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教育資料思考: 如何應用資料科學於OSCE中

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教育資料思考: 如何應用資料科學於OSCE中
Thinking with educational data: The use of data science for OSCE
OSCE創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇
大仁科大 2016.12.21

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教育資料思考: 如何應用資料科學於OSCE中

  1. 1. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 教育資料思考: 如何應用資料科學於OSCE中 Thinking with educational data: The use ofdata science forOSCE 劉明機 助理研究學者 國立成功大學 工程科學系 Email: liumingchi@gmail.com
  2. 2. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 • 教育資料科學家 • 關鍵字歷程的語意分析與推薦 • 情感學習(Affective learning) • 「運用深度學習技術於評量與培養運算思維能力 • 科技部資訊教育學門 兩年期計畫主持人 劉明機 博士 liumingchi@gmail.com
  3. 3. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Outlines 資料科學 PISA OSCE的相關議題 評分信效度 關卡設計 學習效率 如何應用資料科學於OSCE中 資料科學用藥須知 如何提升資料素養
  4. 4. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 什麼是資料科學?
  5. 5. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 資料科學 = 統計 + 計算 + 科學
  6. 6. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 cs109.org 資料科學工作流程
  7. 7. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Data is the New Everything
  8. 8. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 http://www.slideshare.net/condamoor/next-generation-analytics-architecture-for-business-advantage
  9. 9. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 http://www.slideshare.net/AmandaMakulec/identifyi ng-your-audience-40086476
  10. 10. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇
  11. 11. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 PISA 國際學生能力評量計劃 PISA (the Programme for International Student Assessment) PISA 2012 共有 65 個國家或地區參與,超過 51 萬名15 歲學生進行兩小時的紙 筆式評量。 閱讀、數學和科學三大素養 PISA 2012 results in focus: What 15-year-olds know and what they can do with what they know. (2014). Retrieved from www.oecd.org/pisa
  12. 12. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 What Makes Schools Successful? 是什麼讓學校成功? Resources, Policies and Practice
  13. 13. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Allocation of educational resources and mathematics performance 教育資源跟數學成績
  14. 14. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Teachers' salaries and mathematics performance 教師的薪水跟數學成績
  15. 15. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇
  16. 16. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 PISA的成功,告訴我們什麼? 用評量告訴我們,世界各國家的教育狀況。 讓資料說話,比任何教育預算政策都有用。 https://www.ted.com/talks/andreas_schleicher_use_data_to_build_better_schools/
  17. 17. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Students‘ motivation and grouping of students 分組方式與動機
  18. 18. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Why You Shouldn‘t Trust All Self-reporters 為什麼你不該相信所有的自願報告 http://bestreviews.com/how-reliable-are-amazon-ratings
  19. 19. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 The Paid Review Bias 付錢評分偏誤
  20. 20. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Awaisu, A., Abd Rahman, N. S., Mohamed, M. H. N., Bux, S., & Nazar, N. I. M. (2010). Malaysian pharmacy students' assessment of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(2), 9. the majority of the respondents remained neutral on many questions, thereby limiting the generalizabilty of the results 大多數藥學生 沒意見
  21. 21. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Problems with the OSCE rating system OSCE的評分問題 OSCE depends on the raters’ impression of the performance of the students. Even if the raters are well trained using a standardized method of assessment, there is no format for presenting the raters’ assessments. Kubota, Y., Yano, Y., Seki, S., Takada, K., Sakuma, M., Morimoto, T., . . . Hiraide, A. (2011). Assessment of pharmacy students' communication competence using the roter interaction analysis system during objective structured clinical examinations. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(3), 6.
  22. 22. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Malaysian pharmacy students‘ assessment of OSCE 馬來西亞藥學生對OSCE意見 A 13-station OSCE included: patient counseling and communication, clinical pharmacokinetics (CPK), identification and resolution of drug-related problems (DRPs), and literature evaluation/drug information provision. A majority felt the tasks required in some stations required a higher degree of learning than they had achieved. Future efforts should include providing clearer instructions at OSCE stations and balancing the complexity of the competencies assessed. Awaisu, A., Abd Rahman, N. S., Mohamed, M. H. N., Bux, S., & Nazar, N. I. M. (2010). Malaysian pharmacy students' assessment of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(2), 9.
  23. 23. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 OSCEs are costly, requiring significant time, teaching staff, and space OSCE很花錢 花時間 花人力 花空間 (Hussainy, Styles, & Duncan, 2012) Hussainy, S. Y., Styles, K., & Duncan, G. (2012). A virtual practice environment to develop communication skills in pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(10), 8. doi:10.5688/ajpe7610202
  24. 24. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 OSCE implementation: High-end and Low-end costs estimation. OSCE的花費 The high-end costs were €145.23 per student (= NT $5000) the low-end costs were €31.51 per student (= NT $1100) Palese, A., Bulfone, G., Venturato, E., Urli, N., Bulfone, T., Zanini, A., . . . Dante, A. (2012). The cost of the objective structured clinical examination on an Italian nursing bachelor's degree course. Nurse Education Today, 32(4), 422-426. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2011.03.003
  25. 25. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Strategies for reducing costs 如何減少花費 Creating a network of nursing bachelor's degree courses for swapping scenarios, cases and clinical situations Cooperating with Patient Associations to involve them as volunteers in the clinical scenarios Establishing links with hospitals to obtain space for conducting the OSCE Palese, A., Bulfone, G., Venturato, E., Urli, N., Bulfone, T., Zanini, A., . . . Dante, A. (2012). The cost of the objective structured clinical examination on an Italian nursing bachelor's degree course. Nurse Education Today, 32(4), 422-426. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2011.03.003
  26. 26. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 二十年後的公民需要具備什麼核心能力? http://sa.ylib.com/MagCont.aspx?Unit=featurearticles&id=2096
  27. 27. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 日本藥學檢驗PhCAT
  28. 28. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 日本OSCE http://www.phcat.or.jp/ http://phcat.or.jp/app-def/S-102/wp/wp- content/uploads/2012/02/yakugaku_sample.mp4
  29. 29. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 OSCE的相關議題 評分信效度 關卡設計 學習效率
  30. 30. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 OSCE評分信效度
  31. 31. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 考官如何2秒評分?
  32. 32. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 外表重要嗎?
  33. 33. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Physical attractiveness on academic performance 外表對成績影響 Photographs of the student ID Approval from the institution Multiple raters (1-5) The same 50 images for normalization Google 大仁科大正妹 French, M. T., Robins, P. K., Homer, J. F., & Tapsell, L. M. (2009). Effects of physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming on academic performance in high school. Labour Economics, 16(4), 373-382.
  34. 34. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Grooming hasthe largest effect on GPAformale students,having a very attractive personality is most importantfor female students. 乾淨對男生成績比較重要,魅力對女生成績比較重要 Personal appearance measures Models Males (N = 2487) Females (N = 2878) A B C D E F G H Very physically attractive 0.055 − 0.122* 0.080** − 0.047 Below average physical attractiveness − 0.146** − 0.005 − 0.114 − 0.044 Very attractive personality 0.145*** 0.081 0.173*** 0.145*** Below average personality attractiveness − 0.182** − 0.114 − 0.128* − 0.091 Very well groomed 0.263*** 0.274*** 0.163*** 0.114** Below average grooming − 0.492*** − 0.468*** − 0.197* − 0.155 R squared 0.219 0.222 0.235 0.237 0.29 0.294 0.293 0.297 linear regression results for the effects of personal appearance on overall GPA French, M. T., Robins, P. K., Homer, J. F., & Tapsell, L. M. (2009). Effects of physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming on academic performance in high school. Labour Economics, 16(4), 373-382. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2009.01.001
  35. 35. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 More Attractive female students earn higher grades than unattractive ones (Hernández- Julián & Peters, 2015) Rating of charisma and the display of an attractive photograph were both positively associated with Teaching effectiveness ratings (Rannelli et al., 2014) Scholars‘ physical appearance is significantly correlated with their research performance (Dilger, Lutkenhoner, & Muller, 2015) Lombarts, Kmjmh. (2014). A (good) look at the rating of teaching effectiveness: Towards holistic and programmatic assessment. Medical Education, 48(8), 744-747. doi:10.1111/medu.12491 Rannelli, L., Coderre, S., Paget, M., Woloschuk, W., Wright, B., & McLaughlin, K. (2014). How do medical students form impressions of the effectiveness of classroom teachers? Medical Education, 48(8), 831-837. doi:10.1111/medu.12420 Hernández-Julián, Rey, & Peters, Christina. (2015). Student appearance and academic performance. Metropolitan State University of Denver.
  36. 36. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 But Attractiveness can be a disadvantage in some situations (Lombarts, 2014) Disadvantaged when applying for military Less may be expected of them Appearance is significantly smaller for both male and female students in online course environments (Hernández-Julián & Peters, 2015) Scholars' research performance is especially correlated with perceived trustworthiness (Dilger, Lutkenhoner, & Muller, 2015)
  37. 37. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Reliability and validity of OSCE OSCE的信效度議題 Interrater reliability Internal consistency Test–retest reliability Marking tools Pass mark Concurrent and predictive validity Validity as ‘Real World’ assessment Rushforth, H. E. (2007). Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE): Review of literature and implications for nursing education. Nurse Education Today, 27(5), 481-490. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2006.08.009
  38. 38. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Limitations of OSCEs OSCE的限制 Since 2 parallel OSCEs were conducted, the training emphasized consistency in grading between each pair of examiners to ensure the same scores were achieved by a student. However, no data were generated to support the sufficiency of this in ensuring the validity and reliability of the examination. Overall scores on the OSCE are often not very reliable Awaisu, A., Abd Rahman, N. S., Mohamed, M. H. N., Bux, S., & Nazar, N. I. M. (2010). Malaysian pharmacy students' assessment of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(2), 9.
  39. 39. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 It is more difficult to reliably assess communication skills than clinical skills. 溝通能力比診斷能力難評量 Brannick, M. T., Erol-Korkmaz, H. T., & Prewett, M. (2011). A systematic review of the reliability of objective structured clinical examination scores. Medical Education, 45(12), 1181-1189. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04075.x
  40. 40. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Assessment of pharmacy students’ communication competence 評量藥學生的溝通能力 The patient case used for the OSCE was that of a diabetic patient. Interview to gather information regarding the patient’s medical history. Each interview was limited to 5 minutes. The 3 raters who evaluated the students, who were certified as official raters by the Common Achievement Test Organization in Japan. The raters used a 6-point global rating scale (6=the student’s performance did not differ from that of a real pharmacist.) Kubota, Y., Yano, Y., Seki, S., Takada, K., Sakuma, M., Morimoto, T., . . . Hiraide, A. (2011). Assessment of pharmacy students' communication competence using the roter interaction analysis system during objective structured clinical examinations. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(3), 6.
  41. 41. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS): A method for coding medical dialogue Kubota, Y., Yano, Y., Seki, S., Takada, K., Sakuma, M., Morimoto, T., . . . Hiraide, A. (2011). Assessment of pharmacy students' communication competence using the roter interaction analysis system during objective structured clinical examinations. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(3), 6.
  42. 42. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Figure 2. Relationship between the students’ global rating score and number of utterances in the business category (R = 0.4305; P = 0.1092) Figure 1. Relationship between the students’ global rating sc and number of utterances in the socio-emotional category (R= 0.662; P < 0.01). A good interview in the OSCE has been defined as one consisting of a numerous variety of utterances, especially in the socio-emotional category. 跟社會情感有關的對話越多,OSCE成績越高. Kubota, Y., Yano, Y., Seki, S., Takada, K., Sakuma, M., Morimoto, T., . . . Hiraide, A. (2011). Assessment of pharmacy students' communication competence using the roter interaction analysis system during objective structured clinical examinations. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(3), 6.
  43. 43. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 OSCE關卡設計
  44. 44. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 人類沒有工作的那一天
  45. 45. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 2016/12/21 (世界經濟論壇) 2020年 500萬份工作被機器人取代 (日本野村綜合研究所) 20年後49%職業由機器人取代 (數位時代) 機器人可能讓全人類都沒有工作
  46. 46. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Robots that can adapt like animals 機器人像動物一樣適應 Cully, Antoine, Clune, Jeff, Tarapore, Danesh, & Mouret, Jean-Baptiste. (2015). Robots that can adapt like animals. Nature, 521(7553), 503-U476. doi:10.1038/nature14422 Using the Intelligent Trial and Error algorithm, robots, like animals, can quickly adapt to recover from damage.
  47. 47. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Computershad mastered the artof telling sportsandfinancestories 電腦寫體育與財經報告 (StatsMonkey) http://singularityhub.com/2009/11/09/is-software-set-to-replace-sports-journalists/
  48. 48. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infinite_monkey_theorem
  49. 49. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Eureqa:The Robot Scientist 機器科學家 http://www.wired.com/2009/04/newtonai/ http://www.wired.com/2009/12/download-robot-scientist/
  50. 50. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 http://krishna.org/evolution-from-scientist-to-monkey/
  51. 51. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 智慧科技 走入日本居家式照護 「日本再興戰略」,將機器人 列入重點發展項目。 「藉由照護機器人,促進自立、 減輕照護負擔之五年計畫」。 將長照保險適用範圍擴大至照 護機器人,降低使用者負擔。 http://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20160126000336-260207
  52. 52. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 人工智慧來了 淘金潮vs.失業潮 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=571p_v4wriM
  53. 53. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 機器人上陣 配藥零失誤 http://udn.com/news/story/7331/1827544 讓醫護人員可不用再直接接觸 有毒的化療藥物,而且還具備 配藥零失誤率與高效率等優點。
  54. 54. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 科技性失業 人類不適任的未來 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X439JRyoyXo
  55. 55. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 未來,人類的互動技巧越來越重要 創意問題解決能力 說故事溝通能力 情感能力 http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/03/09/does-alphago-mean-artificial-intelligence-is- the-real-deal/the-skills-of-human-interaction-will-become-most-valuable-in-the-future
  56. 56. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 模擬藥局 Students had to imagine patients’ characteristics and could not observe important aspects, such as body language, which help a pharmacist appropriately communicate with a patient. Hussainy, S. Y., Styles, K., & Duncan, G. (2012). A virtual practice environment to develop communication skills in pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(10), 8. doi:10.5688/ajpe7610202
  57. 57. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 A virtual practice environment Figure 2. Example of how a case was presented to students in the Communication and Counseling Tutorials Hussainy, S. Y., Styles, K., & Duncan, G. (2012). A virtual practice environment to develop communication skills in pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(10), 8. doi:10.5688/ajpe7610202
  58. 58. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Scenario-based simulation course training on nurses‘ communication competence 以模擬課程訓練護生溝通技巧 Compare the effect of a traditional course versus scenario-based simulation training on nurses' communication competency, communication self-efficacy, and communication performance in discharge planning OSCE. Hsu, L. L., Chang, W. H., & Hsieh, S. I. (2015). The effects of scenario-based simulation course training on nurses' communication competence and self-efficacy: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(1), 37-49. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2014.05.007
  59. 59. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Table 2. Study Protocol for the Two Groups Hsu, L. L., Chang, W. H., & Hsieh, S. I. (2015). The effects of scenario-based simulation course training on nurses' communication competence and self-efficacy: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(1), 37-49. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2014.05.007
  60. 60. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Hsu, L. L., Chang, W. H., & Hsieh, S. I. (2015). The effects of scenario-based simulation course training on nurses' communication competence and self-efficacy: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(1), 37-49. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2014.05.007
  61. 61. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Hsu, L. L., Chang, W. H., & Hsieh, S. I. (2015). The effects of scenario-based simulation course training on nurses' communication competence and self-efficacy: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(1), 37-49. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2014.05.007 Table 5. Between-Subjects Effects of the Communication Training Course on the Communication Competence and Self-Efficacy at the First Posttest (N = 116) Table 6. Between-Subjects Effects of the Communication Training Course on the Learning Satisfaction and Communication Performance at the First or Second Posttest (N = 116 at T2 and n = 78 at T3)
  62. 62. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Empathy is related to OSCE scores 同理心跟OSCE分數有關 Ogle, J., Bushnell, J. A., & Caputi, P. (2013). Empathy is related to clinical competence in medical care. Medical Education, 47(8), 824-831. doi:10.1111/medu.12232 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 not at all a lot (1) Did the physician provide the opportunity for the patient to give his/her opinion? (2) Did the physician treat the patient as an equal partner? (3) Did the physician show understanding of the patient’s point of view? (4) Did the physician try to put him/herself in the position of the patient? (5) Did the physician show interest in the patient’s opinion? (6) Did the physician put the patient under pressure? (7) Did the physician "preach"? (8) Did the physician admonish the patient? (9) Was the physician responsive to the patient?
  63. 63. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 如何自動評估情感能力?
  64. 64. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Microsoft Emotion Recognition API https://www.projectoxford.ai/demo/Emotion
  65. 65. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 蕭博駿到底喜不喜歡當工具人?
  66. 66. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Emotion recognition with the facial expression software 用表情辨識軟體辨識情緒 Students’ emotional states from the recorded clips were recognized by using FaceReader facial expression software (http://www.noldus.com/facereader/facereader-online). The method for indicating whether the emotional status of the subject is positive or negative is based on a valence value. The valence indicates whether the facial expressions are positive or negative
  67. 67. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Emotional states of the clips Figure 4. The valences of an example clip indicating the generally negative emotion of a student N Valence Mean SD 95% CI to mean 24 -0.07 0.14 -0.13 to -0.01 Table 7. Valence mean scores, standard deviations
  68. 68. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Muldner,K.,&Burleson,W.(2015).Utilizingsensordatatomodelstudents‘creativityinadigital environment.ComputersinHumanBehavior,42,127-137. 使用感測器量測創造力 Input data EEG Eye movement Physiological signals Dialogue 情緒角度 個體處於正向情感將有助於產生更多元化的資訊、更多樣性的聯 想,因而增強個體的思考彈性 (Alice M Isen, 1990; Murray, Sujan, Hirt, & Sujan, 1990) 引起個體負向的情感(如:焦慮),會導致傾向使用僵硬的策略,而 且厭煩的情緒會使個體降低注意力,造成淺層的知識處理。
  69. 69. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Target problem 為什麼用這個task? 1.過去用過 2.不需要領域知識 3.很好評分
  70. 70. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Reliable differences in sensor features characterizing low vs. high creativity students 高低創造力成績的差異The low creativity students had – marginally fewer total fixations – significantly shorter total saccade path length – significantly lower average saccade speed – marginally lower saccade speed standard deviation – marginally more short term excitement – marginally greater standard deviation of frustration Classifier TPR FPR F-measure Rule Nnge 85.7 21.4 85.4 Naive bayes – simple 76.2 33.3 75.7 True Positive Rate, higher is better. False Positive Rate, lower is better.
  71. 71. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 毅力的重要性! 「當你遭遇失敗後,才會找到解決失敗的課題。 把失敗付諸一笑,然後採取新的行動,這才是 最重要的事。」 -日本太陽Parts公司社長城岡陽志 「人的一生為什麼要努力?因為最痛苦的事, 不是失敗,是我本來可以。」 - 網絡名言
  72. 72. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 怎麼量測毅力? 乙武洋匡雖然沒有四肢, 但是他卻擁有超越一般 人的毅力。
  73. 73. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Flappy Bird game FLAPPY BIRD DEATH MONTAGE (iOS Gameplay Video) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FxKb_zx9cUg
  74. 74. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Flappy Bird 誤我一生 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLYINpY-zLw
  75. 75. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 遊戲培養團隊合作 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPBnJO1Niww
  76. 76. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Ventura,Matthew,&Shute,Valerie.(2013). Thevalidityofagame-based assessmentofpersistence.Computers inHuman Behavior,29(6), 2568-2572. 用遊戲量測毅力 Example problem in a physics video game NP session logs Performance measure of persistence (PMP) Game-based assessment of persistence (GAP) Physics test Self-report measure of persistence Enjoyment question Video game experience
  77. 77. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 The GAP, silver, and unsolved times significantly relate to the PMP and the physics posttest scores for low performers 遊戲測毅力對低成就比較有用 PMP GAP Unsolved Silver Gold Enjoy Self-p GAP .51** Unsolved .47** .96** Silver .42** .81** .62** Gold .00 .22 .14 .32** Enjoy .23 .08 .02 .18 .06 Self P .10 −.01 −.01 .00 .03 −.05 Physics post test .30* .33** .31* .29* .08 .18 .15 Correlations for 70 low performers in Newton’s Playground. GAP = unsolved and silver times; unsolved = unsolved time; silver = silver time; gold = gold time; enjoy = I enjoyed playing NP; self P = self-report measure of persistence.
  78. 78. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 The GAP relates much lower to the PMP for high performers versus low performers 遊戲測毅力對高成就比較沒用 PMP GAP Unsolved Silver Gold Enjoy Self-p GAP .22 * Unsolved .12 .94 ** Silver .31 ** .84 ** .60 ** Gold .12 .30 ** .36 ** .11 Enjoy .10 .11 .11 .09 −.03 Self P .09 −.06 −.05 −.05 −.13 .07 Physics post test .16 .02 .01 .04 −.21 .15 .15 Correlations for 84 high performers in Newton’s Playground. GAP = unsolved and silver times; unsolved = unsolved time; silver = silver time; gold = gold time; enjoy = I enjoyed playing NP; self P = self-report measure of persistence.
  79. 79. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 OSCE學習效率
  80. 80. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Work Smart, Not Hard
  81. 81. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Upload knowledge to your brain 記憶吐司 穿顱直流電刺激tDCS Working memory is linked primarily with brain activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) Skill acquisition and procedural learning is linked primarily with brain activity in primary motor cortex (M1) Choe, Jaehoon, Coffman, Brian A, Bergstedt, Dylan T, Ziegler, Matthias, & Phillips, Matthew E. (2016). Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates neuronal activity and learning in pilot training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 25. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2016.00034
  82. 82. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Flight path deviation between subjects and autopilot 有刺激比較能控制 Choe, Jaehoon, Coffman, Brian A, Bergstedt, Dylan T, Ziegler, Matthias, & Phillips, Matthew E. (2016). Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates neuronal activity and learning in pilot training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 25. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2016.00034
  83. 83. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/business/2015/06/15/company-creates-wearable-tech-to-alter-mind-body.html Send electrical impulses to users' nerves to make the person calmer or more energized. 你累了嗎? Thync
  84. 84. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 OSCE很有壓力 Majority of the students stated that the OSCE was very stressful (75.5%) and more than half of them found the exam more stressful than the other exams (51.1%).(Selim, Ramadan, El-Gueneidy, & Gaafer, 2012) An OSCE could then be seen as limiting for students who lack verbal skills as well as for those who are unable to overcome nerves during a stressful event.(Baid, 2011) OSCE might hinder their performance as a result of the stress of being assessed in a simulated environment (Hemingway, Stephenson, Roberts, & McCann, 2014) The OSCE was seen as stressful to students (Bouchoucha, Wikander, & Wilkin, 2013)
  85. 85. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 造成壓力的原因 Students' stress and anxiety are related to the new experience with OSCE Students were stressed by the lack of enough time to deal with the scenario in some stations. Selim, A. A., Ramadan, F. H., El-Gueneidy, M. M., & Gaafer, M. M. (2012). Using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in undergraduate psychiatric nursing education: Is it reliable and valid? Nurse Education Today, 32(3), 283-288. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2011.04.006
  86. 86. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 護理師壓力大 訓練期短縮 新進護理人員壓力遽增 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_DxFidVtcb8 趕搭哈味風潮!急診部護理跳「哈味舞」紓壓 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1R8rpaWsaAg
  87. 87. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 危機同時也是轉機 An opportunity for students to develop skills in presenting information to others and managing stressful clinical situations which are essential aspects of intensive care nursing practice. Learning to manage anxiety during an OSCE may actually help overall performance of clinical skills in practice (Byrne & Smyth, 2008) Baid, H. (2011). The objective structured clinical examination within intensive care nursing education. Nursing in Critical Care, 16(2), 99-105. doi:10.1111/j.1478-5153.2010.00396.x
  88. 88. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 如何設計可提升正向情感的測驗回饋? Liu, Chia-Ju, Huang, Chin-Fei, Liu, Ming-Chi, Chien, Yu-Cheng, Lai, Chia-Hung, & Huang, Yueh-Min*. (2015). Does gender influence emotions resulting from positive applause feedback in self-assessment testing? Evidence from neuroscience. Educational Technology & Society, 18(1), 337-350.
  89. 89. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Positive applause feedback in self-assessment testing Rewarding with applause sound during computerized test 掌聲鼓勵
  90. 90. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Two tests the controlled task the experimental task 30 students (15 males, 15 females; mean age ± S.D. = 19.2 ± 2.0 years) participated in this experiment.
  91. 91. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Timeline of experimental procedure
  92. 92. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Gender differences in anxiety The controlled task The experimental task
  93. 93. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Applause decrease male’s anxiety Topographical map of the brain
  94. 94. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 如何應用資料科學於OSCE中 評分信效度 收集對話,將自動將資料編碼,給予評分參考。 收集表情,判斷情緒,給予評分參考。 關卡設計 收集臨床CASE對話、影片,提供更擬真的CASE。 著重在未來不容易被取代的技能(溝通、情感、創意問題解決) 建置電腦化、自動化評量,降低關卡成本。 學習效率 收集學習歷程(認知、技能、情意),分析學生的問題。 利用資料分析,發展有效的學習回饋。
  95. 95. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Data Science Pitfalls 資料科學注意事項
  96. 96. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 用藥沒看清,肛門塞劑吞下肚、眼藥水乎乾啦! http://www.5678news.com/news_details.php?n=201607160849213852 資料科學注意事項
  97. 97. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 A correlation of 0.85 was obtained A comparison of model estimates for the mid-Atlantic region (black) against Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)- reported influenza-like illness ILI percentages (red), including points over which the model was fit and validated. Ginsberg, J., Mohebbi, M. H., Patel, R. S., Brammer, L., Smolinski, M. S., & Brilliant, L. (2009). Detecting influenza epidemics using search engine query data. Nature, 457(7232), 1012-U1014.
  98. 98. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Google Flu Trends 的成功 1. Data 分析能夠創造神奇般準確的結果。 2. 每一個 Data 都能不被遺漏,使得舊有的統計抽樣方法過時。 3. 不用再煩惱 Data 間的因果關係,因為統計的相關性會告訴我們我們想要的資 訊,科學的或是統計的模型不再需要,因為套一句 2008 年在 Wired 發表的論文 《 The End of Theory 》裡的話:「有了足夠的資料,數字會自己說話」。 Big data- are we making a big mistake http://buzzorange.com/techorange/2014/06/04/big-data-making-big-mistake/
  99. 99. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 相關不等於因果 新聞中充斥著流感可怕的故事,而這些故事可能會引起健康的人們在網路上搜 尋相關資訊 Google 自身擁有的搜尋演算法可說是「朝夕令改」,是不斷的在轉變的,當人 們進入醫療症狀時它開始自動地建議診斷情形。
  100. 100. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 大數據已死? 「大數據」是個非常差勁的命名,因為它讓人們直接聯想到「大」,但數據的大小其實是 最無趣的部分,最重要的其實是那些你從來沒有想過可以用的數據以及那些非傳統的資料, 我認為這才是人們對大數據應有的認知。 [專訪]美國Top 4 技術長寶立明:大數據即將在五年內消失 http://www.bnext.com.tw/article/view/id/35404
  101. 101. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Data規模大小稱不上一回事 1936年,美國總統選舉,預測選戰結果。 The Literary Digest,郵寄1,000 萬名民眾問卷。收到 240 萬個回覆,花了超過兩 個月的時間, Literary Digest 宣布它的結果:Landon 55% > 41% Franklin。 實際選舉的結果 Franklin 61% > 37% Landon George Gallup 的小樣本調查反而更接近最終選戰的結果。 Harford, Tim. (2014). Big data: A big mistake? Significance, 11(5), 14-19. doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2014.00778.x
  102. 102. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 壞樣本的毛病 1.對調查母體沒有定義清楚 2.母體裡面的個體有些永遠不可能被抽中
  103. 103. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 龐大的資料量底下,不要犯相同傳統的統計錯誤。 The Literary Digest所寄出的郵件名單是同時從車輛登記及電話簿中編纂而成的 名單,至少在 1936 年的那時,是非常不成比例的 在所有郵寄回復的 240 萬個問卷結果中,Landon 的支持者更樂於將他們的結果 交還給 The Literary Digest。
  104. 104. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 Battling bad science (實驗法) 不要安慰劑,跟最佳的方法比,才能幫助做決定。 不能將舊方法效用調低,或是調高。 不能隱藏資料。 Battling bad science https://www.ted.com/talks/ben_goldacre_battling_bad_science
  105. 105. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 如何提升資料素養?
  106. 106. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇
  107. 107. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇
  108. 108. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇 資料科學傳教士 2016台灣資料科學愛好者年會,有志一同教育大數據共同主持人。 「統計與生活」通識 「專家系統」,融入課程推薦、股價預測、商品分類、球探等實務案例。 「電腦軟體應用」通識,Excel 資料處理技巧。 「教育中的資料科學:深又大」slideshare Liu, Ming-Chi, & Huang, Yueh-Min. (In Press). The use of data science for education: The case of social-emotional learning. Smart Learning Environments.
  109. 109. OSCE 創新學習與雲端大數據高峰論壇  劉明機

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