Content: Introduction Defination Types of motivation Theories of motivation Motivation process
INTRODUCTION Motivation is an urge in an individual to perform goal directed behavior.
DEFINATION Motivation is the complex of the forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation.
Types of motivation1. Positive motivation2. Negative motivation
Positive motivation Positive motivation is the method which provides incentives, rewards to the individuals or group.
Negative motivation If a person may use certain tactics which may adversely effect the individual but motivate the same are called negative motivation.
Theories of motivation1. Abhraham Maslow‟s theory of Hierarchial needs2. Herzberg‟s Two Two Factors Theory3. Doublas MC. Gregor‟s Theory4. Achievement motivation Theory5. Victor Vrooms – Expectancy Theory
Abhraham Maslow’s theory of Hierarchialneeds Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development.
A. Self Actualisation:1. These are extreme ends of human needs.2. Man thinks about one‟s own capabilities.3. Belongs to psyche of man and infinite.4. He won‟t stop for certain level.5. These are continously motivating the people
Esteem needs1 The satisfaction from these is very difficult.2 It is classified as Self-esteem and other‟s.3 The individual attains a level of self confidence, strength, usefullness, ETC.4 These emerges when basic needs are satisfied.
Belongings And Love Needs Belongings and Love needs is what seems to dominate my thinking. I don‟t know why this is what dominates my thinking, but it does. It seems to me as though it may be a developmental stage that every person goes through, but at the same time, I do know people that never went through that stage, but, I do feel as though this is a necessary stage that every healthy person should go through this phase.
Safety needs: 1.Protection from elements.2.Security.3.Order.4.Law.5.Limits.6.Stability.
According to Herzberg there are Two factors1. Motivators2. Hygien
Motivators: That give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as recognition, achievement, or personal growth.EG- challenging work, recognition, responsibility
Hygien That do not give positive satisfaction, though dissatisfaction results from their absence. These are extrinsic to the work itself, and include aspects such as company policies, supervisory practices, or wages/salary. EG-status, job security, salary, fringe benefits, work conditions
criticism of Herzberg theory1. The theory is based on only two questions tested with 200 employees.2. It fails to recognize the fact “that human mentality is very short”.3. It is the theory related to satisfaction rather than motivation.4. The motivation and hygienes are two one sided openion of researches.
Criticism: It does not answers which theory is right. According to the theory manager should be suitable to the nature of people. It is difficult to continue with both theories at time.
David Mc Clelland & Jhon Atkinson David Mc Clelland Jhon Atkinson
4. Achievement motivation theory. The theory is based on the needs of human being but the need is associated with achievement. According to David Mc Clelland:- If a person is a given thorough understanding of the theoretical concept relating to achievement motivation and his own scores, such as individual would subsequently perform more effectively in competitive achievement situations.
Theory focus on 3 needs n.power (need for power) n.Aff. (need for affiliation) n.Ach. (need for achievement)
n.power (need for power) Seek power and position influence to influence others. Always thinking of guiding the peoples, events Leadership is always an expectancy of such people.
n.Aff. (need for affiliation)• They motivated by jobs that demand interaction with co- workers.• They cannot perform in isolation.• Through friendship, they wish to avoid boredom, confirm their beliefs.• They value more being with others.• Companionship and friendliness.• Others feeling better understood by these.
n.Ach. (need for achievement) • People of this kind usually entrepreneurship quality and wish to start a new business. • They will have a strong desire to assume personal responsibility for performing task. • People with achievement need perform better than those who does not have it. • They set moderately difficult goals in competitive situations.
Victor Vrooms- Expectancy Theory Deals WithSub PointsA complex explanation of motivational factors.It is not fully rested by scientifically.People cannot think of probable rewards.It is difficult to anticipate efforts to equate with rewards.All individuals cannot calculate the rewards, but still motivated.
Financial Incentives The incentives which gives in return the „money‟ by direct or indirect means are called Financial Incentives.
Non financial Incentives The money the man satisfied with certain level of expectation, but there is limit for such motivationThere are 7types of Non financial Incentives• Recognisation• Healthy competition• Participative mngt• Suggestion box• Skill development• Responsibility centers• Social relationship