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 A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the 
International Atomic Energy Agency as "an event 
that has led to sig...
A nuclear disaster could take several forms . The most 
obvious would be a meltdown at a nuclear reactor 
plant . Though t...
Nuclear disasters are usually associated with meltdowns. 
When a meltdown occurs in a reactor, the reactor "melts". 
That ...
In a safe nuclear reactor the condenser and the cooling 
tubes work efficiently and the heat applied on the uranium 
rods ...
Uranium Mining 
Fuel Enrichment 
Power Generation 
Waste Disposal RADIATION INCREASES multifold 
at each stage!
Radioactive Waste 
 Generated at each stage - Mining, Enrichment, 
Power Generation 
 Waste from Enrichment has been use...
Radiation Contaminates Always 
• Even if there is NO NUCLEAR 
ACCIDENT 
– Around a Uranium Mine 
– Around an Enrichment Fa...
Radiation Spares Nothing 
 Impacts Vegetation - Agriculture 
 Trees near Jaduguda Uranium Mines have 
DEFORMED SEEDS 
 ...
Consequences of nuclear disaster 
 Nuclear explosions produce both immediate and delayed 
destructive effects. Immediate ...
 Nuclear disaster can produce 
climate issues because the high 
temperatures of the nuclear 
fireball cause large amounts...
Fukushima disaster caused many people to 
become aware of potassium iodide tablets, 
available from your local drug store,...
However, these measures are not enough to completely 
moderate the harmful effects of a nuclear disaster. A nuclear 
disas...
 Nuclear explosions can release high levels of radiation, 
an energy that removes electrons. 
 Nuclear radiation can dam...
Cycle of Radioactive Materials
Apart from its disastrous potential, nuclear radiation is one of the 
most effective means of providing electricity to the...
In case of a Nuclear Disaster 
 People should stay inside buildings or areas far 
away from the nuclear plant 
 Phones s...
International Nuclear 
Event Scale
Exhibition Severity Symptoms 
Some millisieverts only possible long-term 
Several hundred millisieverts No immediate effec...
Some Nuclear and Radiation 
accidents - 
 1952 - AECL Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, 
Ontario, Canada. Partial me...
 October 1957 - Windscale fire, UK. Fire ignites 
plutonium piles and contaminates surrounding dairy 
farms.An estimated ...
 March 1984 – Radiation accident in Morocco, eight 
fatalities.[ 
 August 1985 – Soviet submarine K-431 accident. Ten 
f...
 1996 – Radiotherapy accident in Costa Rica. Thirteen 
fatalities and 114 other patients received an overdose of 
radiati...
Why is Nuclear Power Promoted in 
India? 
 Current energy policies are designed to 
benefit foreign MNCs 
General Electri...
Why is Nuclear Power Promoted in 
India? 
 Profit for MNCs who will provide reactor designs 
 Commission for Indian Poli...
Nuclear Plants in India (2010) 
Narora, UP - 440 MW 
Rawatbhata, Raj - 2,580 MW 
Kakrapar, Gujarat - 1,840 MW 
Tarapur, Ma...
Post Indo-US Nuclear Deal 
Existing Plants 
Proposed Plants 
Narora, UP - 440 MW 
Rawatbhata, Raj - 2,580 MW 
Bargi, MP 
1...
Impact of Nuclear Accidents in India 
Can you imagine the massive loss of 
Human Lives, Forests, Agriculture, 
Existing Pl...
Why is Renewable Energy 
Unknown? 
 Very less or No Scope for Investment (read 
profit) 
 Giants MNCs in the Nuclear Pow...
And Our Government’s Gift for US 
 The Nuclear Civil Liabilities Bill by our 
government says that: 
Any foreign company ...
The ‘West’ is Disowning Nuclear Power 
 Most Americans are against Nuclear Power 
 Major concerns: 
○ Continuous radiati...
Wondering What You Can Do 
About This? 
 Understand the politics of promoting 
Nuclear Power in India 
 Spread awareness...
nuclear disasters
nuclear disasters
nuclear disasters
nuclear disasters
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nuclear disasters

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nuclear disasters

  1. 1.  A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency as "an event that has led to significant consequences to the people, the environment or the facility." Examples include lethal effects to individuals, large radioactivity release in to the environment, or reactor core melt.  Technical measures need to be adopted to reduce the risk of accidents or to minimize the amount of radioactivity released to the environment.
  2. 2. A nuclear disaster could take several forms . The most obvious would be a meltdown at a nuclear reactor plant . Though the plant might not explode, the result of such a disaster would very likely be the release of massive amount of radiation and radioactive material into the environment and it would take hundred years to decay to anything near “safe” levels .
  3. 3. Nuclear disasters are usually associated with meltdowns. When a meltdown occurs in a reactor, the reactor "melts". That is, the temperature rises in the core so much that the fuel rods actually turn to liquid, like ice turns into water when heated. If the core continues to heat, the reactor would get so hot that the steel walls of the core would also melt. In a complete reactor meltdown, the extremely hot (about 2700 Celsius) molten uranium fuel rods would melt through the bottom of the reactor and actually sink about 50 feet into the earth beneath the power plant. The molten uranium would react with groundwater, producing large explosions of radioactive steam and debris that would affect nearby towns and population centers.
  4. 4. In a safe nuclear reactor the condenser and the cooling tubes work efficiently and the heat applied on the uranium rods is controlled.
  5. 5. Uranium Mining Fuel Enrichment Power Generation Waste Disposal RADIATION INCREASES multifold at each stage!
  6. 6. Radioactive Waste  Generated at each stage - Mining, Enrichment, Power Generation  Waste from Enrichment has been used in Depleted Uranium (DU) bombs used in Iraq  Even 21st century science has NO ANSWER for Nuclear Waste Disposal  Waste contaminates (beyond scope for inhabitation) a huge area in its vicinity for 1000’s of years What about the Environment & People? Is it Safe?
  7. 7. Radiation Contaminates Always • Even if there is NO NUCLEAR ACCIDENT – Around a Uranium Mine – Around an Enrichment Facility – Around a Nuclear Plant – Around Nuclear Waste An area of 30-35 km radius gets contaminated by nuclear radiation regularly! home
  8. 8. Radiation Spares Nothing  Impacts Vegetation - Agriculture  Trees near Jaduguda Uranium Mines have DEFORMED SEEDS  Agricultural produce is bound to carry unacceptable amounts of radioactive content  Impacts Animals  Radioactive Boars on the rise in Germany (thanks to Chernobyl)  Impacts Human Beings home
  9. 9. Consequences of nuclear disaster  Nuclear explosions produce both immediate and delayed destructive effects. Immediate effects (blast, thermal radiation, prompt ionizing radiation) are produced and cause significant destruction within seconds or minutes of a nuclear detonation. The delayed effects (radioactive fallout and other possible environmental effects) inflict damage over an extended period ranging from hours to centuries, and can cause adverse effects in locations very distant from the site of the detonation.
  10. 10.  Nuclear disaster can produce climate issues because the high temperatures of the nuclear fireball cause large amounts of nitrogen oxides to form from the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere (very similar to what happens in combustion engines). Each megaton of yield will produce some 5000 tons of nitrogen oxides. The rising fireball of a high kiloton or megaton range warhead will carry these nitric oxides well up into the stratosphere, where they can reach the ozone layer. A series of large atmospheric explosions could significantly deplete the ozone layer.
  11. 11. Fukushima disaster caused many people to become aware of potassium iodide tablets, available from your local drug store, via outlets online, and sometimes distributed by utilities or local officials to people living near nuclear facilities experiencing problems. This stable form of iodine, which is used by the thyroid gland to produce necessary hormones for metabolism and fetal brain development can protect your thyroid gland from radioactive iodine-131. But it does not protect against any other limiting isotopes likely to be released from a nuclear event.
  12. 12. However, these measures are not enough to completely moderate the harmful effects of a nuclear disaster. A nuclear disaster causes the depletion of the ozone layer which in turn leads to skin diseases. The only way to insure safety of people is to build robust nuclear reactors and efficient coolants. Prevention is better than cure.
  13. 13.  Nuclear explosions can release high levels of radiation, an energy that removes electrons.  Nuclear radiation can damage DNA.  While areas around a nuclear explosion are immediately exposed, radiation can also remain in the atmosphere for decades, traveling great distances before it settles to the ground-level air or earth's surface  Disposing of one's outer clothing can remove up to 90% of radioactive material after a nuclear disaster.  The peace symbol was initially designed for the Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War (DAC).
  14. 14. Cycle of Radioactive Materials
  15. 15. Apart from its disastrous potential, nuclear radiation is one of the most effective means of providing electricity to the country and ensuring economic development. If handled carefully, nuclear energy can be a greener alternative to other forms of energy like coal and petrol. Proponents, such as the World Nuclear Association, the IAEA and Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy believe that nuclear power is a safe, sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions
  16. 16. In case of a Nuclear Disaster  People should stay inside buildings or areas far away from the nuclear plant  Phones should not be used unless absolutely necessary, the lines may collapse if everybody is using phones and phone lines are very necessary for emergency equipment.  There should be a ban on consumption of agricultural products or water. For example in Japan there was a ban on consumption of products from near the nuclear plant.
  17. 17. International Nuclear Event Scale
  18. 18. Exhibition Severity Symptoms Some millisieverts only possible long-term Several hundred millisieverts No immediate effect Possible temporary nausea and slight fever Between 1 000 and 2 000 millisieverts remarkable medical Effect vomiting, fatigue, fever, risk of infection, cancer Between 2 000 and 4 000 millisieverts serious medical Effect vomiting, fever, digestive disorders, bleeding, hair loss, leukemia, other cancers Between 4 000 and 10 000 millisievertsand probability greater than 50% death, property damage neurological (dizzin ess, disorientation) and can cers of many types Excess of 10 000 mSv safe Death
  19. 19. Some Nuclear and Radiation accidents -  1952 - AECL Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. Partial meltdown, about 10,000 Curies released.  September 1957 - a plutonium fire occurred at the Rocky Flats Plant, which resulted in the contamination of Building 71 and the release of plutonium into the atmosphere, causing US $818,600 in damage.  September 1957 – Mayak nuclear waste storage tank explosion at Chelyabinsk. Two hundred plus fatalities, believed to be a conservative estimate; 270,000 people were exposed to dangerous radiation levels. Over thirty small communities had been removed from Soviet maps between 1958 and 1991. (INES level 6).
  20. 20.  October 1957 - Windscale fire, UK. Fire ignites plutonium piles and contaminates surrounding dairy farms.An estimated 33 cancer deaths.  1959, 1964, 1969 - Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Los Angeles, California. Partial meltdowns.  July 1961 – Soviet submarine K-19 accident. Eight fatalities and more than 30 people were over-exposed to radiation.  1962 – Radiation accident in Mexico City, four fatalities.  January 1969 – Lucens reactor in Switzerland undergoes partial core meltdown leading to massive radioactive contamination of a cavern.  July 1979 - Church Rock Uranium Mill Spill in New Mexico, USA, when United Nuclear Corporation's uranium mill tailings disposal pond breached its dam.
  21. 21.  March 1984 – Radiation accident in Morocco, eight fatalities.[  August 1985 – Soviet submarine K-431 accident. Ten fatalities and 49 other people suffered radiation injuries.  September 1987 – Goiania accident. Four fatalities and 249 other people received serious radiation contamination.  December 1990 – Radiotherapy accident in Zaragoza. Eleven fatalities and 27 other patients were injured.  April 1993 - accident at the Tomsk-7 Reprocessing Complex, when a tank exploded while being cleaned with nitric acid. The explosion released a cloud of radioactive gas. (INES level 4).
  22. 22.  1996 – Radiotherapy accident in Costa Rica. Thirteen fatalities and 114 other patients received an overdose of radiation.  September 1999 - Criticality accident at Tokai nuclear fuel plant (Japan)  February 2000 - Three deaths and ten injuries resulted in Samut Prakarn when a radiation-therapy unit was dismantled.  April 2010 - Mayapuri radiological accident, India, one fatality.  March 2011- Fukushima I nuclear accidents, Japan (current event).  March 2011- Fukushima Daichi Power Station - radioactive discharge
  23. 23. Why is Nuclear Power Promoted in India?  Current energy policies are designed to benefit foreign MNCs General Electrics Westinghouse Areva Newspapers admit that THEY ARE HERE FOR A $40 BN BUSINESS home
  24. 24. Why is Nuclear Power Promoted in India?  Profit for MNCs who will provide reactor designs  Commission for Indian Politicians, Intellectuals, Scientists ` 10,00,00,00,00,00,000 One Lakh Crores only! All Nuclear Plants in India offer lucrative prospects for these Patriots! Investment at the 9,900 WM Jaitapur Nuclear Plant home
  25. 25. Nuclear Plants in India (2010) Narora, UP - 440 MW Rawatbhata, Raj - 2,580 MW Kakrapar, Gujarat - 1,840 MW Tarapur, Mah - 1,400 MW Kaiga, Karnataka - 880 MW Kalpakkam, TN - 940 MW home
  26. 26. Post Indo-US Nuclear Deal Existing Plants Proposed Plants Narora, UP - 440 MW Rawatbhata, Raj - 2,580 MW Bargi, MP 1,400 MW Kakrapar, Gujarat - 1,840 MW Mithi Virdi, Gujarat 8,000 MW Tarapur, Mah - 1,400 MW Kaiga, Karnataka - 880 MW Kalpakkam, TN - 940 MW Jaitapur, Mah 9,900 MW Haripur, WB 10,000 MW Kovvada, AP 8,000 MW Koodankulam , TN 9,200 MW Kumhariya, Haryana 2,800 MW home
  27. 27. Impact of Nuclear Accidents in India Can you imagine the massive loss of Human Lives, Forests, Agriculture, Existing Plants Proposed Plants Animals, Economic Activities? For 1000’s of years! home
  28. 28. Why is Renewable Energy Unknown?  Very less or No Scope for Investment (read profit)  Giants MNCs in the Nuclear Power sector are too strong to let the Renewable Energy sector grow  And hence, almost No Solar or Wind Scientists home
  29. 29. And Our Government’s Gift for US  The Nuclear Civil Liabilities Bill by our government says that: Any foreign company WILL NOT be held liable for any nuclear accidents on Indian soil, whatsoever They WILL NOT pay any Compensation We CAN NOT sue them in Indian or Foreign courts
  30. 30. The ‘West’ is Disowning Nuclear Power  Most Americans are against Nuclear Power  Major concerns: ○ Continuous radiation emitted in normal functioning of Nuclear Plants ○ Nuclear Waste disposal ○ Threats of nuclear accidents  Australia has never built a Nuclear Power Plant! home
  31. 31. Wondering What You Can Do About This?  Understand the politics of promoting Nuclear Power in India  Spread awareness about this massive public betrayal Jago Re !

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