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  1. 1. Reconstruction By Cheyenne Smith
  2. 2. Reconstruction <ul><li>Reconstruction is the rebuilding and reorganization that took place after the Civil War under which it had to be decided what terms and conditions the South's former Confederate states would rejoin the Union. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lincoln's Plan <ul><li>Lincoln wanted a moderate policy that would reconcile the South with the Union instead of punishing it for treason. His plan, the 10% Plan, offered a Pardon to all Southerners who took an oath of allegiance to the Union and accepted the Union's proclamations concerning slavery. However, the pardon was denied to all Confederate military and government </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>officials. When 10% of a state's voters in the 1860 presidential election had taken this oath, they could create a new constitution and organize a new state government. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Radical Republicans <ul><li>Radical Republicans resisted Lincoln's plan for they did not want to reconcile with the South, but wanted to &quot;revolutionize Southern institutions, habits, and manners.&quot; They had 3 main goals: 1, to prevent the leaders of the Confederacy from returning to power after the war, 2, for the Republican Party to become a powerful institution in the South, and </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>3, for the federal government to help African Americans achieve political equality by guaranteeing their right to vote in the South. Radical Republicans believed in a right to political equality for all Americans, regardless of their race. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Wade- Davis Bill <ul><li>The moderate Republicans, who thought Lincoln was too lenient and the radicals were going too far in their support for the African Americans, came up with a reconstruction plan that both radicals and moderates could support as an alternative to Lincoln's. This bill, the Wade- Davis Bill, required the majority of the adult white men in a former Confederate </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>state to take an oath of loyalty to the Union. Only then could the state hold a constitutional convention to create a new state, and each states convention would then have to abolish slavery, reject all debts the state had required as part of the Confederacy and deprive all former Confederate government officials and military officers of the right to vote or hold </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>office. Congress passed the Wade- Davis Bill, but Lincoln blocked it with a pocket veto, meaning he let the session of congress expire without signing the bill. He felt that imposing a harsh peace would be counterproductive. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Freedmen's Bureau <ul><li>The devastation of the war and the collapse of the economyleft hundreds of people unemployed, homeless, and hungry. To help the freed people feed themselves, Sherman reserved all abandoned plantation land within 30 miles of the coast from Charleston, South Carolina, to Jacksonville, Florida, for use by freed African Americans. The refugee crisis </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>prompted congress to establish the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands- better known as the Freedmen's Bureau. The Bureau was given the task of feeding and clothing war refugees in the South using surplus army supplies. It helped prevent mass starvetion in the South. The Bureau also helped formerly enslaved people find work on </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>plantaions and negociated labor contracts with planters specifying the amount of pay workers would receive and number of hours they had to work. It also established special courts to deal with grievances between workers and planters. Further more, the Bureau made a lasting and important contribution in the field of education. It worked </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>closely with northern charities to educate formerly enslaved African Americans and provided housing for schools, paid teachers, and helped to establish colleges for training African American teachers. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Black Codes <ul><li>Laws known as Black codes, which severely limited African Americans rights in the South, were passed by the new Southern state legislatures. Though the codes varied from one state to another, they all seemed intended to keep African Americans in a condition similar to slavery. African Americans were generally required to enter into annual labor contracts, and </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>African American children had to accept apprenticeships in some states and could be whipped or beaten while serving in these apprenticeships. Many state codes even set specific work hours for African American sand required them to get licenses to work in nonagricultural jobs. </li></ul>