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The Great Gales Of The Millennium No Animation


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The effects of the Lothar and Martin millennium gales on France and Europe - a case study for GCSE Geography

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The Great Gales Of The Millennium No Animation

  1. 1. The Great Gale of the Millennium 25-28 December 1999
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>The Great Gale of the Millennium affected a large area of Europe – especially the Bordeaux region of France. </li></ul><ul><li>There were 4 storms in quick succession. </li></ul><ul><li>2 of the storms – named Lothar and Martin – caused lots of damage in central and western Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>The storms happened between 25-28 December 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>Weather forecasters were blamed for not predicting how serious it was going to be. </li></ul><ul><li>The occluded front brought very bad weather – rain, wind, low temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>There were winds speeds up to 107 mph . </li></ul>Image of the barograph from Paris Charles de Gaulle airport 25 - 27 December 1999
  3. 3. The effects of the storm in France <ul><li>Killed 90 people in France, 150 overall across Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Left 8 million without electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 households in France still without electricity after a week. </li></ul><ul><li>Uprooted millions of trees – 4% of French forests destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>Electric repairs of £1.2 billion (1.8 billion Euros). </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone system repairs £100 million (150 million Euros). </li></ul><ul><li>£100 million (150 million Euros) to repair schools. </li></ul><ul><li>In France, 1 in 12 schools were damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>Road and bridge repairs needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport disrupted for several weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Historic monuments cost £80 million (120 million Euros) to repair. </li></ul><ul><li>Versailles park & roof cost £27 million to repair. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall damage estimated to exceed £6 billion (7.5 billion Euros) </li></ul>The remains of a forest on the Isle of Oleron (France) after Martin
  4. 5. Damage across Europe <ul><li>Atlantic coast of France – oil washed ashore from wreck of tanker Erica </li></ul><ul><li>Paris – 100,000 trees uprooted Notre Dame, Versailles damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>France – 33 dead/1.5 million without power </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Alps – 4 climbers killed in an avalanche </li></ul><ul><li>Switzerland – 11 killed </li></ul><ul><li>Austria – 140mph winds/avalanche warnings </li></ul><ul><li>Euro Disney – Theme park shut/hotels and evacuated </li></ul><ul><li>Germany – 17 killed – ‘worst hurricane ever’ </li></ul><ul><li>Britain – 5 killed on land/2 died in the storms in channel </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium – flood alerts as river overflows </li></ul><ul><li>NB. The storm moved west to east across Europe </li></ul>
  5. 6. Quick quiz <ul><li>Q: When did the depression occur? </li></ul><ul><li>A: December 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Q: What type of front brought the bad weather? </li></ul><ul><li>A: occluded front </li></ul><ul><li>Q: What was the maximum wind speed that occurred? </li></ul><ul><li>A: 107mph </li></ul>
  6. 7. Quick quiz <ul><li>Q: How many people did the storm kill? </li></ul><ul><li>A: 90 </li></ul><ul><li>Q: How many people were left without electricity? </li></ul><ul><li>A: 8 million </li></ul><ul><li>Q: How much will it cost for the electrics to be repaired </li></ul><ul><li>A: £1.2 billion </li></ul>
  7. 8. Quick quiz <ul><li>Q: Can you name 3 different countries that were affected by the storm and how they were? </li></ul>