Prostate cancer

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Prostate cancer

  1. 1. PROSTATE CANCER Oscar Chiemeka Ezema
  2. 2. FACTS  The most common type of cancer in men after lung cancer  Can grow slowly and not be detected for years  Most men with advanced stages respond to treatment well  Studies have shown that men who masturbate have a lower risk of getting prostate cancer
  3. 3. PROSTATE  Located behind the base of the penis  Surrounds the urethra and its main function is seminal fluid production (hence the glands)  Seminal fluid aids in transportation, protection and nutrition of sperm
  4. 4. MICROSCOPY normal cancer
  5. 5. RISK FACTORS  Age  Race  Family history  Diet  Hormones
  6. 6. TESTS FOR EARLY DETECTION  ELISA test for PSA test (prostrate specific antigen)  DRE (digital rectal examination)  TRUS (trans rectal ultrasound)  Biopsy
  7. 7. DRE
  8. 8. TRUS
  9. 9. SYMPTOMS  Frequent urination  Pain or burning sensation during urination  Frequent urge to urinate at night  Pain in the back, weight loss, fatigue (due to metastasis of the cancer)  Most people don’t get checked as they think it could be a venereal disease
  10. 10. TREATMENT  Depends on stage  More than one method can be used simultaneously
  11. 11. METHODS OF TREATMENT  Surgery – removal of cancer cells and surrounding lymph nodes (to avoid metastasis, may cause urinary incontinence and sexual side effects; )  Radiation therapy – use of high energy x-ray’s to destroy cancer cells. Can be done by ether – external beam (outside the body), IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy – small beams aimed at the cancer from different angles) or Brachytherapy (insertion or radioactive pellets into the prostate)  Hormone therapy - reduction of testosterone to reduce cancer growth  Chemotherapy – last resort and non specific. Use of Paclitaxek, Estracyte and Cyclophosphamide
  12. 12. SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT  Fatigue  Redness, dryness of prostate  Rash around prostrate  Sexual side effects (inability to “perform”)  Pain  Urination problems

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