TOPIC 8 : WINDOWA window must be aesthetically acceptable in the context of buildingdesign and surrounding environment.
PURPOSE OF WINDOW• to provide for occasional rapid ventilation and sunlight entry.• to provide a vision out with the world outside the building• window should be selected or designed to resist wind loadings, be easy to clean and provide for safety and security.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT OF WINDOW. 1. Strength 2. Weather Resistance 3. Sound insulation 4. Heat insulation 5. Fire Resistance
a) HINGED WINDOWi. Hinged at the side - this window open from the side.ii. Hinged at the top - this window open from the bottom.ii. Hinged at the bottom - this window open from the top.
b) PIVOT WINDOWii. Horizontal pivotiii.Vertical pivot - this window sash hung on centre pivots
c) SLIDING WINDOWii. Horizontal Sliding - Horizontal sliders from side to side to open.ii. Vertical sliding - Vertical sliders move up and down to open - Gives good controlled ventilation without any forward or backward projection of sashx.Folding sliding
d) SWINGS WINDOW i. Side swing ii. Top swing - swing window open to 90 degrees and fitted with a multi-point locking system for handle and restrictor
e) LOUVRE WINDOW- Good ventilation with only small projections of louvers.- Louvres hung on centre pivots.
f) FIXED WINDOW- usually used in conjunction with other types
COMPONENTS OF WINDOWb)CASEMENT WINDOW HEAD• Head• Jamb TOP RAIL• Mullion JAMB• Bottom rail• Top rail TRANSOM• Transom• Sill BUTTOM RAIL SILL MULLION
WINDOW MATERIALS• Windows are made from wood, aluminum, PVC, fiberglass, or from a combination of these materials.i. WOOD WINDOWS• Wood windows are warm, traditional and aesthetically pleasing.• Because it is a good insulator, wood does not become cold like metal and glass.• Wood is treated with preservatives to prevent rotting.• Wood windows can be painted on the exterior, or clad with aluminum or PVC profiles for better weathering and reduced maintenance.
ii. ALUMINUM WINDOWS• Aluminum windows are more durable than wood, and are thinner, lighter, and easier to handle.• But aluminum is a poor insulator and in cold weather,• Most recent aluminum windows are manufactured with a thermal break, a vinyl or rubber strip that separates the exterior and interior aluminum parts of the window.• The thermal break reduces the movement of cold from the outside to the inside of the building.• Most commercial applications still specify aluminum windows.
iii. PVC WINDOWS• PVC windows are relatively new, having only been introduced during the last 25 years.• These windows are extruded from highimpact resistant polyvinyl chloride (PVC).• PVC windows have excellent weathering characteristics, are almost maintenance-free and have excellent resistance to heat loss.• PVC is available in several extruded colours.
iv. FIBERGLASS WINDOWS• Fiberglass windows are the latest window products to be developed.• Fiberglass and PVC lineals look similar at first glance, however, fiberglass is much more rigid than PVC
WINDOW LOCATIONiii.LIVING ROOM • between 675 mm to 900mm from floor levelv. BEDROOM • between 700mm - 900mm from floor levelvi.BATHROOM • more than 1050 mm from floor level
IRONMONGERY FOR WINDOW• ironmongery usually supplied with and factory fitted to the windows.• Ironmongery divided into three categories: i. ironmongery for hanging ii. Ironmongery for operating iii. Ironmongery for safety
TYPE OF IRONMONGERY FOR WINDOWiii.Ironmongery for hanging • Stainless steel door hinge