Liver anatomy

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Liver anatomy

  1. 1. The Liver C.Masina
  2. 2. The Liver• The largest internal body organ• Largest gland• Largest organ apart from skin• Weighs about 1.5kg• Found in the upper abdominal cavity: extends from right upper quadrant to left upper quadrant of the abdomen• Attached to diaphragm by  falciform and coronary ligaments Left and right triangular ligaments
  3. 3. Functions• Bile production and secretion• Detoxification• Storage of glycogen• Protein synthesis• Production of heparin and bile pigments• Erythropoiesis (in fetus)
  4. 4. Liver surfaces• Divided into 2 anatomical regions: 1.Diaphragmatic surface: Smooth and dome-shaped surface Anterior liver part Inferior to diaphragm Separated from diaphragm by subphrenic recess and from posterior organs {kidney and suprarenal glands} by hepatorenal recess Covered by peritoneum except
  5. 5. 1.Diaphragmatic surface
  6. 6. 2. Visceral surfaceCovered by visceral peritoneum except porta hepatis and gall bladder bed.• The visceral surface is related to:  Right side of the stomach i.e. gastric and pyloric areas  Superior part of the duodenum i.e. duodenal area  Lesser omentum  Gall bladder  Right colic flexor and right transverse area ; colic area  Right kidney and suprarenal gland; Renal area
  7. 7. Posterior liver view
  8. 8. Liver lobesRight and left lobeFunctionally independent i.e. each with own blood and nervesupplyBlood supply in by:Hepatic arteryPortal veinBlood out through:Vein and biliary drainage
  9. 9. Liver lobes1.The Right lobeDemarcated by : 1. Gall bladder fossa 2. Inferior vena cava fossa 3. Imaginary line from fundus of gall bladder and inferior vena cava
  10. 10. Liver lobes2. Left lobe Divided into: Medial and lateral segments 1.Medial superior – caudate lobe 2.Medial inferior - quadrate lobe
  11. 11. 2. Left lobe cont… The lateral segment is separated from the medial segments by: On visceral surface: 1. fissure of ligamentum teres (round ligament) 2. fissure of ligamentum venosum On diaphragmatic surface: 1. Attachment of falciform ligament
  12. 12. Visceral surface1. The round ligament(ligamentum teres) – obliterated umbilical vein2. The ligamentum venosum – fibrous remnant of fetal ductus vein3. The Porta hepatis (hepatic potal; portal fissure) - transverse fissure on the visceral surface of the liver. – It gives passage to the: 1. Portal vein 2. Hepatic artery 3. Hepatic nerve plexus 4. Hepatic ducts 5. Lymphatic vessels
  13. 13. Peritoneal relations of the LiverThe Lesser omentum• Encloses the portal triad (bile duct, hepatic artery and portal vein )• Passes from the liver to lesser curvature of the stomach + 2 cm of duodenum• Thick free edge -- hepatoduodenal ligament• Sheet like remainder – hepatogastric ligament
  14. 14. To be continued ….• To be continued………………..• To be continued………………..

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