Relative clauses

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This presentation has been made by a secondary teacher in order to explain students how relative clauses are used.I hope it can be useful

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Relative clauses

  1. 1. RELATIVE CLAUSES DEFINING NON-DEFINING By Cristina Andreu
  2. 2. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>Definition:subordinate adjectival clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Example:I like a house. It is very expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>I like a house that is very expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Position:after the noun they refer to. </li></ul><ul><li>The house that they bought is quite old </li></ul><ul><li>noun .....that they bought..... </li></ul>
  3. 3. RELATIVE PRONOUNS/ADVERBS <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Things </li></ul><ul><li>People and things </li></ul><ul><li>Possession </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Who/whom </li></ul><ul><li>Which </li></ul><ul><li>That </li></ul><ul><li>Whose </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul>
  4. 4. RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH PREPOSITIONS <ul><li>People: preposition+whom/who.......preposition </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The man about whom he told you is my father. </li></ul><ul><li>The man (who) he told you about is my father. </li></ul><ul><li>Things: </li></ul><ul><li>preposition+which/which......preposition </li></ul><ul><li>Example:The film about which we are talking was shot in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>The film (which)we are talking about was shot in Spain. </li></ul>
  5. 5. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE PRONOUN The pronoun can be omitted if it is not the subject of the relative clause. <ul><li>The bus [ which/that goes to Cairo ] leaves from here. </li></ul><ul><li>The bus [ ( which/that ) we took ] stopped at three stations. </li></ul><ul><li>The woman [ who/that teaches us music ] plays in a orchestra. </li></ul><ul><li>The woman [ ( who/whom/that ) you have just met ] is our music teacher </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECT(THINGS) </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT(THINGS) </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECT(PEOPLE) </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT(PEOPLE) </li></ul>
  6. 6. DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING <ul><li>Defining </li></ul><ul><li>They give essential </li></ul><ul><li>information.Without </li></ul><ul><li>them the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>remains incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: This is the computer which we bought yesterday . </li></ul><ul><li>Non-defining </li></ul><ul><li>They give an </li></ul><ul><li>explanation.If they are </li></ul><ul><li>omitted, the remaining </li></ul><ul><li>sentences still make </li></ul><ul><li>sense. </li></ul><ul><li>Always between commas </li></ul><ul><li>Usually after proper nouns,or nouns preceeded by possessive or demonstrative adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Example:My house, which belonged to my parents ,is near the town centre. </li></ul>
  7. 7. DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING <ul><li>Defining </li></ul><ul><li>The pronoun “that” can be used for both people and things. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative pronoun can be omitted as it is not functioning as a subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-defining </li></ul><ul><li>“ that” CANNOT be used. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative pronoun CANNOT be omitted </li></ul>
  8. 8. PRACTICE <ul><li>Combine the following sentences using relative pronouns and adding commas when necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>John bought a DVD player. It was made in Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>John bought a DVD player which/that was made in Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>My new shop is very successful. You saw it last week. </li></ul><ul><li>My new shop, which you saw last week, is very successful. </li></ul>
  9. 9. PRACTICE <ul><li>Freddie Mercury died in 1992.He was a famous singer. </li></ul><ul><li>Freddie Mercury, who was a famous singer,died in 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>There’s the woman. I met her last night. </li></ul><ul><li>There’s the woman(who/that) I met last night. </li></ul><ul><li>John is my friend.His car was stolen from the car park. </li></ul><ul><li>John,whose car was stolen from the car park, is my friend. </li></ul><ul><li>The director is very demanding.Jean works for him. </li></ul><ul><li>The director for whom Jean works is very demanding. </li></ul><ul><li>The director (who/that) Jean works for is very demanding </li></ul>

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