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GlobalEd10 Presentation


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GlobalEd10 Presentation

  1. 1. Leadership in Multicultural Organizations Jon P. Zurfluh 2010
  2. 2. Background Teacher Administrator Traveler Tsuruga, Japan – 1 summer Guangzhou, China – 3 years Shanghai, China – 7 years Coming soon – Moscow!
  3. 3. Complexity Heifetz & Linsky (2002) The Dance Floor Senge (2006) Circles of Causality Five useful skills: Encouraging personal vision – shared comes from personal Communicating and asking for support – personal vision vs. representative of corporate vision Visioning as an ongoing process – not a static step Blending extrinsic and intrinsic visions – beating a competitor vs. setting a new standard Distinguishing positive from negative visions – not just as a method of survival
  4. 4. Change Theory Lewin – 3 steps (as cited in Schein, 1996) Unfreeze Change Freeze Kotter – 8 step (1996) Establish Urgency Guiding Coalition Vision & Strategy Communicating Empowering Short-Term Wins Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change Anchoring Change in the Culture
  5. 5. Drive (Pink, 2009) Autonomy Mastery Purpose Remember Maslow? (Maslow, 1943)
  6. 6. Leadership – Transactional to Transformational Salience of collective identity in self-concept Sense of consistency between their self-concept and their actions on behalf of the leader and the “collective” Higher level of self-esteem and a greater sense of self-worth Similarity between their self-concept and their perceptions of the leader Sense of collective efficacy Sense of meaningfulness in their work and lives
  7. 7. Idealized Influence Provides a role model for high ethical behavior, instills pride, gains respect and trust.
  8. 8. Inspirational Motivation The degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers. Leaders challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimism about future goals, and provide meaning for the task at hand.
  9. 9. Intellectual Stimulation The degree to which the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks and solicits followers' ideas. Leaders with this style stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. They nurture and develop people who think independently.
  10. 10. Individualized Consideration The degree to which the leader attends to each follower's needs, acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs. The leader gives empathy and support, keeps communication open and places challenges before the followers.
  11. 11. Full Range Model – Bass/Avolio (Avolio & Bass, 2004)
  12. 12. (Quinn & Spreitzer, 2006)
  13. 13. Personality Traits Study Extraversion2 – the tendency to be outgoing, assertive, active, and excitement seeking Agreeableness1 – tendencies to be kind, gentle, trusting and trustworthy, and warm Conscientiousness – achievement and dependability Emotional Adjustment – often labeled by its opposite, Neuroticism, which is tendency to be anxious, fearful, depressed, and moody Openness to Experience2 – tendency to be creative, imaginative, perceptive, and thoughtful.
  14. 14. Universality?
  15. 15. Hofstede – Cultural Dimensions Power Distance (PDI) Individualism (IDV) Masculinity (MAS) Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) Long-term Orientation (LTO) (Hofstede & Bond, 1984)
  16. 16. Power Distance Low characteristics Low dependence needs Inequality minimized Hierarchy for convenience Superiors accessible All should have equal rights Change by evolution High characteristics High dependence Inequality accepted Hierarchy needed Superiors often inaccessible Power holders have privileges Change by revolution
  17. 17. Individualism Low characteristics “We” consciousness Relationships have priority over tasks Fulfil obligations to family, in-group, society Penalty implies loss of “face” and shame High characteristics “I” consciousness Private opinions Fulfill obligations to self Penalty implies loss of self- respect and guilt
  18. 18. Masculinity Low characteristics Quality of life, serving others Striving for consensus Work in order to live Small and slow are beautiful Sympathy for the unfortunate Intuition High characteristics Performance ambition, a need to excel Tendency to polarise Live in order to work Big and fast are beautiful Admiration for the successful achiever Decisiveness
  19. 19. Uncertainty Avoidance Low characteristics Relaxed, less stress Hard work is not a virtue per se Emotions not shown Conflict and competition seen as fair play Acceptance of dissent Flexibility Less need for rules High characteristics Anxiety, greater stress Inner urge to work hard Showing of emotions accepted Conflict is threatening Need for agreement Need to avoid failure Need for laws and rules
  20. 20. Long-Term Orientation Low characteristics Absolute truth Conventional/traditional Concern for stability Quick results expected High characteristics Many truths Pragmatic Acceptance of Change Perseverance
  21. 21. Example #1 – United States (from CultureGPS for the iPhone/iPad)
  22. 22. Example #2 - China
  23. 23. Comparing United States China
  24. 24. Two Areas of Difference U. S.  China Lower Individualism People generally center the interest of the (in-) group over the interest of the individual From birth on people are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups which protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty Expect status and maturity to be valued Anticipate opinions to be predetermined by the in-group Expect priority to be put on the relationship when starting a business or work relation More Long-Term Orientation Expect people to foster virtues oriented toward future rewards; in particular, perseverance and thrift Expect the main work values to include learning, honesty, adaptiveness, accountability, and self-discipline Anticipate wide social and economic differences to be undesirable People accept change, relativity, and interrelations Anticipate pragmatic, sythesizing thinking to be common
  25. 25. GLOBE research (House, Javidan, Hanges, & Dorfman, 2002)
  26. 26. Connecting the Two Power Distance Individualism Masculinity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-Term Orienatation Idealized Influence ? ? ? ? ? Inspirational Motivation ? ? ? ? ? Intellectual Consideration ? ? ? ? ? Individualized Consideration ? ? ? ? ?
  27. 27. Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (2004). Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Manual and Sampler (3rd ed.). Mind Garden, Inc. Heifetz, R. A., & Linsky, M. (2002). Leadership on the line: Staying alive through the dangers of leading. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9(1), 42-63. Hofstede, G. (2005). Cultures and organizations : software of the mind (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81-94. Hofstede, G., & Bond, M. H. (1984). Hofstede's culture dimensions: An independent validation using Rokeach's value survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 15(4), 417-433. House, R. J., Javidan, M., Hanges, P., & Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business, 37(1), 3-10. doi:10.1016/S1090-9516(01)00069-4 Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. Pink, D. (2009). Drive : The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York: Riverhead Books. Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., Moorman, S., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107-142. doi:10.1016/1048-9843(90)90009-7 Quinn, R. E., & Spreitzer, G. M. (2006). Entering the fundamental state of leadership: A framework for the positive transformation of self and others. In R. J. Burke & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Inspiring Leaders (pp. 67- 83). London: Routledge. Senge, P. M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization (Revised.). New York: Doubleday/Currency. Spreitzer, G. M., Perttula, K. H., & Xin, K. (2005). Traditionality matters: An examination of the effectiveness of transformational leadership in the United States and Taiwan. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(3), 205-227.