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# 3 d modeling part 1

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### 3 d modeling part 1

1. 1. Navigating in 3D MAX Guilford County SciVis V106.02 part 1
2. 2. Viewing Objects and/or Scenes Depending upon the software program, the image on the monitor could be a Perspective view, an orthographic view, or a combination.
3. 3. Viewing Objects and/or Scenes 3D Studio Max, Rhinoceros, and some other modeling programs open with a four window display showing top, side, and perspective viewports. Truespace opens with a single perspective view with orthographic views available on demand. Most programs allow you to fill your display area with any single viewport or varying multiple combinations of display windows.
4. 4. Viewing Objects and/or Scenes Various veiwports may be formed by viewing angles.  The image viewed depends upon the line of sight of the viewer.  To move across a scene is called panning.  The scene may be rotated about any of its three axes: x, y, and, z.  Views may be zoomed which magnifies the image. The size of the object is not increased.
5. 5. Perspective Perspective mimics the way a human eye works and provides scenes that have a “natural” appearance. Perspective windows are included in all 3D modeling programs.
6. 6. Perspective In perspective, parallel line converge at a vanishing point on the horizon. Perspective views typically contain one, two, three vanishing points. Horizons may be raised or lowered to change the vertical viewing angle. In perspective, objects seem to become smaller as they move away and larger as they come closer.
7. 7. Perspective Objects seem to become dimmer as they move away. Atmospheric features in the software can be used to simulate atmospheric density. Perspective viewports can distort space and “fool the eye” when trying to position objects in 3D. It is not a good idea to attempt object placement and alignment using the perspective window alone.
8. 8. Orthographic (Parallel Projection) Orthographic (Parallel Projection) viewports provide an image in which the line of sight is perpendicular to the picture plane.  “Ortho” means straight. In orthographic projection the projectors extend straight off of the object, parallel to each other.  Points on the object’s edges are projected onto a picture plane where they form line on the plane. The lines create a 2D image of the 3D object being viewed.
9. 9. Orthographic (Parallel Projection) Typically six different views can be produced by orthographic projection:  Top, bottom, front, back, left, and right sides. Lines and surfaces that are inclined to the picture plane appear as fore shortened edges and surfaces on the plane to which they are projected. Orthographic viewports are extremely useful in the accurate alignment and positioning of objects and features with respect to other features and objects .
10. 10. Coordinate systems Coordinate systems are used to locate objects in 3D space. Lines drawn perpendicular to each other for the purpose of measuring transformation are called the axes.  In the 2D Cartesian coordinate system there is a horizontal axis called the X-axis and a vertical called the Y-axis.  In 3D space a third axes is added called the Z-axis.
11. 11. Coordinate systems Where axes intersect is called the origin. The coordinates of the origin are 0,0 on the 2D plane and 0,0,0 in 3D space. Numerical location placed uniformly along the axes are called the coordinates. These numbers identify locations in space. When written or displayed, numbers are always given in the order of X first, then Y, the Z.
12. 12. Coordinate systems Axes may be rotated or oriented differently with in 3D space depending upon whether you are working with an individual object, a viewport, or objects within a scene.  Local (user) coordinate system- assign axes to particular object.  World (global) coordinate system-assign axes to the scene.
13. 13. Coordinate systems Many 3D modeling programs allow you to constrain movement (rotation, scaling, and transformations) along one axis, two` axes, or three axes.  For example, you could lock the X- and Y-axes thereby restricting movement of deformation to only a Z direction. Relative coordinates are used to transform an object starting at its current position. Absolute coordinates are used to transform an object relative to the origin.
14. 14. End Part I