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WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS Macrophytes Floating Filter (FMF) Helophytes Semi-submerged Filter (FHS) J...
WETLAND ZONES Phreatic level Photic Zone Pleuston Limnos Bentos Deep Zone Transition zone Nearest medium Furthest Coastal ...
SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Depending on aquatic plant species: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floating species. </li></ul></ul><...
FLOATING SPECIES <ul><li>Those floating over water surface whose roots don’t reach wetland bottom e.g. duckweeds ( Lemna ,...
FLOATING SPECIES <ul><li>Azolla </li></ul>Wolfia  y  Spirodella Lemna Potamogeton Victoria regia Nymphaena
EMERGING SPECIES <ul><li>Those whose roots grow in wetland soil, but their stem and leaves emerge over water surface makin...
EMERGING SPECIES <ul><li>Most of macrophytes recover nutrients from deep anaerobic sediments. They provide shelter and foo...
EMERGING SPECIES <ul><li>Phragmites </li></ul>Scirpus Juncus Schoenus Zizania Thypa
SUBMERGED SPECIES <ul><li>Plants whose stems and leaves grow submerged in water, and their roots are anchored in soil bene...
SUBMERGED SPECIES <ul><li>Chara </li></ul>Utricularia Ceratophyllum Hydrilla
WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS DEPENDING ON USED PLANT TYPES
PURIFYING PROCESSES. <ul><li>Purifying processes for contaminant removal take place through three different systems: </li>...
SYSTEMS WITH FLOATING SPECIES <ul><li>Ponds or channels with variable dept (0,4 to 1,5 m.), feed with wastewater (with a d...
SYSTEMS WITH FLOATING SPECIES <ul><li>The main advantage of these systems it is the  great contact surface of their roots ...
SYSTEMS WITH FLOATING SPECIES <ul><li>These systems reach can be  very effective with low BOD levels and low values for SS...
SYSTEMS WITH EMERGING SPECIES <ul><li>Plants have their roots anchored in the soil, and their stems and leaves emerge over...
WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS DEPENDING ON FLOW TYPE.
SYSTEMS DEPENDING ON FLOW TYPE <ul><li>These water treatment systems can be quite different due to the differences in the ...
SURFACE FLOW <ul><li>In this system soil has a low hydraulic conductivity and it does not allow a meaningful flow through ...
SUB-SURFACE FLOW <ul><li>Sub-surface wetlands use a soil or gravel layer as substrate for plant growth. Water flow passes ...
SUBSURFACE HORIZONTAL FLOW <ul><li>Plants play two key features in this process:  they provide oxygen to microorganism in ...
MACROPHYTES FLOATING FILTER (FMF)
MACROPHYTES FLOATING FILTER  (FMF) <ul><li>FMF system (Floating Macrophytes Filter) has been patented in Spain with the in...
MACROPHYTES FLOATING FILTER  (FMF)
MACROPHYTES FLOATING FILTER  (FMF) <ul><li>This system can treat waste water using planta emerging species, turned into fl...
MACROPHYTES FLOATING FILTER  (FMF) <ul><li>System can work for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying a tertiary treatment to eli...
FLOATING MACROPHYTES FILTER  (FMF) <ul><li>System  is useful for treating eutrophic effluents from agriculture or industry...
FMF  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>The core of the system is formed with a floating plant layer, formed over water surface of...
FMF  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>Most of aquatic plants have rhizomes (vegetative structures which produce new shoots progr...
FMF  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>All the submerged part of the plant has a high surface of contact with water due to the gr...
FMF  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>Emerging macrophytes have commonly a certain development in their height and a density val...
FMF  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
FMF  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>Novelty of the system  consist on  using aquatic plants that naturally are anchored in the...
FMF  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>To achieve quickly the creation of the floating mesh, it is needed to use young plants in ...
PLANTING SYSTEMS <ul><li>System from D. Jesús Fernández (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists on tying the plant to a floating P....
PLANTING SYSTEMS <ul><li>Torres System(2) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists on holding a small pot without its lower part, tying ...
SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER (FHS)
SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER  (FHS) <ul><li>FHS system (Semi-submerged  Helophytes Filter with its initials in Spanish...
SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER  (FHS) <ul><li>This system achieves waste water treatment using semi-submerged helophytes...
SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER  (FHS)
SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER  (FHS) <ul><li>System can be used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary treatment for remov...
SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER  (FHS) <ul><li>System  is useful for treating eutrophic effluents from agriculture or ind...
SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER  (FHS) <ul><li>The core of the system is formed with a emerging plant layer, formed close...
SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER  (FHS) <ul><li>Plants will have submerged their root system and the stem base till the be...
SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER  (FHS) <ul><li>All the submerged parts of the plants have a high specific surface, mainly...
SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER  (FHS) <ul><li>In this system water level is kept 20 cm above the root mesh.  </li></ul><...
Planting Systems
Planting Systems <ul><li>System from D. Jesús Fernández (2) </li></ul><ul><li>System TTF </li></ul>
Planting Systems
DEPURATION PROCESSES
ORGANIC MATTER REMOVAL <ul><li>Solids are separated in wetlands (WET), helophytes filter (FHS) and macrophytes filter  (FM...
ORGANIC MATTER REMOVAL  <ul><li>Organic matter removal is carried out by microorganism fixed in the plant root system and ...
NITROGEN REMOVAL <ul><li>Nitrogen is removed by means of different processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct absorption by p...
PHOSPOROUS REMOVAL <ul><li>Phosphorous is removed by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant absorption (WET, FHS and FMF) </li></ul>...
PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISM REMOVAL <ul><li>It is carried out by means of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration and clay adsorpti...
TRACE METALS REMOVAL <ul><li>Metals have a high affinity for being adsorbed and forming complexes with organic matter. The...
REFERENCE VALUES
REFERENCE VALUES <ul><li>Figures obtained for a depuration surface of 1.500 m2, with an average waste water flow of 200 m3...
USE FOR PIG SLUDGE TREATMENT <ul><li>Treatment is carried out using a combination of a physic – chemical system and a FHS....
Physic-chemical SYSTEM FOR PIG SLUDGE TREATMENT.
Construction phases of an artificial wetland in channels.
BUILT PLANTS <ul><li>FMF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reus’ Airport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gerona’s Airport </li></ul></ul><u...
BUILT PLANTS <ul><li>FHS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fabara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeguada Militar de Écija </li></ul></ul><...
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Wastewater Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

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Wastewater
Treatmente Macrophytes
Constructed Wetlands

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Wastewater Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

  1. 1. WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS Macrophytes Floating Filter (FMF) Helophytes Semi-submerged Filter (FHS) José de Miguel Muñoz Eduardo Casado Fernández
  2. 2. WETLAND ZONES Phreatic level Photic Zone Pleuston Limnos Bentos Deep Zone Transition zone Nearest medium Furthest Coastal Zone Pel agic Zone (open waters) Transition zone
  3. 3. SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Depending on aquatic plant species: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floating species. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi submerged species. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submerged species. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depending on water flow. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial flow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-superficial flow. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. FLOATING SPECIES <ul><li>Those floating over water surface whose roots don’t reach wetland bottom e.g. duckweeds ( Lemna , Wolffia , Spirodella , etc.), fern ( Azolla sp.), water hyacinth ( Eirchornia crassipes ), water lilly ( Victoria regia ), etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing under eutrophication conditions </li></ul>
  5. 5. FLOATING SPECIES <ul><li>Azolla </li></ul>Wolfia y Spirodella Lemna Potamogeton Victoria regia Nymphaena
  6. 6. EMERGING SPECIES <ul><li>Those whose roots grow in wetland soil, but their stem and leaves emerge over water surface making photosynthesis, flowering, fructification and seed spreading in open air. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Reed ( Phragmites sp.), bur-reed ( Sparganium sp.), bulrush ( Typha sp.), rush (i.e. Juncus , Scirpus , Schoenus ), pale yellow iris ( Iris pseudoacorus ), etc. </li></ul>
  7. 7. EMERGING SPECIES <ul><li>Most of macrophytes recover nutrients from deep anaerobic sediments. They provide shelter and food for invertebrates and fishes. </li></ul>Iris pseudoacorus
  8. 8. EMERGING SPECIES <ul><li>Phragmites </li></ul>Scirpus Juncus Schoenus Zizania Thypa
  9. 9. SUBMERGED SPECIES <ul><li>Plants whose stems and leaves grow submerged in water, and their roots are anchored in soil beneath water. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of plants are commonly used in fishbowls. They aren’t used in water treatment processes unlike other macrophytes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. SUBMERGED SPECIES <ul><li>Chara </li></ul>Utricularia Ceratophyllum Hydrilla
  11. 11. WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS DEPENDING ON USED PLANT TYPES
  12. 12. PURIFYING PROCESSES. <ul><li>Purifying processes for contaminant removal take place through three different systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid sedimentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient absorption in plants and latter harvesting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic matter degradation through a cluster of facultative microorganisms that grow associated to plant root system from the sludge in the wetland deep zone. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. SYSTEMS WITH FLOATING SPECIES <ul><li>Ponds or channels with variable dept (0,4 to 1,5 m.), feed with wastewater (with a different degree of primary treatment) where floating species thrive. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are harvested periodically. </li></ul>
  14. 14. SYSTEMS WITH FLOATING SPECIES <ul><li>The main advantage of these systems it is the great contact surface of their roots with waste water which allows a great purifying activity through microorganisms sticked to the roots and the roots on its own. </li></ul><ul><li>An inconvenient of the system is the limited biomass gathering due to plant stems don’t reach a meaningful height, and they remain close to water surface. That is the reason for scheduled biomass removal in order to allow the plants to grow. </li></ul>
  15. 15. SYSTEMS WITH FLOATING SPECIES <ul><li>These systems reach can be very effective with low BOD levels and low values for SS indicators . Nitrogen and phosphorous are absorbed at high rates by plants. </li></ul>
  16. 16. SYSTEMS WITH EMERGING SPECIES <ul><li>Plants have their roots anchored in the soil, and their stems and leaves emerge over water surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Dormant species whose leaves dry-out in winter but can resprout from their rhizomes in spring. </li></ul><ul><li>They can produce high amounts of biomass from aerial parts and root systems either. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizomes are often full with starch that acts as a reserve element used in the growth of new shoots in spring. </li></ul>
  17. 17. WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS DEPENDING ON FLOW TYPE.
  18. 18. SYSTEMS DEPENDING ON FLOW TYPE <ul><li>These water treatment systems can be quite different due to the differences in the water flow type through plants, and differences in substrates. Basic types are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface flow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsurface flow. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. SURFACE FLOW <ul><li>In this system soil has a low hydraulic conductivity and it does not allow a meaningful flow through root zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminant removal is done by means of reactions which take places in water and shallow layer of substrate. Due to that mechanism removal capacity is reduced significantly. </li></ul>
  20. 20. SUB-SURFACE FLOW <ul><li>Sub-surface wetlands use a soil or gravel layer as substrate for plant growth. Water flow passes through substrate and root system by gravity and horizontally. </li></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile water flow runs through plant root system, organic matter is biologically decomposed e.g. nitrogen can be denitrified and heavy metals and phosphorous are fixed to the soil. </li></ul>
  21. 21. SUBSURFACE HORIZONTAL FLOW <ul><li>Plants play two key features in this process: they provide oxygen to microorganism in the rhizosphere ,increase and stabilize soil hydraulic conductivity. </li></ul><ul><li>The main problem that these systems can have i.e. the stop of the flow by its own roots or sedimented solids. Pollutant removal implies in this system its destruction to eliminate sedimented organic matter and plant vegetative mass. </li></ul>
  22. 22. MACROPHYTES FLOATING FILTER (FMF)
  23. 23. MACROPHYTES FLOATING FILTER (FMF) <ul><li>FMF system (Floating Macrophytes Filter) has been patented in Spain with the indicative P9700706, in April 4 th of 1997, published internationally with the reference WO 98/45213. </li></ul><ul><li>System was developed by Prof. Jesús Fernández González, Head of Agroenergy Group of E.T.S.I. Agrónomos from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), who has transferred the patent rights to UPM. </li></ul><ul><li>UPM has the rights for patent usage in exclusivity, and it has transferred them to the public company AENA for airports and to the company Macrofitas S.L. for the rest of applications. </li></ul>
  24. 24. MACROPHYTES FLOATING FILTER (FMF)
  25. 25. MACROPHYTES FLOATING FILTER (FMF) <ul><li>This system can treat waste water using planta emerging species, turned into floating species for purifying water passing through channels or stored in reservoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>This system is a novelty which combines advantages of floating systems and emerging MACROPHYTES, eliminating or reducing meaningfully inconvenient from both. </li></ul>
  26. 26. MACROPHYTES FLOATING FILTER (FMF) <ul><li>System can work for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying a tertiary treatment to eliminate eutrophic minerals from secondary effluent from conventional waste water treatments; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying a secondary treatment to decompose dissolved organic matter through microorganisms adhered to the root system which have a high ratio area/volume increasing contact surface. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. FLOATING MACROPHYTES FILTER (FMF) <ul><li>System is useful for treating eutrophic effluents from agriculture or industry which have high content in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, as well as springs contaminated with those elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Some emerging species have the ability of removing some toxic elements i.e. phenolic compounds, and absorbing high amounts of heavy metals, therefore this system would be valid to treat waste with those elements, choosing carefully plant species. </li></ul>
  28. 28. FMF SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>The core of the system is formed with a floating plant layer, formed over water surface of a channel or a reservoir. The basic elements are the plants (among the emerging type), that are adapted to local climatology conditions. Those plants will have their root system within water and a small part of their stem basis. </li></ul>
  29. 29. FMF SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>Most of aquatic plants have rhizomes (vegetative structures which produce new shoots progressively, where carbohydrates are stored), that are submerged next to the roots and joint to the base of the stems of the “mother” plant. </li></ul>
  30. 30. FMF SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>All the submerged part of the plant has a high surface of contact with water due to the great number of roots, which act as a base for microorganism fixation that degradate organic matter. Their growth is favoured by means of the oxygen “pumped” to the roots from the plant leaves (an specific feature of emerging plants). </li></ul>
  31. 31. FMF SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>Emerging macrophytes have commonly a certain development in their height and a density value lower than one, therefore to achieve flotation and their development it is necessary to build a base with enough consistency and surface spread that allow development of the plants above water surface, according to their natural values, avoiding the leaning tendency that an isolated plant would have. </li></ul>
  32. 32. FMF SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
  33. 33. FMF SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>Novelty of the system consist on using aquatic plants that naturally are anchored in the soil as floating plants that complete their life cycle over the water surface of a channel or a pond. For the former use is required a certain range of depth in the water (generally from 25 to 50 cm.). Basically consist on creating a floating mesh joined by means of the growth of the submerged parts of the plants (stem base, rhizomes and roots). </li></ul>
  34. 34. FMF SYSTEM DESCRIPTION <ul><li>To achieve quickly the creation of the floating mesh, it is needed to use young plants in the growing phase or rhizomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants or rhizomes are fixed to a floating system with a convenient separation between plants (approximately 10-30 cms), to allow them to interlace their adjacent root system. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed in floating mesh creation will depend greatly in the distance between plants or rhizomes in the floating support system. </li></ul><ul><li>Some emerging plants e.g. reed, they have fistulous stems (cane) that can float horizontally, without a floating support system, emitting new shoots from buds place in nodes and roots. </li></ul>
  35. 35. PLANTING SYSTEMS <ul><li>System from D. Jesús Fernández (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists on tying the plant to a floating P.E. tube. It has the inconvenient that when plant grow they easily lean. </li></ul>
  36. 36. PLANTING SYSTEMS <ul><li>Torres System(2) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists on holding a small pot without its lower part, tying it to two tubes. It has the inconvenience that when plants reach a certain size, the lean in windy conditions. </li></ul>
  37. 37. SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER (FHS)
  38. 38. SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER (FHS) <ul><li>FHS system (Semi-submerged Helophytes Filter with its initials in Spanish) has been patented in Spain, with the reference number P200900811 given in the 14/04/2010 . </li></ul><ul><li>System has been developed by Professor Jesús Fernández González, responsible of Agro-energy Group of E.T.S.I. Agrónomos from Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM), which has the patent rights. </li></ul><ul><li>UPM has transferred the rights of use of the patent in Spain to Alvartis. </li></ul>
  39. 39. SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER (FHS) <ul><li>This system achieves waste water treatment using semi-submerged helophytes in channels or ponds. </li></ul><ul><li>This new system combines advantages of emerging macrophytes and FMF system, reducing meaningfully its inconvenients . </li></ul>
  40. 40. SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER (FHS)
  41. 41. SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER (FHS) <ul><li>System can be used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary treatment for removing eutrophic minerals in secondary effluent from conventional depuration systems; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary treatment for decomposing dissolved organic matter through microorganism clung to the root system that have a high contact surface with water. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER (FHS) <ul><li>System is useful for treating eutrophic effluents from agriculture or industry which have high content in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, as well as springs contaminated with those elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Some emerging species have the ability of removing some toxic elements i.e. phenolic compounds, and absorbing high amounts of heavy metals, therefore this system would be valid to treat waste with those elements, choosing carefully plant species. </li></ul>
  43. 43. SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER (FHS) <ul><li>The core of the system is formed with a emerging plant layer, formed close to water surface of a channel or a reservoir. The basic elements are the plants (among the emerging type), that are adapted to local climatology conditions. Those plants will have their root system within water and a small part of their stem basis. </li></ul>
  44. 44. SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER (FHS) <ul><li>Plants will have submerged their root system and the stem base till the beginning of their leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of aquatic plants have rhizomes that are also submerged together with the root system and the stem base of the “mother” plant. </li></ul>
  45. 45. SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER (FHS) <ul><li>All the submerged parts of the plants have a high specific surface, mainly due to the high number or roots, that act supporting microorganism fixation which degrade organic matter. Microorganism growth is favoured by oxygen pumped from plant leaves to their root system (an specific feature of emerging plants). </li></ul>
  46. 46. SEMI-SUBMERGED HELOPHYTES FILTER (FHS) <ul><li>In this system water level is kept 20 cm above the root mesh. </li></ul><ul><li>There is clay amongst roots as well as in the channel bed. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are placed directly in the soil, a great save in comparison with FMF system. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Planting Systems
  48. 48. Planting Systems <ul><li>System from D. Jesús Fernández (2) </li></ul><ul><li>System TTF </li></ul>
  49. 49. Planting Systems
  50. 50. DEPURATION PROCESSES
  51. 51. ORGANIC MATTER REMOVAL <ul><li>Solids are separated in wetlands (WET), helophytes filter (FHS) and macrophytes filter (FMF) by the following mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decantation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degradation through the combination of substrate + roots + rhizomes. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. ORGANIC MATTER REMOVAL <ul><li>Organic matter removal is carried out by microorganism fixed in the plant root system and by means of sedimentation (WET, FHS Y FMF). </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the former processes, there is also the pond effect due to the water over the root mesh (FHS). </li></ul>
  53. 53. NITROGEN REMOVAL <ul><li>Nitrogen is removed by means of different processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct absorption by plants (WET, FHS Y FMF); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrification-denitrification processes carried out by bacteria (WET, FHS Y FMF (< than the former ones)); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonification (in minor quantities) (WET, FHS Y FMF (< than the former ones)); </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. PHOSPOROUS REMOVAL <ul><li>Phosphorous is removed by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant absorption (WET, FHS and FMF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay adsorption (WET and FHS). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation of insoluble phosphates, mainly the ones with Al and Fe, in acid soils and carbonate basic soils with calcium (WET and FHS). </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISM REMOVAL <ul><li>It is carried out by means of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration and clay adsorption (WET and FHS). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microorganism predation (protozoans and bacteriophages) (WET, FHS and FMF). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity of antibiotics produces by root system (WET, FHS and FMF), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UV radiation (WET and FHS). </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. TRACE METALS REMOVAL <ul><li>Metals have a high affinity for being adsorbed and forming complexes with organic matter. They can be stored in wetlands. There is also transformation by microorganism and plant assimilation (WET, FHS and FMF). </li></ul>
  57. 57. REFERENCE VALUES
  58. 58. REFERENCE VALUES <ul><li>Figures obtained for a depuration surface of 1.500 m2, with an average waste water flow of 200 m3/day for an estimated population of 700 equivalent - inhabitants, for a facility places in the centre of Spain. </li></ul>
  59. 59. USE FOR PIG SLUDGE TREATMENT <ul><li>Treatment is carried out using a combination of a physic – chemical system and a FHS. </li></ul><ul><li>It will be necessary dilute effluent from the physic – chemical treatment prior to its entrance in the channels. </li></ul><ul><li>It will be used treated water for the dilution. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Physic-chemical SYSTEM FOR PIG SLUDGE TREATMENT.
  61. 61. Construction phases of an artificial wetland in channels.
  62. 62. BUILT PLANTS <ul><li>FMF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reus’ Airport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gerona’s Airport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avilés </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Point in Vitoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm house in Villagordo del Cabriel </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. BUILT PLANTS <ul><li>FHS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fabara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeguada Militar de Écija </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeguada Militar in Vicos (Jerez) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeguada Militar in Garrapilos (Jerez) (Gédula) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restaurant in Paracuellos de La Vega </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UCOTA Industrial State (Cazalegas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fried Potatoes Factory in Añavieja (Soria) </li></ul></ul>

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