Forum 3 edu635 2016

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Social, political and historical context - Focusing on Formulating Essential Questions

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Forum 3 edu635 2016

  1. 1. Forum Three: Social, political and historical context – Focusing on Formulating Essential Questions !
  2. 2. Essential Questions • What are current social forces and educational trends that influence educational curricula? • What are the core components of the curriculum? • How do we formulate Common Core aligned essential questions?
  3. 3. Essential Question 1 •What are social forces and current educational trends that influence educational curricula?
  4. 4. Understanding the Common Core State Standards March 2012
  5. 5. The Common Core State Standards Initiative 5 Beginning in the spring of 2009, Governors and state commissioners of education from 48 states, 2 territories and the District of Columbia committed to developing a common core of state K-12 English-language arts (ELA) and mathematics standards. The Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI) was a state-led effort coordinated by the National Governors Association (NGA) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). www.corestandards.org
  6. 6. Key Instructional Shifts in ELA/Literacy In Reading, the major advances are the shift away from literature-focused standards to a balance of literature and informational texts to reflect college- and career-ready expectations. There is also a greater focus on text complexity and at what level students should be reading. In Writing, there is a strong emphasis on argument and informative/ explanatory writing, along with an emphasis on writing about sources or using evidence to inform an argument. The Common Core also include Speaking and Listening expectations, including a focus on formal and informal talk, which can be done through presentations and group work. The Language standards put a stress on both general academic and domain-specific vocabulary. The Common Core also address reading, writing and literacy across the curriculum, and include literacy standards for science, social studies and technical subjects. These standards complement rather than replace content standards in those subjects, and are the responsibility of teachers in those specific disciplines, making literacy a shared responsibility across educators. 6
  7. 7. 7 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards – Overarching standards for each strand that are further defined by grade- specific standards Grade-Level Standards in English Language Arts – K-8, grade-by-grade – 9-10 and 11-12 grade bands for high school – Four strands: Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects – Standards are embedded at grades K-5 – Content-specific literacy standards are provided for grades 6-8, 9-10, and 11-12
  8. 8. 8 Grade-Level Progression
  9. 9. Essential Question 2 •What are the core components of curriculum?
  10. 10. What are the core components of a curriculum map? • Essential Questions • Content • Standards • Skills/Performance Objectives • Assessment • Activities • Language
  11. 11. Content • Content is the essential concepts and topics covered during a month. • Content is written beginning with a noun.
  12. 12. Content can be designed in different formats: • Discipline Field: focus on the knowledge and specific problem solving tools. • Interdisciplinary: combination of two or more disciplines to examine a common focus. • Student Centered: content is focused on investigation of student generated interests derived from their personal interests and needs.
  13. 13. Content Examples • Cultural diversity • Water cycle • Bridge to Terabithia (?) • Local Government Systems • Fire Safety
  14. 14. Skills • Skills are key abilities and processes students will develop related to specific content. • Skills are written beginning with a verb.
  15. 15. Skills and Thinking Processes are displayed on the map: • Note the difference between broad based thinking processes: analysis, synthesis, decision making, creative, critical, etc… and • Specific techniques: comparing, contrasting, using sentence variety, etc.
  16. 16. Skills Examples • Reading a map • Writing a play • Analyzing non-fiction text • Writing persuasive essays • Matching words and pictures
  17. 17. Assessment • Assessments are the products or performances that demonstrate student learning. • Assessments are what the student does (the actual product or performance), not the evaluation tool used to assess the product.
  18. 18. Assessments are the Major Products and Performances: • Assessment is a demonstration of learning • Assessment is observable evidence • They must be nouns • Tangible products • Observable performances
  19. 19. Assessment Examples • Group presentation • Brochure • Research Paper • Essay exam • Puppet show • Debate
  20. 20. Activities • Key activities that lead to acquisition of knowledge and skills. • Describe the "how" for the knowledge and skills.
  21. 21. Activities Examples • Writing persuasive letters to local government • Water analysis of local river • Critique a work of art • Create a 50 states quilt
  22. 22. Essential Questions • Focus on a broad topic of study (think “concept-based big ideas”). • Set direction for curriculum mapping and unit planning. • Have multiple answers and perspectives. They address “why” or “how”. • Are the “enduring understandings” or “mental Velcro” that helps ideas stick in students’ minds. • Create depth rather than breadth.
  23. 23. Essential Questions Examples • Which is more important – water or air? • What is change? • What if Shakespeare were a woman?
  24. 24. Sample Curriculum Map template Essential Question Content Language Skills Standards Activities Assessment September October November
  25. 25. Essential Question 3 •How do we formulate Common Core aligned essential questions?
  26. 26. Breaking Apart Standards • Teachers collegially analyze standard statements’ explicit, and most importantly, implicit concepts, content, and skills that will be incorporated into units of study, as well as considering formative and summative assessments that accurately measure the designed planned-learning curriculum.
  27. 27. Explicit Versus Implicit expectations • During the process teachers a) agree on the unspoken (non-stated) implicit learning that will become a part of scaffolded learning to ensure students can independently exhibit the explicit standard statements’ expectations; and b) determine how the non- stated expectations will be translated and incorporated explicitly as content and skills learning within teacher team-designed units of study.
  28. 28. THE BREAKING APART STANDARDS PROCEDURAL STEPS - Example • Compare structures in plants (e.g., roots, stems, leaves, flowers) ad animals (e.g., muscles, bones, nerves) that serve different functions in growth and survival.
  29. 29. THE BREAKING APART STANDARDS PROCEDURAL STEPS 1
  30. 30. THE BREAKING APART STANDARDS PROCEDURAL STEPS 2
  31. 31. THE BREAKING APART STANDARDS PROCEDURAL STEPS 3Afterafewmeetingsfocusedondraftingtheseriesofunits,theteamrecordedtheunitsofstudywithin themappingsystem.Figure1.5representsasmallportionoftheteacherteam’sfirstunitofstudy. . Figure1.5 Growth:PlantsUnitofStudy Content Skills GROWTH:PLANTS A.PlantStructures: Roots,Stems,Leaves, Flowers A.Identifyinwritingindividualfunctionofeachstructure:roots–absorb nutrients,stems–providesupport,leaves–synthesizefood,flowers– attractpollinatorsandproduceseedsforreproduction A.Explainvisuallyandinwritingrelationalfunctionsofeachstructure relatedtogrowth Forthefirstyearofimplementationtheteachersdecidedthatformativeandsummative assessmentswouldbeleftuptothediscretionofeachclassroomteacher.Therefore,noassessments
  32. 32. Essential Questions • Are arguable-and important to argue about. • Are at the heart of the subject. • Recur--and should recur--in professional work, adult life, as well as in the classroom. • Raise more questions. • Raise important issues. • Provide a purpose for learning.
  33. 33. Essential Questions • Are provocative, enticing, and engagingly framed. • Are higher-order, in Bloom's sense: they are always matters of analysis, synthesis, and evaluative judgment. You must “go beyond” the information given. • Answers to essential questions cannot be found. They must be invented.
  34. 34. Essential Questions • Essential questions often begin with . . – Why? – Which? – How? – What if? • Why do things happen the way they do? • How could things be made better? • Which is best? • What if this happened?
  35. 35. Essential Questions • Should require one of the following thought processes: – Requires developing a plan or course of action OR – Requires making a decision
  36. 36. An Exercise to Illustrate Essential Questions What are the simple tools found in the kitchen?
  37. 37. An Exercise to Illustrate Essential Questions What are the simple tools used to solve problems?
  38. 38. An Exercise to Illustrate Essential Questions Fact/Topic Based Questions What are the simple tools found in the kitchen? Concept-Based Questions What are the simple tools used to solve problems?
  39. 39. Formula for Designing Essential Questions How do… Why do… __________ Conceptual Noun/Phrase __________ Relational Verb __________? Conceptual Noun/Phrase Think of the following sentence structure…
  40. 40. EXCERPTS FROM COMMON CORE STANDARDS MTH (7th Grade): “Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.” ELA-Lit (8th Grade): “Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text…” HSS (10th Grade): “Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the development of Western political thought. “ SCI (6th Grade): “Plate tectonics accounts for important features of Earth’s surface and major geologic events.” PE (High School, Course 1): “Combine and apply movement patterns, simple to complex, in aquatic, rhythms/dance, and individual and dual activities.”
  41. 41. REFERENCE Taba, H., & Spalding, W. B. (1962). Curriculum development: Theory and practice (pp. 1962-1962). New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. Jacobs, H. H. (1997). Mapping the Big Picture. Integrating Curriculum & Assessment K-12. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1250 N. Pitt Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-1453. Wiggins, G. P., McTighe, J., Kiernan, L. J., & Frost, F. (1998). Understanding by design (pp. 0-87120). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

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