35. The Judiciary • Fundamental contradiction in constitution – principle of parliamentary sovereignty – principle of judicial review
  36. 36. The Judiciary • judiciary tries to preserve the constitution’s basic structure • to ensure that legislation conforms with the intent of the constitution • parliament tries to assert its right to amend the constitution