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Werner Heisenberg (Uncertainty Principle)

Maria Goeppert Mayer (Nuclear Pairing; Nuclear Shell Structure)

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- 1. Wave Function
- 2. Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander SchrödingerAustrian physicist famous for hiscontributions to quantum mechanics,especially the Schrödinger equationand Philosophy.Schrödinger entered the University ofVienna (1906) and obtained hisdoctorate (1910), saw military servicein World War I and then went to theUniversity of Zrich (1921)Married to Annemarie BertelHe shared the 1933 Nobel Prize forPhysics with the British physicist P.A.M.Dirac.Died on January 4, 1961 at the age of73 due to tuberculosis August 12, 1887 – January 4, 1961 Vienna, Austria
- 3. The Schrodinger equation was formulated in 1926 It describes how the quantum state of a physical system changes in time. The most complete description that can be given to a physical system. Solutions to Schrödingers equation describe not only molecular, atomic,and subatomic systems, but also macroscopic systems, possibly even the whole universe. It is usually impossible to find an exact solution to the equation, so certain assumptions are used in order to obtain an approximate answer for a particular problem.
- 4. WAVE FUNCTION (Ψ)A probability amplitude describing the quantum state of a particle and how it behaves. Its values are complex numbers and, for a single particle, it is a function of space and time The wave function is absolutely central to quantum mechanics: it makes the subject what it is. Also; it is the source of the mysterious consequences and philosophical difficulties in what quantum mechanics means in nature, and even how nature itself behaves at the atomic scale and beyond - which continue in debate to this day.
- 5. SCHRODINGER’s CAT
- 6. A cat, along with a flask containing a poisonand a radioactive source, is placed in a sealedbox. If an internal Geiger counter detectsradiation, the flask is shattered, releasing thepoison that kills the cat. The Copenhageninterpretation of quantum mechanics impliesthat after a while, the cat is simultaneouslyalive and dead. Yet, when we look in the box,we see the cat either alive or dead, not bothalive and dead.
- 7. Uncertainty Principle
- 8. Werner Karl Heisenberg German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics and is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory. Studied at University of Munich In 1923 began working with Max Born in Gottingen. The following year he joined Niels Bohr at the Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen. Awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1932 Heisenberg married ElisabethDecember 5, 1901- February 1, 1976 Schumacher in 1937 and they had Wurzburg, Germany seven children. He died in 1976.
- 9. UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE“The more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known in this instant, and vice versa. ” -Heisenberg, uncertainty paper, 1927 Neither the position not the momentum of a particle can be determined at the same time
- 10. The more accurately you know the position (i.e.,the smaller Dx is) , the less accurately you know themomentum (i.e., the larger Dp is); and vice versa
- 11. Role of an Observer inQuantum Mechanics The observer is not objective and passive The act of observation changes the physical system irrevocably This is known as subjective reality
- 12. Heisenberg realized that ... In the world of very small particles, one cannot measure any property of a particle without interacting with it in some way This introduces an unavoidable uncertainty into the result One can never measure all the properties exactly
- 13. Nuclear Pairing; Nuclear shell structure
- 14. Maria Goeppert Mayer Studied at University of Goettingen 1930 She was the first person to investigate the theoretical basis of nuclear pairing, which plays an important role in the shell model of the atomic nucleus. She was the first person to investigate the phenomenon of double quantum emission and, a few years later, double beta decay. She won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discoveries1906-1972 concerning nuclear shell structure
- 15. REFERENCES:•Freedman, R. et al. (2002). University Physics. Singapore: Pearson Education Asia Pte. Ltd.•http://amods.kaeri.re.kr/mcdf/lectnote.pdf•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schrodinger_equation•http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7GTCus7KTb0•http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/21st_century_science/lectures/lec14.html• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schodinger_equation•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wavefunctionhttp://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_did_Heisenberg_uncertainty_principle_contribute_to_the_idea_that_electrons_occupy_clouds_or_orbitals•http://www.physlink.com/education/askexperts/ae689.cfm•www.spaceandmotion.com/ Physics-Erwin-Schrodinger.htm•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schrödingers_cat

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