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Semester 1 Review


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Semester 1 Review

  1. 1. Semester 1 Review Language Arts Grade 8
  2. 2. Figurative Language
  3. 3. simile A literary device that compares one thing to another using “like” or “as” Examples: “The girls were like two peas in a pod.” “Don’t treat me like a puppet on a string.” “His temper was as explosive as a volcano.”
  4. 4. personification Def.: a literary device where the writer gives human characteristics to non-living things. “While my Guitar Gently Weeps.” “The sky looked angry, with huge black clouds and jagged lightning.” “The car choked and sputtered, spewing smoke, dying a slow death in the middle of the busy highway.”
  5. 5. metaphor A metaphor is a comparison between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing or called by the name of another thing. Example from Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet”: “My love is a blinding, burning flame. The sun, a demon’s eye.” “ Soft! What light through yonder window breaks? It is the east and Juliet is the sun.”
  6. 6. anaphora A literary device where the writer repeats a sequence of words at the beginnings of lines, thereby lending them emphasis. "What we need in the United States is not division. What we need in the United States is not hatred. What we need in the United States is not violence and lawlessness; but is love and wisdom and compassion toward one another, and a feeling of justice toward those who still suffer within our country whether they be white or whether they be black." Robert F. Kennedy, Announcing the death of Martin Luther King
  7. 7. allusion A literary device by which the writer refers indirectly to an historical event or literary work. "I was not born in a manger.” (alludes to the Bible) “Christy didn't like to spend money. She was no Scrooge, but she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities.” (alludes to “A Christmas Carol”)
  8. 8. assonance Repetition of vowel sound(s) of two or more words in close proximity. Examples: "The mass of men lead lives of quietdesperation.” (Henry David Thoreau, Walden) Listen to the long “I” sound in those two words. It is pleasing to the ear, and more subtle than out-and-out rhyming.
  9. 9. assonance Assonance is similar to rhyming, but a bit more sophisticated, and is often used in speeches and “regular” prose writing to make those types of writing more pleasing to the ear and more poetic-sounding. Example from “I Have a Dream” speech: “…shake the foundations of our nation…” Read that line out loud. What vowel sound do you hear repeated three times? Click again for the answer. The long “A” sound. Read it again. It sounds rhythmic, almost like a song.
  10. 10. assonance Sometimes songwriters and poets do it, too. “You better lose yourself in the music, the moment you own it, you better never let it goYou only get one shot, do not miss your chance to blowThis opportunity comes once in a lifetime yo.” The assonance in the first line is the “oo” sound. The assonance in the second line is the long “O” sound. Do you hear it?
  11. 11. Sentence with Interrupter All the trailers look the same, ragged around the edges, lined up in neat little rows. We cruise past block after block of humble little houses, white-washed and stucco, built decades ago.
  12. 12. The apple, red and crisp, plunked me on my head as it fell. The meat-eating dinosaur, stumpy-armed and big-headed, devoured the illiterate fool.
  13. 13. The pale vampire, long black hair framing his angular face, pounced on the helpless fox. The tall vampire, starving for blood, fanged his innocent prey.
  14. 14. Sentence Combining With Appositives Michael was a dedicated Tampa Bay Bucs fan. He attended every home game, even when they were having a losing season. Michael, a dedicated Tampa Bay Bucs fan, attended every home game, even when they were having a losing season.
  15. 15. Simile, Metaphor or Personification?
  16. 16. Personification, Simile or Metaphor? Playing chess with Ashley is like trying to outsmart a computer. Simile
  17. 17. Personification, Simile or Metaphor? His temper was as explosive as a volcano. Simile
  18. 18. Personification, Simile or Metaphor? From Shakespeare: “All the world’s a stage, and we are merely players.” metaphor
  19. 19. Personification, Simile or Metaphor? From Shakespeare: “How like the winter hath thine absence been.” simile
  20. 20. Personification, Simile or Metaphor? The toddler’s mind is a sponge, absorbing everything. metaphor
  21. 21. Personification, Simile or Metaphor? She danced like she was trying to stomp on rabid squirrels. simile
  22. 22. Personification, Simile or Metaphor? Beatles song: “While My Guitar Gently Weeps” personification
  23. 23. Personification, Simile or Metaphor? Song by Jimi Hendrix: “The Wind Cries Mary” personification
  24. 24. Personification, Simile or Metaphor? Song lyric (Kansas): “All we are is dust in the wind…” metaphor
  25. 25. What is an “appositive”? Appositive: a big fan of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers - What does the appositive do? Appositives are dependent clauses- they cannot stand alone without the rest of the sentence; they DEPEND on the rest of the sentence to express a complete thought.
  26. 26. Appositive Practice My dog, , chases the mailman every day. My dog, a frisky poodle, chases the mailman every day. My dog, energetic and territorial, chases the mailman every day. My dog, baring his teeth ferociously, chases the mailman every day.
  27. 27. Add in the Appositive My dog, , ran to bite the mailman. My dog, a huge pit bull, ran to bite the mailman. My dog, furious and foaming at the mouth, ran to bite the mailman.
  28. 28. Add in the Appositive Regan Mealy, an intelligentblonde in the third row, enjoys picking her nose. Trey Haymore, a budding artist, likes to draw tanks. Trey Haymore, talented and driven, likes to draw tanks.
  29. 29. Combine the following sentences to create one sentence with an appositive: “Back to the Future” is one of my favorite movies of all time. “Back to the Future” starred Michael J. Fox. “Back to the Future,” one of my favorite movies, stars Michael J. Fox. Haile Middle School is an “A”-rated school. Haile is located in Bradenton, Florida. The Florida Gators are Mrs. Chioffe’s favorite football team. The Florida Gators are the #1 rated team in the country.
  30. 30. collaborate Def: work together Syn: (team up, join forces) Ant: (work alone) Sent: “Several students plan to collaborate on a geology project for the annual science fair.”
  31. 31. citadel Def: (n.) a fortress that overlooks and protects a city; any strong or commanding place Syn: fort, stronghold Sent: A medieval citadel once guarded the capital city of the Greek island of Rhodes. I have always regarded our colleges and universities as citadels of education and bastions against ignorance and superstition.
  32. 32. hover
  33. 33. hover Def: (verb) to hang suspended over; to move back and forth over or around Syn: float, loom (over) Ant: (soar over) Sentences: The alien ship hovered menacingly over the city. My mom always hovers over my shoulder when I am on the internet.
  34. 34. decree
  35. 35. decree def.: (noun)- an order having the force of law sent: “In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, a mean headmaster posts dozens of decrees all over the wall.” (verb) – to issue such an order; to command forcefully sent: “Professor Umbridge decreed that all students be in their rooms by 6 p.m.” syn: (n) proclamation, edict (v) proclaim
  36. 36. Synonyms: noun- squabble, altercation, spat verb- squabble, quarrel Sentence: (noun) “The two boys were in a wrangle over who would play quarterback.” (verb) “The two boys wrangled over…” wrangle My Sentences: (one as verb and one as noun) Definition: (noun) a fight or argument (verb) to fight or argue
  37. 37. Synonyms: wreckage, debris Sentence: “After the tornado raged through what had once been a quaint little village of Victorian houses was now reduced to a pile of rubble.” rubble My Sentence: Definition: (noun) broken stones or bricks; ruins
  38. 38. Sentence: “Even though the criminal served jail time, she reverted to her old ways when she was released.” Syn: relapse, regress Ant: progress, evolve, advance revert My Sentence: Def: (verb) to return, to go back
  39. 39. FADQuQu: Writing an Introduction that will Wow Your Reader!
  40. 40. Sample Prompt #3: The world is becoming more and more aware of the effects of pollution and excess waste on the environment. Write to convince your principal to enact a mandatory school-wide recycling program.
  41. 41. Sample Prompt #4: Florida has recently changed the legal driving age to 15. Write to convince your parents to allow you to obtain your license a year early.
  42. 42. Now, let’s look at some ways to “grab” the reader (in this case, Mrs. Kerley). Remember, we need to convince her that recycling is the only way to go, the best choice for our school. Let’s draw her in from the very first sentence.
  43. 43. Fact: Every day, our school fills up an entire industrial-sized dumpster with waste that could be recycled.
  44. 44. Fact: Every year, you chauffer Mitch back and forth to school 360 times, adding up to about two and a half weeks out of your life spent on the road. What if I told you that I could relieve you of this burden? If you allow me to obtain my license a year early, I will not only be able to drive Mitch back and forth to school for you, but I will also be able to do many other errands for you to free up your time, as well as get a job and contribute financially to the Charbonneau family.
  45. 45. Fact: Every year, you chauffer Mitch back and forth to school 360 times, adding up to about two and a half weeks out of your life spent on the road.
  46. 46. Anecdote: Every day, I walk by the dumpster that sits behind the school just as the janitor is heaving a heavy, black plastic bag over the edge. The bag, stuffed full of potentially-recyclable materials, is headed for the city dump. The janitor, exhausted, trudges back into the building to fetch the next load.
  47. 47. Anecdote: One hundred and eighty mornings every year go something like this for you: drag Mitch out of bed, kicking and screaming, force-feed him a bowl of cereal, sift through his room to find a clean pair of pants, then push him out the front door towards the car.You are then trapped in the car with Mitch the Whiner for fifteen minutes of complete torture. I may not be able to help out much with the part before you get his lazy butt out the door, but if you allow me to get my license a year early, I can definitely help out with the driving. I will also be able to get a job and not only contribute to the family income, but save for my future, as well.
  48. 48. Description: Picture this: The humidity in Bradenton is soaring, just like the temperature. Just twenty years ago, people would have taken refuge at the beach, body-surfing in the crystal-blue water. But that is the past. Today, the air over Bradenton is thick and brown, like a heavy blanket. The water is now so heavily polluted that visiting the beach is forbidden. Instead of enjoying outdoor activities, Bradentonians are trapped inside.
  49. 49. Description: Imagine this, if you will: it is a Monday morning, the sun is streaming through the window behind your bed, gently prodding you from a restful night’s sleep. You roll over in bed and glance at the clock; it reads 10 a.m. You stretch and sit up in bed; the aroma of coffee beckons you from the kitchen. The house is quiet; all you can hear is the gentle hum of the air conditioner. What dreamland is this? If you allow me to obtain my license at fifteen, I can deliver my loud, annoying siblings safely to school, and you can sleep in and wake refreshed every morning. I will also be able to get a job and contribute to the family income in numerous ways.
  50. 50. Question: “Have you ever thought about how instituting a mandatory recycling program could impact the environment?”
  51. 51. Question: Wouldn’t it make your life much more pleasant if you didn’t have to drag Mitch back and forth to school every day? Have you ever fantasized about waking up in the morning to the gentle prodding of the sunlight and coffee beckoning you from downstairs? If you allow me to obtain my license a year early, I can make all of these dreams come true for you. There are numerous benefits to you allowing me to begin driving, and they are not limited to saving you the dreadful trip to school with Mitch the Whiner and lovely, peaceful mornings. I will also be able to contribute to the family income, which will have many positive benefits for the Pendley Family.
  52. 52. Question: Wouldn’t it make your life much more pleasant if you didn’t have to drag Mitch back and forth to school every day? To not have to spend what adds up to two and a half weeks of your life every year on the road? If this sounds appealing to you, then please consider allowing me to obtain my driver’s license a year early. In addition to saving you the annoying thirty minutes in the car every day with Mitch the Whiner, I will also be able to run errands for you, freeing up your time for other, more enjoyable pursuits. Also, I will finally be able to get a job and earn money for the things that I want and contribute to the family’s income.
  53. 53. Quotation: "To cherish what remains of the Earth and to foster its renewal is our only legitimate hope of survival." Writer Wendell Berry’s wise words sum up exactly why you should institute a mandatory recycling program here at Haile.
  54. 54. Quotation: “Take rest; a field that has rested gives a bountiful crop.” You will be able to take these wise words of Ovid and bring them to life if you allow me to get my license a year early. How? By allowing me this privilege, I will be able to drop Mitch off at school every day, enabling you to sleep in and finally, after all of these years, catch up on thousands of hours of lost sleep. Additionally, I will be able to get a job and contribute in many different ways to the income of Pendley Family.
  55. 55. Identifying FADQuQuExamples
  56. 56. FADQuQu: Writing an Introduction that will Wow Your Reader!
  57. 57. “THE MRS.” a strategy to use in persuasive writing TIME- saves time, helps the reader have more time for other things HEALTH- improves health, reduces stress EDUCATION- improves education, aids understanding MONEY- saves money, helps the reader to make more money RESPONSIBILITY- remind the reader of their responsibility as an individual SAFETY- increases safety, is a safety factor, saves lives
  58. 58. Example Prompt: A new law has passed and teens now have the opportunity to drive a year earlier than before. Persuade your parents to allow you to get your license a year early.
  59. 59. TIME Letting me drive a year early will save you time. You will now have extra time to spend doing your favorite hobbies.
  60. 60. Health Your health-Spending less time on the roads will decrease your stress level and improve your overall health. My health- I will be able to drive myself to football practice which keeps me healthy and out of trouble.
  61. 61. Environment/Education I will be encouraged to keep my grades up so that I can keep my driving privileges.
  62. 62. Money As a driver, I will be able to get a job and help contribute financially to the family.
  63. 63. Respect/Responsibility Being a driver will help me become more responsible as a young adult. I will gain responsibility with more independence on the road.
  64. 64. Safety It will be much safer for me to responsibly drive myself, than to ride in a car with my friends. Riding my bike to school on a busy highway is dangerous; I will be much safer in my protective vehicle.
  65. 65. Sample Prompt #2: Your school is planning to add a teacher in one of the following areas: art, music, or PE. Write to convince your principal to hire a teacher in the field of your choice.
  66. 66. Can you identify the strategy? “Studies have shown that music, whether listened to or played, decreases stress, which has a direct impact on overall wellness.” health
  67. 67. “Additionally, the general health of your students has a very strong correlation to their academic performance.” education
  68. 68. “One of the most important reasons that you should hire an additional music teacher is that it is proven that students who are involved in music programs have an 85% college attendance rate, as opposed to those not involved in music, who only go on to attend college 40% of the time.” Statistic/education
  69. 69. “In the long run, students who are involved in extra curricular activities and music programs have a much higher income because they have graduated from college. College graduates, on average earn $500,000 more than those who graduate from high school and go straight to a job or career. ” Education/money
  70. 70. “When faced with such compelling reasons, how can you not make the right choice? As principal, it is your moral and ethical duty to make the best choices for the students, and there is only one choice to make: hire an additional music teacher.” responsibility
  71. 71. Identifying FADQuQu Examples
  72. 72. .   Prompt: Write to convince students why either math skills or language arts skills are more important in life.
  73. 73. Read the following leads for the prompt, and identify which of the “FADQuQu” strategies is/are being used.
  74. 74. Look all around you. From tall, intricately designed skyscrapers to ultra fuel-efficient cars to computers that can do everything from download your favorite music to recording data from far-off planets. What do they have in common? They were all designed by mathematics. Description followed by a question
  75. 75. In today’s economy, finding a well-paying job is next to impossible. In fact, the unemployment rate in America is at its highest since 1975. Believe it or not, having a strong vocabulary may be the advantage that pushes you past the other applicant for the next job you interview for. The skills that you acquire in Language Arts are essential to almost every aspect of your life, from the ability to relax and enjoy a classic novel to writing a resume that will land you your dream job. facts
  76. 76. Picture this: you have worked your fingers to the bone for fifty years for a boss who made your life a living you know what. You now are ready to retire and buy your dream home. But wait! You have managed to save only a measly three hundred dollars over the course of your lifetime. Now you will be forced to live on a monthly Social Security check that will not even cover your health expenses, let alone an around-the-world cruise or that beautiful log home in the Smoky Mountains. Believe it or not, the math skills that you take the time to learn today will affect you for the rest of your life. anecdote (prediction)
  77. 77. Prompt:   Situation: Each year, the overall quality and nutrition of the food in your school cafeteria has declined due to budget cuts. Task: Write to convince your principal to allocate more funds to the school lunch program to improve the menu. Your two main arguments will be HEALTH of the students and ACADEMIC IMPROVEMENTS (better grades, higher level of learning, higher FCAT scores and even better classroom behavior).
  78. 78. Are you aware that 35% of teens in America are now considered clinically obese due not only to inactivity, but also to a diet that is high in fat and calories? A statistic that is part of a question
  79. 79. Picture this: a student walks through the halls after his fat and calorie-laden lunch, his energy levels so low that he can barely make it to class. He doesn’t have the mental clarity to focus on the lesson of the day, instead, he stares numbly at the wall. Now, picture this: after a healthy meal of fresh fruits and vegetables with a bit of lean protein, that same student is focused and ready to learn. He walks quickly to his classroom, energized and ready to learn. He, along with his classmates, is focused and absorbs the material well. Anecdote
  80. 80. My Grandma Betty, my mother’s mother and probably one of the most intelligent people I have ever known, always said, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” Quotation