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Effects of Assistive Technologies
Combined with Desktop Virtual
Reality in Instructional Procedures
ACED 7990
Analysis of Research in Adult and Career Education
Dorea Hardy & Denise Parker
Presented: April 1, 2014
Evaluation Form
Strongly Agree
 A highly relevant topic for this technological era in
education
#1 – Choice of Problem/Topic
Disagree
 Personal Opinions
 Unclear Statements
 “some conditions”
 “some learners”
#2 – Literature Review
 Section 508
#2 – Literature Review
http://webaim.org/standards/508/checklist
 Section 508
#2 – Literature Review
http://webaim.org/standards/508/checklist
 Section 508
#2 – Literature Review
http://webaim.org/standards/508/checklist
Agree/Disagree
 Vague
 Lacked tie-in
 Misdirection
#3 – Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
http://canitbesaturdaynow.com/dived/single/fence_cat/
#4 – The Purpose
Hardy
 Strongly Disagree
 Did not feel that it was clearly
stated
 Came across as if he was not
sure what he was investigating
Parker
 Disagree
 Reasons
Strongly Disagree
 Too Many Hypotheses
 Contradictions
#5 – Research Questions,
Objectives, or Hypotheses
Strongly Disagree
 Instrument Development / Testing / Validation
 Qualitative Data – Questions asked?
 Observations
#6 – Data Gathering Steps/Techniques
Strongly Disagree
 Tables Confusing
 Trying to answer too many variables
#7 – Data Analysis
Disagree
 Interviews?
 What questions were asked?
 Who developed the questions?
 Were the questions tested/validated?
 Or did the students just give comments/thoughts?
#8 - Conclusions
Disagree
 Already standard procedure / common practice
#9 – Explanation of how study adds to
theory, current knowledge base, etc.
Disagree
 Clarity
 Spelling Error
 Within the instrument screenshots
#10 – Quality of Writing
Strongly Disagree
 Flawed study
 Showed us what not to do
 However…
there were many valid ideas presented for multiple
future research projects
#11 – Contribution to knowledge
 Agreed – Very good choice of topic
 Decent descriptions of theories
Strengths
 Introduction
 Disabilities
 Vagueness
 Sample Selection
 Size – too small
 Disabilities – including visible & hidden
 Age Categories
 Vocation – only one represented
Shortcomings
 Hypotheses – Too Broad
 Personal opinion in Literature Review
 Training of Participants
 Qualitative Information / Interviews
Shortcomings
 The Programs / Instruments
 Designer(s)?
 Programmer(s)?
 Content Developer(s)?
 Validation of material and/or instruments?
 Was a User Experience expert consulted?
 Was a Section 508 expert consulted?
 Apples, Oranges, or Fruit Basket?
Shortcomings
 Tabular Data
1. Table 1
 Standard Deviations
 Standard Error
2. Table 2
 Effect Size – meaningless
Shortcomings
“[T]he adequacy of the research methodology that they employed should be considered.
Woefully inadequate sampling (such as a very biased sample), clearly invalid measures (such as
a test that measures a variable other than the one the researcher wanted to study), and/or a
very poor research design (such as a design that will not answer the research question) would
lead to very serious questions regarding the validity of the results. In such cases, the
consideration of values of d might be meaningless.” (pp. 137-138)
Patten, M. L., & Bruce, R. R. (2012). Understanding research methods: an overview of
the essentials (8th ed.). Glendale, Calif.: Pyrczak Pub.
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Effects of Assistive Technologies Combined with Desktop Virtual Reality in Instructional Procedures

  • 1. Effects of Assistive Technologies Combined with Desktop Virtual Reality in Instructional Procedures ACED 7990 Analysis of Research in Adult and Career Education Dorea Hardy & Denise Parker Presented: April 1, 2014
  • 3. Strongly Agree  A highly relevant topic for this technological era in education #1 – Choice of Problem/Topic
  • 4. Disagree  Personal Opinions  Unclear Statements  “some conditions”  “some learners” #2 – Literature Review
  • 5.  Section 508 #2 – Literature Review http://webaim.org/standards/508/checklist
  • 6.  Section 508 #2 – Literature Review http://webaim.org/standards/508/checklist
  • 7.  Section 508 #2 – Literature Review http://webaim.org/standards/508/checklist
  • 8. Agree/Disagree  Vague  Lacked tie-in  Misdirection #3 – Theoretical/Conceptual Framework http://canitbesaturdaynow.com/dived/single/fence_cat/
  • 9. #4 – The Purpose Hardy  Strongly Disagree  Did not feel that it was clearly stated  Came across as if he was not sure what he was investigating Parker  Disagree  Reasons
  • 10. Strongly Disagree  Too Many Hypotheses  Contradictions #5 – Research Questions, Objectives, or Hypotheses
  • 11. Strongly Disagree  Instrument Development / Testing / Validation  Qualitative Data – Questions asked?  Observations #6 – Data Gathering Steps/Techniques
  • 12. Strongly Disagree  Tables Confusing  Trying to answer too many variables #7 – Data Analysis
  • 13. Disagree  Interviews?  What questions were asked?  Who developed the questions?  Were the questions tested/validated?  Or did the students just give comments/thoughts? #8 - Conclusions
  • 14. Disagree  Already standard procedure / common practice #9 – Explanation of how study adds to theory, current knowledge base, etc.
  • 15. Disagree  Clarity  Spelling Error  Within the instrument screenshots #10 – Quality of Writing
  • 16. Strongly Disagree  Flawed study  Showed us what not to do  However… there were many valid ideas presented for multiple future research projects #11 – Contribution to knowledge
  • 17.  Agreed – Very good choice of topic  Decent descriptions of theories Strengths
  • 18.  Introduction  Disabilities  Vagueness  Sample Selection  Size – too small  Disabilities – including visible & hidden  Age Categories  Vocation – only one represented Shortcomings
  • 19.  Hypotheses – Too Broad  Personal opinion in Literature Review  Training of Participants  Qualitative Information / Interviews Shortcomings
  • 20.  The Programs / Instruments  Designer(s)?  Programmer(s)?  Content Developer(s)?  Validation of material and/or instruments?  Was a User Experience expert consulted?  Was a Section 508 expert consulted?  Apples, Oranges, or Fruit Basket? Shortcomings
  • 21.  Tabular Data 1. Table 1  Standard Deviations  Standard Error 2. Table 2  Effect Size – meaningless Shortcomings “[T]he adequacy of the research methodology that they employed should be considered. Woefully inadequate sampling (such as a very biased sample), clearly invalid measures (such as a test that measures a variable other than the one the researcher wanted to study), and/or a very poor research design (such as a design that will not answer the research question) would lead to very serious questions regarding the validity of the results. In such cases, the consideration of values of d might be meaningless.” (pp. 137-138) Patten, M. L., & Bruce, R. R. (2012). Understanding research methods: an overview of the essentials (8th ed.). Glendale, Calif.: Pyrczak Pub.

Editor's Notes

  1. Need to note that it’s a Mixed Methods study
  2. Looked up the different theories to get more of an understanding: Cognitive Load Theory - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_load#Cognitive_load_theory Orientation & Wayfinding Theory - http://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/orientation-and-wayfinding-theory/21565 ACT-R theory - http://act-r.psy.cmu.edu/about/ Considering we think he had too many hypotheses, I think now he had too many Theoretical Frameworks – it’s just a LOT to evaluate in one small study. I don’t think he tied #1 to his study in the paragraph. The reader is left to assume. He did tie #2 to the study, but I think he could have been a bit more detailed about how it tied to it. On #3 I was completely wrong with my first thoughts! I actually downloaded the standalone program and skimmed through some of the example material. It really is similar to programming languages. I think they (the people that tout the software) could do a better job describing it, such as providing some of the examples that they have in unit 1 in the actual descriptive area. HOWEVER … I found some ‘word for word’ statements in his paper on page 4 on that web site (http://act-r.psy.cmu.edu/about/). I think he gave too much information on this theory… because it’s confusing to someone who doesn’t know or understand. I think he would have done better explaining WHY ACT-R was appropriate for his study versus trying to explain what ACT-R is.
  3. His his introduction appeared to have nothing to do with his study Disabilities – He talks about people w/ disabilities, yet doesn’t include disabled people in his sample size. Vagueness – Pre-training within business? Typically there is some, he didn’t appear to do any research into this area. Most likely the research he read, most people had some sort of pre-training, either by the business or personally. Most people with disabilities would already be accustomed to Ats.
  4. His his introduction appeared to have nothing to do with his study Disabilities – He talks about people w/ disabilities, yet doesn’t include disabled people in his sample size. Vagueness – Pre-training within business? Typically there is some, he didn’t appear to do any research into this area. Most likely the research he read, most people had some sort of pre-training, either by the business or personally. Most people with disabilities would already be accustomed to ATs.
  5. His his introduction appeared to have nothing to do with his study Disabilities – He talks about people w/ disabilities, yet doesn’t include disabled people in his sample size. Vagueness – Pre-training within business? Typically there is some, he didn’t appear to do any research into this area. Most likely the research he read, most people had some sort of pre-training, either by the business or personally. Most people with disabilities would already be accustomed to Ats.