RADIATION HARDENED CHIPS1. INTRODUCTION1. WHAT IS RADIATION ?2. WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS CAUSED BY RADIATION ?3. WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF RADIATION ?4. WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF RADIATION IN THE FIELD OF ELECTRONICS ?5. WHAT IS RADIATION HARDENING TECHNIQUE ?WHAT ARE THE PROCESSES USED IN ATTAINIG IT ?6. NEED FOR HARDENING OF CHIPS !
RADIATION(DEF): radiation is energy that comes from a source and travels through some material or through space. Light,heat and sound are types of radiations the kind of radiation discussed in this presentation is called ionizing radiation
PROBLEMS CAUSED BY RADIATION:• Ionization radiation can cause electric noise and signal spikes• . In the case of digital circuits, this can cause results which are inaccurate or unintelligible. This is a particularly serious problem in the design of artificial satellite, space craft, military aircraft, nuclearpower station, and nuclear weapons .
MAJOR RADIATION DAMAGE SOURCES: van Allan radiation belts for satellites Nuclear reactors in power plants for sensors and control circuits Residual radiation from isotopes in chip packaging materials Cosmic radiation for space craft and high altitude aircrafts Nuclear explosions for militants and civilians electronics Cosmic rays come from all directions and consist of approx. 85% protons, 14% alpha particles, and 1% heavy ions, together with x-ray and gamma-ray radiation. Van Allen radiation belts contain electrons (up to about 10 MeV) and protons (up to 100s MeV) trapped in the geomagnetic fie
EFFECT OF RADIATION IN THE FIELD OF ELECTRONICS: Ionization effects neutrons effects Total ionizing dose effects (TIDE) System generated EMP effects (SGEMP) Transient dose effects Digital damage single event effects(SEE) Single-event upsets (SEU), or transient radiation effects in electronics Single-event latchup (SEL) Single-event transient (SET)
Radiation hardening techniques:RHBD(radiation hardened by design )RHBP(radiation hardened by process)
6.Need for hardening: Radiation hardened chips Space is hostile environment Emptiness