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Psychology of Design (UX Intensive for MySkills4Afrika)


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Day 3 of a 4-day design intensive I created and presented at the iHub in Nairobi, Kenya as a representative of Microsoft's MySkills4Afrika program.

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Psychology of Design (UX Intensive for MySkills4Afrika)

  1. 1. Topics Covered DAY 1 Introduction to Modern Design Microsoft Design Principles Design Process Windows Building Blocks Build 2014 DAY 2 Storytelling and the Human Fom Natural User Interfaces Mini-improv workshop: Storytelling Storyboarding & Scenarios Technologies & Trends DAY 3 Psychology of Design Basic principles Gamification Motivational Design DAY 4 Visual Design for Modern UI Basics Grids & Tiles Typography Color & Content
  2. 2. This is not a computer science class. This class is not just for those that want to be designers This is not an intro-level user experience class
  3. 3. Degree in Computer Science and Human- Computer Interaction from Carnegie Mellon University Over 10 years of experience spanning multiple industries: web, automotive, cloud and server technology, education, theme parks, and video games. 6.5 years at Microsoft My current project: designing the future of the connected experience for cars; helping to define the future of Microsoft’s Internet of Things In my free time: I’m a professional improv actress/teacher, singer, and video gamer.
  6. 6. RULE OF 7 It’s hard for the human brain’s short term memory to remember more than 7 things at once (new studies indicate perhaps as low as 3-4). The more “things” you put onscreen, the more work a person has to do to remember them.
  7. 7. EYE SCANNING The human eye scans in an order based on a culture’s reading patterns. In North America, the eye scans: LEFT to RIGHT and TOP to BOTTOM Items down here are seen last… and sometimes not seen at all.
  8. 8. GROUPING (GESTALT PRINCIPLE) Avoid the Sesame Street scenario: “One of these things is not like the other”
  9. 9. Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi’s Eva-Lotta Lamm
  10. 10. An Attention Hierarchy We are wired to pay more attention to certain things, thanks to our survival instinct: - Movement - Pictures of humans (even more so if they’re looking at you) - Images of food, danger, or sex - Stories - Loud noises
  11. 11. What is gamification? The application of game design principles to other domains in order to drive human behavior and increase product enjoyment.
  12. 12. Game design tools
  13. 13. Achievements & goals Provide metrics by which users can evaluate and demonstrate their progress and mastery. Not all users are motivated by visible recognition of goals, but almost all humans are motivated by smaller, achievable, personal goals. 1
  14. 14. Achievements & goals Example: Xbox Live Achievements 1
  15. 15. Achievements & goals Example: Foursquare Badges 1
  16. 16. Achievements & goals Example: LinkedIn Profile Completion 1
  17. 17. Real-time feedback Provide feedback as close to the moment of action as possible, to help users repeat positive actions. Sound effects, animation, and color are all methods of providing feedback. When successful, feedback can actually cause the release of endorphins. 2
  18. 18. Real-time feedback Example: Fitbit’s “flower” 2
  19. 19. Real-time feedback Example: Hybrid & electric vehicles 2
  20. 20. Real-time feedback Example: Facebook’s “Like” Button 2
  21. 21. Competition (Head-to-head) Humans have been competing since the beginning. Competition against known opponents is a powerful motivator. Users who are extrinsically motivated will respond to public leaderboards, “mayorships”, and other recognition. 3
  22. 22. Competition (Head-to-head) Example: Foursquare 3
  23. 23. Competition (Head-to-head) Example: Duolingo (Language Learning) 3
  24. 24. Competition (Anonymous) Competition can even be a motivator when we’d feel uncomfortable sharing our performance. Anonymous competition is used to motivate better spending habits, home efficiency, and more. 3
  25. 25. Competition (Anonymous) Examples: and Hohm 3
  26. 26. Cooperation Cooperation engenders unique feelings of fulfillment and accountability amongst users. By creating a team atmosphere, users can complete more than the sum of their individual contributions. Digital interactions become socially fulfilling. 4
  27. 27. Cooperation Example: Massively multiplayer games 4
  28. 28. Cooperation Example: Kiva microlending teams 4
  29. 29. Immersion Immersion is the art of removing artifacts that might distract or frustrate users. Immersion is difficult to encourage, but when successful can aid in achieving “flow” (efficient, uninterrupted work). Immersion also tends to make users more forgiving when errors happen. 5
  30. 30. DO understand what success looks like
  31. 31. DON’T reward bad behavior! By rewarding behaviors you do not want users to repeat, you may accidentally associate that bad behavior with the good release of endorphins.
  32. 32. DO invest time in fine tuning your interactions!
  33. 33. DON’T penalize users for a long absence! Some games (e.g. Animal Crossing) will penalize players for each day they don’t interact with the game. Since life is unpredictable, this may lead to your users avoiding your product if life keeps them away for too long. If you must, reward the return – don’t penalize the absence.
  34. 34. DO consider context when choosing mechanics
  35. 35. DON’T assume all users have the same motivation! Different game mechanics appeal to different types of people. Understand your users. Are they motivated by mastery or impact? Competition or collaboration?
  36. 36. The companies that win distinguish themselves with the “how” of their features, not the “what.”
  37. 37. “100 Things Every Designer Should Know About People”
  38. 38. Psychology of motivation
  39. 39. The Psychology of Variable Rewards
  40. 40. The Psychology of Variable Rewards
  41. 41. The Psychology of Goals
  42. 42. The Psychology of Goals
  43. 43. The Psychology of Goals
  44. 44. Our brains prefer anticipation to the reward Our brains are more stimulated when we anticipate a reward than when we receive it. Without the thrill of anticipation, rats starve to death with food in front of them!
  45. 45. Unpredictability drives motivation Emails, Tweets and texts are addicting largely because they’re unpredictable. The unexpected delight of an incoming message buzz is just as stimulating as getting the message.
  46. 46. Rewards are tricky Once you pay someone to do something, they will only want to do it for the reward. Unexpected rewards don’t have the same demotivating effect.
  47. 47. Change happens in small increments Want to get someone to build new habits? Change their behaviors? Start small… and Forgive lapses
  48. 48. Fewer competitors = more motivation We talked about competition in Gamification... but there’s more going on. People like to compete, but they also like to feel like they have a chance. Research shows competing against 10 competitors is fundamentally more motivating than 1000.
  49. 49. Humans enjoy autonomy Modern life involves many more self-directed actions than it did 10, 20, or 50 years ago. Regardless of skill level, humans innately enjoy being independent on some level as it gives total control. Our prehistoric ancestors equated control with staying out of danger and survival, so this is a deeply rooted motivator.
  50. 50. Social psychology
  51. 51. Mirror Neurons Humans are built to mimic others, and you automatically like others more when those others subconsciously mirror you. Watching someone else do something lights up the parts of our brain that would do it ourselves. It’s biological empathy. V. S. Ramachandran’s TED talk on mirror neurons
  52. 52. Strong & Weak Social Ties Humans have a limited ability to maintain strong social ties. Research puts the maximum at around 150 “strong ties”, where you know each person and interact with them in physical environments. “Weak ties” are more like the Twitter relationships you have with strangers. You don’t get the same kind of benefit from these, and establishing physical proximity to all would be overwhelming.
  53. 53. us/twc/default.aspx Four pillars: Security Safety Privacy Accessibility
  54. 54. What is accessibility?
  55. 55. Why care about security?
  56. 56. What do you mean by safety?
  57. 57. What do you mean by privacy?