2012 information literacy2 final

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2012 information literacy2 final

  1. 1. Information Literacy 2
  2. 2. Information Literacy 2 <ul><li>RECAP: </li></ul><ul><li>What is information literacy? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is information literacy important? </li></ul><ul><li>What are primary vs secondary sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What are popular vs scholarly sources? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we evaluate sources? (Remember the mnemonics) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Information Literacy 1 <ul><li>Information literacy is the ability to </li></ul><ul><li>identify what information is needed; [WHAT] </li></ul><ul><li>understand how the information is organized; [HOW] </li></ul><ul><li>identify the best sources of information for a given need; [WHERE] </li></ul><ul><li>locate those sources ; [WHERE] </li></ul><ul><li>evaluate the sources critically; [WHY/ HOW] and </li></ul><ul><li>share that information. [FOR WHOM] </li></ul><ul><li>It is the knowledge of commonly used research techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>(From: the University of Idaho) http://www.webs.uidaho.edu/info_literacy/ </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Information literacy is NOT computer skills. </li></ul>RECAP: What is information literacy?
  4. 4. Information Literacy 1 <ul><li>Information literacy is the ability to </li></ul><ul><li>identify what information is needed; [WHAT] </li></ul><ul><li>understand how the information is organized; [HOW] </li></ul><ul><li>identify the best sources of information for a given need; [WHERE] </li></ul><ul><li>locate those sources ; [WHERE] </li></ul><ul><li>evaluate the sources critically; [WHY/ HOW] and </li></ul><ul><li>share that information. [FOR WHOM] </li></ul><ul><li>It is the knowledge of commonly used research techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>(From: the University of Idaho) http://www.webs.uidaho.edu/info_literacy/ </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Information literacy is NOT computer skills. </li></ul>RECAP: What is information literacy?
  5. 5. Information Literacy 2 EVALUATING SOURCES <ul><li>CARRDSS, a mnemonic device, can be a useful tool: </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Date </li></ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><li>Scope and Purpose </li></ul>
  6. 6. Information Literacy 2 EVALUATING SOURCES <ul><li>CARRDSS, a mnemonic device, can be a useful tool: </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility – the quality and capacity of belief. </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the author? What are his/her credentials / education / experience / affiliations? </li></ul><ul><li>What evidence is offered of his/her knowledge? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Information Literacy 2 EVALUATING SOURCES <ul><li>CARRDSS, a mnemonic device, can be a useful tool: </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy – freedom from mistake and error. </li></ul><ul><li>Can facts / statistics / other information be verified through other sources? </li></ul><ul><li>Do there appear to be errors on the page (spelling/ grammar /facts)? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Information Literacy 2 EVALUATING SOURCES <ul><li>CARRDSS, a mnemonic device, can be a useful tool: </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability – the extent to which a source gives the same information as other sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Does the source present a particular view or bias? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information affiliated with an organisation that has a particular political or social agenda? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Information Literacy 2 EVALUATING SOURCES <ul><li>CARRDSS, a mnemonic device, can be a useful tool: </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance – the relationship to the focused topic or question. </li></ul><ul><li>Does the information directly support the thesis or help to answer the question? </li></ul><ul><li>Can it be eliminated or ignored because it simply does not help? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Information Literacy 2 EVALUATING SOURCES <ul><li>CARRDSS, a mnemonic device, can be a useful tool: </li></ul><ul><li>Date – the time at which an information source is published or produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Does this project need current, up-to-date information? </li></ul><ul><li>When was this Web page created? When was it last updated? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Information Literacy 2 EVALUATING SOURCES <ul><li>CARRDSS, a mnemonic device, can be a useful tool: </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility – the quality and capacity of belief. </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the author? What are his/her credentials / education / experience / affiliations? </li></ul><ul><li>What evidence is offered of his/her knowledge? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Information Literacy 2 <ul><li>Evaluating Sources When researching a topic, your job is to collect information from ARTICLES, BOOKS, and/or the WEB . At some point, however, you have to start analyzing what each resource says . You may have already done some evaluating when selecting items, like looking at the date and the scope of the subject matter being covered. Now, you want to go through each resource with a fine tooth-comb to glean the good information from them. When EVALUATING a source, look at: </li></ul><ul><li>the importance of the information as it relates to your topic </li></ul><ul><li>whether the information is intended for a similar audience as your research </li></ul><ul><li>how current the information is and whether that matters given your topic </li></ul><ul><li>how reliable and authoritative the author is </li></ul>SWITCH Library Consortium http://caspian.switchinc.org/~tutorials/mod6/txt/0a_2.html
  13. 13. Information Literacy 2 WHAT DO WE DO WITH ALL THE INFORMATION ON OUR TOPIC? For example: Ideas about using non-violent resistance to enact change have passed from person to person: Thoreau  Gandhi  Martin Luther King, Jr.    Your Ideas & Research In the course of researching and writing a paper, you must read through various resources identifying the key points that support your ideas or argument. You then combine the points from resources with your own ideas to create a new entity of your own on the topic. This process of integrating information from resources and writing your own body of work is called synthesizing . SWITCH Library Consortium http://caspian.switchinc.org/~tutorials/mod6/txt/01_2.html
  14. 14. Information Literacy 2 Integrating Information from Sources It is important to identify material you think will be useful in writing your paper. There are certain practices for properly incorporating information from sources into your research: 1. IDENTIFY USEFUL INFORMATION Taking clear notes, on paper or in a word processing program, and highlighting photocopies of materials, are two ways to identify information for potential use later on. Don't forget about Post-Its© for flagging the pages you need! 2. GET COMPLETE REFERENCES Write down complete bibliographic information for each source or photocopy the title page of books to capture this information. SWITCH Library Consortium http://caspian.switchinc.org/~tutorials/mod6/txt/01-int2.html
  15. 15. Information Literacy 2 3. USE QUOTATION MARKS You must use quotation marks around any statement that is taken word-for-word from another person no matter the source. 4. PARAPHRASE Paraphrasing means you restate a passage from a source using your own words. Be sure to reword the passage well so that it's actually different from the original work. 5. SUMMARIZE Summarizing means you identify the main ideas or concepts from someone else's work using your own words. Integrating Information from Sources SWITCH Library Consortium http://caspian.switchinc.org/~tutorials/mod6/txt/01-int2.html
  16. 16. Information Literacy 1 <ul><li>Information literacy is the ability to </li></ul><ul><li>identify what information is needed; [WHAT] </li></ul><ul><li>understand how the information is organized ; [HOW] </li></ul><ul><li>identify the best sources of information for a given need; [WHERE] </li></ul><ul><li>locate those sources ; [WHERE] </li></ul><ul><li>evaluate the sources critically ; [WHY/ HOW] and </li></ul><ul><li>share that information . [FOR WHOM] </li></ul><ul><li>It is the knowledge of commonly used research techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>(From: the University of Idaho) http://www.webs.uidaho.edu/info_literacy/ </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Information literacy is NOT computer skills. </li></ul>RECAP: What is information literacy?
  17. 17. Information Literacy 2 <ul><li>Parts of a citation for a book: </li></ul><ul><li>author(s) or editor(s) </li></ul><ul><li>book title </li></ul><ul><li>edition </li></ul><ul><li>place of publication </li></ul><ul><li>publisher name </li></ul><ul><li>date of publication </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of a citation for a journal or newspaper article: </li></ul><ul><li>author(s) </li></ul><ul><li>title of the article </li></ul><ul><li>title of the journal or newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>volume and issue number of journal or newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>page numbers </li></ul><ul><li>date of journal/newspaper issue </li></ul>Citation Guides There are several different guides, called style manuals , that outline how to format your citations correctly. These styles include the same basic parts of a citation, but they organise them differently. The common ones are APA, MLA and Chicago Style . In RI, we use the American Psychological Association (APA) Formatting Style for social sciences. SWITCH Library Consortium http://caspian.switchinc.org/~tutorials/mod6/txt/02_p2.html
  18. 18. Information Literacy 2 Citation Guides Suggested Website for APA Reference: Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ SWITCH Library Consortium http://caspian.switchinc.org/~tutorials/mod6/txt/02_p2.html
  19. 19. Information Literacy 2 <ul><li>Parts of a Citation by Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of a citation for a Book (Print): </li></ul><ul><li>author(s) </li></ul><ul><li>title of the work </li></ul><ul><li>location </li></ul><ul><li>publisher </li></ul><ul><li>edition (if necessary) </li></ul><ul><li>translator (if necessary) </li></ul>Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 560/07/ FORMAT Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle . Location: Publisher. EXAMPLE (Book other than its 1st edition) Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. EXAMPLE (BOOK with 1 author) Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication . Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  20. 20. Information Literacy 2 Where to look? (An Example)
  21. 21. Information Literacy 2 Where to look? (An Example) Title: History of Malaya (?)
  22. 22. Information Literacy 2 Where to look? (An Example) Author: J. Kennedy (?) Book Edition: 3rd (?)
  23. 23. Information Literacy 2 Let’s confirm it with the inside information: Title: A History of Malaya
  24. 24. Information Literacy 2 Let’s confirm it with the inside information: Author: J. Kennedy
  25. 25. Information Literacy 2 Let’s confirm it with the inside information: Edition: Third
  26. 26. Information Literacy 2 Let’s confirm it with the inside information: Location: Malaysia [not specific enough]
  27. 27. Information Literacy 2 Let’s confirm it with the inside information: Publisher: S. Abdul Majeed & Co.
  28. 28. Information Literacy 2 Turn the page to find more bibliographic information: Author: J. Kennedy Year: 1993 (3 rd edition) Title: A History of Malaya Location: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Publisher: S. Abdul Majeed & Co. Write it in APA style now. (1 min) The answer is on the next slide.
  29. 29. Information Literacy 2 Our Answer: Guide: Did you get this right? EXAMPLE (Book other than its 1st edition) Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Kennedy, J. (1993). A history of Malaya (3rd ed.) . Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: S. Abdul Majeed & Co.
  30. 30. Information Literacy 2 <ul><li>Parts of a Citation by Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of a citation for a Magazine/Journal & Newspaper Article (Print): </li></ul><ul><li>author(s) </li></ul><ul><li>title of the article </li></ul><ul><li>title of the journal or newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>volume and issue number of journal or newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>page numbers (Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4 for newspapers only ) </li></ul><ul><li>date of journal/newspaper issue </li></ul>Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 560/07/ FORMAT Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. EXAMPLE (NEWSPAPER) Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today , pp. 1A, 2A. EXAMPLE (MAGAZINE) Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135 , 28-31.
  31. 31. Information Literacy 2 <ul><li>Parts of a citation for a Web Document or Web Page: </li></ul><ul><li>author(s) </li></ul><ul><li>title of the web page </li></ul><ul><li>date of publication or date viewed </li></ul><ul><li>the word &quot;Retrieved&quot; (APA) followed by the web address (including http://) </li></ul>Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ FORMAT Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document . Retrieved from http://Web address EXAMPLE Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format . Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
  32. 32. Information Literacy 2 <ul><li>Parts of a citation for an Online Article found in a Library Database: </li></ul><ul><li>author(s) </li></ul><ul><li>title of the article </li></ul><ul><li>title of the journal or newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>volume and issue number of journal (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>page numbers or length of article </li></ul><ul><li>the words &quot;Retrieved&quot; (APA) or &quot;Date accessed &quot; (MLA) followed by the month day, year and the name of the library database </li></ul>Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ FORMAT Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149 . Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving EXAMPLE
  33. 33. Information Literacy 2 <ul><li>Parts of a citation for an Online Article found in a Library Database: </li></ul><ul><li>author(s) </li></ul><ul><li>title of the article </li></ul><ul><li>title of the journal or newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>volume and issue number of journal (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>page numbers or length of article </li></ul><ul><li>the words &quot;Retrieved&quot; (APA) or &quot;Date accessed &quot; (MLA) followed by the month day, year and the name of the library database </li></ul>Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ Go to OWL Purdue for more APA examples. Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ FORMAT Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149 . Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving EXAMPLE
  34. 34. Information Literacy 2 <ul><li>Hands-on Activity 1: Citation Exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>You are tasked to make a REFERENCE LIST using the APA Formatting Style for </li></ul><ul><li>3 print resources (to be done in class), and </li></ul><ul><li>3 electronic resources (all of which must be obtained from 3 different sources, which will be done as homework ): </li></ul><ul><li>(i) NLB > JSTOR ; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Discovery > SIRS Researcher ; </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Discovery > Newslink ; and/or </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) Webpage > Google Scholar . </li></ul><ul><li>Your teacher will demonstrate the use of Landmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Citation Machine that can help you generate the </li></ul><ul><li>APA citation. </li></ul><ul><li>Copy the information to a Word document. Save it. </li></ul><ul><li>Then upload to your Group’s Wiki webpage . </li></ul><ul><li>Email your teacher to inform him/her that you have submitted your homework, with an URL and access password (if any). </li></ul>
  35. 35. Information Literacy 2 Landmarks Citation Machine. http://citationmachine.net/ Go to this website
  36. 36. Information Literacy 2 Landmarks Citation Machine. http://citationmachine.net/ Click on APA
  37. 37. Information Literacy 2 Landmarks Citation Machine. http://citationmachine.net/ Click on Print> Books
  38. 38. Information Literacy 2 Landmarks Citation Machine. http://citationmachine.net/ Fill in the blanks.
  39. 39. Information Literacy 2 Landmarks Citation Machine. http://citationmachine.net/ Copy the bibliographic citation to a Word document
  40. 40. Information Literacy 2 Landmarks Citation Machine. http://citationmachine.net/ Repeat the same procedure for different sources. E.g. click on Non-Print > Online Journal Article… This form will then appear.
  41. 41. Information Literacy 2 Landmarks Citation Machine. http://citationmachine.net/ (v) Copy the generated reference citation onto a Word document. (vi) Put them under the proper headings . For example, “Print Resources” and “Non-Print Resources” (vii) Ensure that the 2 nd lines are indented . Manually check for mistakes against the guidelines in OWL Purdue’s APA Guide. (viii) Rearrange your references in alphabetical order , if you have more than 1. <ul><li>Upload the Word document with the correct APA style formatting to your Group Wiki Page for your teacher-mentor to grade your work. </li></ul><ul><li>(x) Make sure you have written your name ( index no.) and class at the top. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Information Literacy 2 SWITCH Library Consortium http://caspian.switchinc.org/~tutorials/mod6/txt/04cr2.html Landmarks Citation Machine. http://citationmachine.net/ Why manually check for mistakes? The auto-form makes it more convenient for you, but there may be incomplete or incorrect data in your References. For example, the Landmarks generated citation on ‘A History of Malaya’ has 2 errors. Do you know what they are?
  43. 43. Information Literacy 2 SWITCH Library Consortium http://caspian.switchinc.org/~tutorials/mod6/txt/04cr2.html Landmarks Citation Machine. http://citationmachine.net/ Capital letter for country: Malaya Missing edition of the book: (3 rd ed.).
  44. 44. Information Literacy 2 Landmarks Citation Machine. http://citationmachine.net/ A Sample: APA Exercise by Edmund Chow (23) from 1D Print Resources. Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.     Kennedy, J. (1993). A history of Malaya (3 rd ed.). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: S. Abdul Majeed & Co.     Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today ,   pp. 1A, 2A. Electronic Resources Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5).   General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Mistakes,   149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving. Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics,   8 . Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocount.html APA Exercise by Edmund Chow (23) from 1D
  45. 45. Information Literacy 2 Landmarks Citation Machine. http://citationmachine.net/ A Sample: APA Exercise by Edmund Chow (23) from 1D Print Resources. Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.     Kennedy, J. (1993). A history of Malaya (3 rd ed.). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: S. Abdul Majeed & Co.     Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today ,   pp. 1A, 2A. Electronic Resources Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5).   General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Mistakes,   149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving. Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics,   8 . Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocount.html APA Exercise by Edmund Chow (23) from 1D Note that the references are arranged in alphabetical order. You will do this as your online homework.
  46. 46. Information Literacy 2 <ul><li>When to Give Credit? </li></ul><ul><li>CITE THE SOURCE: </li></ul><ul><li>When using or referring to someone else's words or ideas from a magazine, book, newspaper, song, TV show, movie, web page, letter, computer program, advertisement, or any other medium. </li></ul><ul><li>When using information gained through interviewing another person. </li></ul><ul><li>When copying the exact words or a “unique phrase” from somewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>When reprinting any diagrams, illustrations, charts, and/or pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>When using ideas that others have given to you in conversations, interviews, or over email. </li></ul><ul><li>NO NEED TO CITE: </li></ul><ul><li>When using something that is “Common Knowledge” – folklore, common sense, or any information generally shared within a field or a cultural group. </li></ul><ul><li>When writing your own experiences, observations, insights, thoughts, or conclusions on a subject. </li></ul><ul><li>When compiling facts that are generally accepted for a particular audience. </li></ul><ul><li>When writing up your own experimental results. </li></ul>SWITCH Library Consortium http://caspian.switchinc.org/~tutorials/mod6/txt/04cr2.html
  47. 47. Information Literacy 2 What is Plagiarism? If you should give credit to an author, THEN DO! When you don't you are committing plagiarism… and it’s a serious crime . Plagiarism is presenting the words or ideas of someone else without properly acknowledging their source. Failing to acknowledge the source implies that the words or ideas are your creation. You need to credit an author when you quote something he/she wrote or said, and when you summarize or paraphrase information from books, articles or the Web. SWITCH Library Consortium http://caspian.switchinc.org/~tutorials/mod6/txt/04-pl2.html Question: Can you think of how we, the authors of this Powerpoint, have given credit to the original source, and thus avoided plagiarism?
  48. 48. Information Literacy 2 What is Plagiarism? If you should give credit to an author, THEN DO! When you don't you are committing plagiarism… and it’s a serious crime . Plagiarism is presenting the words or ideas of someone else without properly acknowledging their source. Failing to acknowledge the source implies that the words or ideas are your creation. You need to credit an author when you quote something he/she wrote or said, and when you summarize or paraphrase information from books, articles or the Web. SWITCH Library Consortium http://caspian.switchinc.org/~tutorials/mod6/txt/04-pl2.html Question: Can you think of how we, the authors of this Powerpoint, have given credit to the original source, and thus avoided plagiarism?
  49. 49. Information Literacy 2 Plagiarism Detection Services It's now easier than ever to get caught plagiarizing! Many colleges and universities make use of detection tools. PLAGIARISM = ACADEMIC DISHONESTY!
  50. 50. Information Literacy 2 Hands-on Activity: Plagiarism OR Not? You will be given a short text to analyse. Compare the student’s work with the original text, and decide if that student has plagiarised or not. REJECTED
  51. 51. Information Literacy 2 Paraphrasing A common mistake many students make is to paraphrase content without giving credit to the original author. You still must cite the author. In addition, you must make sure your content is written in your own words yet represents the ideas of the source you are citing. 

 LET'S PRACTICE 
Read the two passages below. Decide if it’s acceptable or if it’s plagiarism . Original Passage 
Still, the telephone was only a convenience, permitting Americans to do more casually and with less effort what they had already been doing before. Boorstin, D.J. (1973). The Americans: the democratic experience , New York: Random House. Brian's Version 
Daniel J. Boorstin argues that the telephone was only a convenience, permitting Americans to do more casually and with less effort what they had already been doing before.
  52. 52. Information Literacy 2 Paraphrasing A common mistake many students make is to paraphrase content without giving credit to the original author. You still must cite the author. In addition, you must make sure your content is written in your own words yet represents the ideas of the source you are citing. 

 LET'S PRACTICE 
Read the two passages below. Decide if it’s acceptable or if it’s plagiarism . Original Passage 
Still, the telephone was only a convenience, permitting Americans to do more casually and with less effort what they had already been doing before. Boorstin, D.J. (1973). The Americans: the democratic experience , New York: Random House. Brian's Version 
Daniel J. Boorstin argues that the telephone was only a convenience, permitting Americans to do more casually and with less effort what they had already been doing before. This is not acceptable. Brian does acknowledge the source, but he has copied the original statement almost word-for-word. He also does not supply quotation marks to indicate the extent of his borrowing. REJECTED
  53. 53. Information Literacy 2 Direct Quotation When using the author's own words, always use quotation marks and provide a citation. 

 LET'S PRACTICE 
Read the two passages below. Decide if it’s acceptable or if it’s plagiarism . Original Passage 
Observing great white, tiger or bull sharks without protection is very risky business. These predators grow large enough to view human-sized creatures as prey. At times, they do attack swimmers or surfers. There is growing evidence, however, that great whites do not seek humans (or seabirds or sea otters) as food. Klimley, A. P. (1996, November). Dances with sharks. Natural History, 105 (11) , p. 54-56. Lincoln's Version According to Klimley, observing great white, tiger, or bull sharks without protection is very risky business. He states that, at times, they do attack swimmers or surfers. However, there is growing evidence that great whites do not seek humans (or sea birds or sea otters) as food (p. 55).
  54. 54. Information Literacy 2 Direct Quotation When using the author's own words, always use quotation marks and provide a citation. 

 LET'S PRACTICE Read the two passages below. Decide if it’s acceptable or if it’s plagiarism . Original Passage 
Observing great white, tiger or bull sharks without protection is very risky business. These predators grow large enough to view human-sized creatures as prey. At times, they do attack swimmers or surfers. There is growing evidence, however, that great whites do not seek humans (or seabirds or sea otters) as food. Klimley, A. P. (1996, November). Dances with sharks. Natural History, 105 (11) , p. 54-56. Lincoln's Version According to Klimley, observing great white, tiger, or bull sharks without protection is very risky business. He states that, at times, they do attack swimmers or surfers. However, there is growing evidence that great whites do not seek humans (or sea birds or sea otters) as food (p. 55). This is PLAGIARISM. Lindsay acknowledges Klimley and references his work, but she does not include any QUOTATION MARKS and has copied the original statement almost verbatim. REJECTED
  55. 55. Information Literacy 2 Summarizing Summarizing is condensing what an author has said into your own words . Your job is to simplify information using fewer details. As a result, the reader will have an understanding of the overall meaning or point of the work. When summarizing you must still credit the author of the original work. 

 LET'S PRACTICE 
 Read the passages below. Decide if it’s acceptable or if it’s plagiarism . Original Passage 
In order to communicate effectively with other people, one must have a reasonably accurate idea of what they do and do not know that is pertinent to the communication. Treating people as though they have knowledge that they do not have can result in miscommunication and perhaps embarrassment. On the other hand, a fundamental rule of conversation, at least according to a Gricean view, is that one generally does not convey to others information that one can assume they already have. Nickerson, R.S. (1999, November). How we know- and sometimes misjudge-what others know: imputing one's own knowledge to others. Psychological Bulletin, 125 (6), 737-761.
  56. 56. Information Literacy 2 Original Passage 
In order to communicate effectively with other people, one must have a reasonably accurate idea of what they do and do not know that is pertinent to the communication. Treating people as though they have knowledge that they do not have can result in miscommunication and perhaps embarrassment. On the other hand, a fundamental rule of conversation, at least according to a Gricean view, is that one generally does not convey to others information that one can assume they already have. Nickerson, R.S. (1999, November). How we know- and sometimes misjudge-what others know: imputing one's own knowledge to others. Psychological Bulletin, 125 (6), 737-761. Henry's Version 
Nickerson (1999) argues that clear communication hinges upon what an audience does and does not know. It is crucial to assume the audience has neither too much nor too little knowledge of the subject, or the communication may be inhibited by either confusion or offense (p. 737).
  57. 57. Information Literacy 2 Original Passage 
In order to communicate effectively with other people, one must have a reasonably accurate idea of what they do and do not know that is pertinent to the communication. Treating people as though they have knowledge that they do not have can result in miscommunication and perhaps embarrassment. On the other hand, a fundamental rule of conversation, at least according to a Gricean view, is that one generally does not convey to others information that one can assume they already have. Nickerson, R.S. (1999, November). How we know- and sometimes misjudge-what others know: imputing one's own knowledge to others. Psychological Bulletin, 125 (6), 737-761. Henry's Version 
Nickerson (1999) argues that clear communication hinges upon what an audience does and does not know. It is crucial to assume the audience has neither too much nor too little knowledge of the subject, or the communication may be inhibited by either confusion or offense (p. 737). Plagiarism? No. This passage is properly summarized. Henry does not rephrase the original work by simply using different wording. Instead, he paraphrases the original statement and condenses the ideas into two sentences. PASSED
  58. 58. Information Literacy 2 Original Passage 
In order to communicate effectively with other people, one must have a reasonably accurate idea of what they do and do not know that is pertinent to the communication. Treating people as though they have knowledge that they do not have can result in miscommunication and perhaps embarrassment. On the other hand, a fundamental rule of conversation, at least according to a Gricean view, is that one generally does not convey to others information that one can assume they already have. Nickerson, R.S. (1999, November). How we know- and sometimes misjudge-what others know: imputing one's own knowledge to others. Psychological Bulletin, 125 (6), 737-761. Henry's Version 
Nickerson (1999) argues that clear communication hinges upon what an audience does and does not know. It is crucial to assume the audience has neither too much nor too little knowledge of the subject, or the communication may be inhibited by either confusion or offense (p. 737). These are examples of in-text citations , i.e. citing the sources within the paragraph. It’s different from the Reference list at the end of the article. A closer look at another feature:
  59. 59. Information Literacy 2 More Examples of in-text citations 
 Short Quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by &quot;p.&quot;). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. Example 1 According to Jones (1998), &quot;Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time&quot; (p. 199). 
 Example 2 Jones (1998) found &quot;students often had difficulty using APA style&quot; (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Example 3 She stated, &quot;Students often had difficulty using APA style&quot; (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why. Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 560/02/
  60. 60. Information Literacy 2 More Examples of in-text citations 
 Long Quotations Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks . Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Example 4 Jones's (1998) study found the following: 
    Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 560/02/ Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p.199)
  61. 61. Information Literacy 2 http://www.cte.usf.edu/plagiarism/plag.html Interactive Tutorial To Help You Understand Plagiarism Better: 
 Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 560/02/
  62. 62. Information Literacy 2 Online Homework 
 Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 560/02/ <ul><li>3. REFERENCES (3 print, 3 non-print sources). Upload this to your Group Wiki Page, and email it to your teacher-mentor . </li></ul><ul><li>Use http://citationmachine.net to generate data. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the APA Guide from OWL Purdue http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02 </li></ul>Do the following quizzes on Plagiarism online, and your scores will be emailed to your teacher-mentor. Make sure you know your teacher’s email address . 1. PRE-TEST http://www.lib.usm.edu/legacy/plag/pretest.php 2. POST-TEST http://www.lib.usm.edu/legacy/plag/posttest.php
  63. 63. Information Literacy 2 Summary <ul><li>APA References and Citation </li></ul><ul><li>In-text Citations </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Summarising, Paraphrasing, Direct Quotation </li></ul>

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