Small Cetaceans of theSmall Cetaceans of the
World:World:
An OverviewAn Overview
Thomas A. JeffersonThomas A. Jefferson
Cl...
Small Cetaceans of the WorldSmall Cetaceans of the World
Family KogiidaeFamily Kogiidae ““Mini” sperm whales - 2Mini” sper...
‘‘Mini’ Sperm WhalesMini’ Sperm Whales
 2 species, with largely-overlapping distributions2 species, with largely-overlapp...
Beluga/NarwhalBeluga/Narwhal
 2 species (Arctic only)2 species (Arctic only)
 Live among the ice floes (Climate change??...
Beluga whaleBeluga whale -- DelphinapterusDelphinapterus
 Single speciesSingle species
 Also known as white whale, thoug...
NarwhalNarwhal -- MonodonMonodon
 Single speciesSingle species
 Only species with protruding tuskOnly species with protr...
Beaked WhalesBeaked Whales
 21 species21 species
 Most poorly-known group of large mammals in the worldMost poorly-known...
Baird’s and Arnoux’s beakedBaird’s and Arnoux’s beaked
whaleswhales -- BerardiusBerardius
 2 species2 species
 Largest b...
Bottlenose whalesBottlenose whales --HyperoodonHyperoodon
 2 species (northern and southern)2 species (northern and south...
‘‘Mesoplodonts’Mesoplodonts’ -- MesoplodonMesoplodon
 14-15 species (very diverse)14-15 species (very diverse)
 Males us...
Cuvier’s beaked whale -Cuvier’s beaked whale - ZiphiusZiphius
 Single species (cosmopolitan)Single species (cosmopolitan)...
Longman’s & Shepherd’s beakedLongman’s & Shepherd’s beaked
whales -whales - Indopacetus/TasmacetusIndopacetus/Tasmacetus
...
Oceanic DolphinsOceanic Dolphins
 36 species (very diverse)36 species (very diverse)
 Both long-beaked and blunt-headed ...
‘‘Snubfin’ DolphinsSnubfin’ Dolphins -- OrcaellaOrcaella
 2 species (Irrawaddy and Aus snubfin dolphins)2 species (Irrawa...
Killer whaleKiller whale -- OrcinusOrcinus
 Single speciesSingle species
 But wait a minute… taxonomy about to explodeBu...
Pilot whalesPilot whales -- GlobicephalaGlobicephala
 2 species (short- and long-finned)2 species (short- and long-finned...
False killer whaleFalse killer whale -- PseudorcaPseudorca
 Single speciesSingle species
 Worldwide dist (not found in h...
Pygmy and melon-headedPygmy and melon-headed
whaleswhales -- FeresaFeresa//PeponocephalaPeponocephala
 2 species2 species...
Estuarine dolphinsEstuarine dolphins -- SotaliaSotalia
 2 species (tucuxi and Guiana dolphins)2 species (tucuxi and Guian...
Humpback dolphinsHumpback dolphins -- SousaSousa
 2 species currently (I-P and Atlantic)2 species currently (I-P and Atla...
Rough-toothed dolphinRough-toothed dolphin -- StenoSteno
 Single speciesSingle species
 Pantropical distributionPantropi...
‘‘Plowshare-headed’ dolphinsPlowshare-headed’ dolphins
-- LagenorhynchusLagenorhynchus
 6 species (cold temperate waters ...
Bottlenose dolphins -Bottlenose dolphins - TursiopsTursiops
 2 species (worldwide)2 species (worldwide)
 But there are p...
Risso’s dolphinRisso’s dolphin -- GrampusGrampus
 Single speciesSingle species
 Found in most areas, but prefer continen...
‘‘Stenellids’Stenellids’ -- StenellaStenella
 5 species (mostly tropical)5 species (mostly tropical)
 Another heterogene...
Common dolphinsCommon dolphins -- DelphinusDelphinus
 2 species (short- and long-beaked)2 species (short- and long-beaked...
Fraser’s dolphinFraser’s dolphin -- LagenodelphisLagenodelphis
 Single speciesSingle species
 Recently discovered (1956)...
Right whale dolphinsRight whale dolphins--LissodelphisLissodelphis
 2 species (N and S)2 species (N and S)
 Occur in col...
S HemisphereS Hemisphere dolphins -dolphins -
CephalorhynchusCephalorhynchus
 4 species (all coastal, restricted ranges)4...
PorpoisesPorpoises
 7 species (mostly in colder waters)7 species (mostly in colder waters)
 Tend to be shy and elusiveTe...
‘‘Common’ porpoisesCommon’ porpoises -- PhocoenaPhocoena
 4 species (2 NH and 2 SH)4 species (2 NH and 2 SH)
 Mostly rel...
Dall’s porpoiseDall’s porpoise -- PhocoenoidesPhocoenoides
 Single speciesSingle species
 N Pacific endemicN Pacific end...
Finless porpoisesFinless porpoises -- NeophocaenaNeophocaena
 2 species2 species
 Indo-Pacific and narrow-ridged - recen...
River DolphinsRiver Dolphins
 3 living species (tropical/temperate regions)3 living species (tropical/temperate regions)
...
South Asian River dolphin -South Asian River dolphin -
PlatanistaPlatanista
 Single species (but used to be two)Single sp...
BotoBoto - Inia- Inia
 Single speciesSingle species
 South America (Amazon River)South America (Amazon River)
 Taxonomy...
Franciscana -Franciscana - PontoporiaPontoporia
 Single speciesSingle species
 Found along E coast of S AmericaFound alo...
ConclusionsConclusions
 Wow… there sure are a heck of a lot of speciesWow… there sure are a heck of a lot of species
of s...
Bye bye……
Let’s not say good bye, just see you later……
Small Cetaceans of the World - Dr. Tom Jefferson
Small Cetaceans of the World - Dr. Tom Jefferson
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Small Cetaceans of the World - Dr. Tom Jefferson

940 views

Published on

Presentation about small cetaceans of the world from the American Cetacean Society Conference in Seaside, CA on 11/13/10

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
940
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Small Cetaceans of the World - Dr. Tom Jefferson

  1. 1. Small Cetaceans of theSmall Cetaceans of the World:World: An OverviewAn Overview Thomas A. JeffersonThomas A. Jefferson Clymene Enterprises/CetosClymene Enterprises/Cetos Research OrganizationResearch Organization
  2. 2. Small Cetaceans of the WorldSmall Cetaceans of the World Family KogiidaeFamily Kogiidae ““Mini” sperm whales - 2Mini” sperm whales - 2 Family MonodontidaeFamily Monodontidae Arctic whales - 2Arctic whales - 2 Family ZiphiidaeFamily Ziphiidae Beaked whales - 21Beaked whales - 21 Family DelphinidaeFamily Delphinidae Ocean dolphins - 36Ocean dolphins - 36 Family PhocoenidaeFamily Phocoenidae Porpoises - 7Porpoises - 7 Family PlatanistidaeFamily Platanistidae S Asian river dolphin - 1S Asian river dolphin - 1 Family IniidaeFamily Iniidae Amazon River dolphin - 1Amazon River dolphin - 1 Family PontoporiidaeFamily Pontoporiidae Franciscana - 1Franciscana - 1
  3. 3. ‘‘Mini’ Sperm WhalesMini’ Sperm Whales  2 species, with largely-overlapping distributions2 species, with largely-overlapping distributions  Very poorly-known - most knowledge comes fromVery poorly-known - most knowledge comes from strandingsstrandings  Very often confused and misidentifiedVery often confused and misidentified  Commonly stranded in some areas of the worldCommonly stranded in some areas of the world
  4. 4. Beluga/NarwhalBeluga/Narwhal  2 species (Arctic only)2 species (Arctic only)  Live among the ice floes (Climate change???)Live among the ice floes (Climate change???)  Both species heavily hunted by nativesBoth species heavily hunted by natives
  5. 5. Beluga whaleBeluga whale -- DelphinapterusDelphinapterus  Single speciesSingle species  Also known as white whale, though young are grayAlso known as white whale, though young are gray  Another name is ‘sea canary’Another name is ‘sea canary’  Population in Cook Inlet is endangered and heavilyPopulation in Cook Inlet is endangered and heavily managed by NMFSmanaged by NMFS
  6. 6. NarwhalNarwhal -- MonodonMonodon  Single speciesSingle species  Only species with protruding tuskOnly species with protruding tusk  Source of the unicorn mythSource of the unicorn myth  Maybe the first cetacean victim of global warmingMaybe the first cetacean victim of global warming
  7. 7. Beaked WhalesBeaked Whales  21 species21 species  Most poorly-known group of large mammals in the worldMost poorly-known group of large mammals in the world  Currently intensively studied (due to Navy impacts)Currently intensively studied (due to Navy impacts)  But, still largely mysterious (due to inconspicuous,But, still largely mysterious (due to inconspicuous, oceanic habits)oceanic habits)
  8. 8. Baird’s and Arnoux’s beakedBaird’s and Arnoux’s beaked whaleswhales -- BerardiusBerardius  2 species2 species  Largest beaked whalesLargest beaked whales  Occur in large, tight groupsOccur in large, tight groups  Baird’s hunted in Japanese watersBaird’s hunted in Japanese waters  Arnoux’s VERY poorly knownArnoux’s VERY poorly known
  9. 9. Bottlenose whalesBottlenose whales --HyperoodonHyperoodon  2 species (northern and southern)2 species (northern and southern)  Northern b w maybe best-studied beaked whaleNorthern b w maybe best-studied beaked whale  Supported direct fisheries in E Canada and EuropeanSupported direct fisheries in E Canada and European waterswaters  First beaked whales to be subject of focal ecologicalFirst beaked whales to be subject of focal ecological studiesstudies
  10. 10. ‘‘Mesoplodonts’Mesoplodonts’ -- MesoplodonMesoplodon  14-15 species (very diverse)14-15 species (very diverse)  Males use protruding tusks in competition for femalesMales use protruding tusks in competition for females  Some species only known from a few specimensSome species only known from a few specimens  Blainville’s b w is now reasonably well-studied (mostly HIBlainville’s b w is now reasonably well-studied (mostly HI and Bahamas)and Bahamas)
  11. 11. Cuvier’s beaked whale -Cuvier’s beaked whale - ZiphiusZiphius  Single species (cosmopolitan)Single species (cosmopolitan)  Known to be capable of very deep dives (at leastKnown to be capable of very deep dives (at least 87 min, 1,752 m)87 min, 1,752 m)  Currently of great interest to US Navy, due toCurrently of great interest to US Navy, due to sonar impactssonar impacts
  12. 12. Longman’s & Shepherd’s beakedLongman’s & Shepherd’s beaked whales -whales - Indopacetus/TasmacetusIndopacetus/Tasmacetus  Single species in each genusSingle species in each genus  Indo-Pacific (Longman’s) and Southern HemisphereIndo-Pacific (Longman’s) and Southern Hemisphere (Shepherd’s)(Shepherd’s)  External appearance unknown until last few yearsExternal appearance unknown until last few years  Shepherd’s b w is the only one with a mouth full of teethShepherd’s b w is the only one with a mouth full of teeth  Longman’s b w occurs in fairly large schoolsLongman’s b w occurs in fairly large schools
  13. 13. Oceanic DolphinsOceanic Dolphins  36 species (very diverse)36 species (very diverse)  Both long-beaked and blunt-headed speciesBoth long-beaked and blunt-headed species  Mostly occur in medium to large schoolsMostly occur in medium to large schools  Most species are oceanic, but some are coastalMost species are oceanic, but some are coastal
  14. 14. ‘‘Snubfin’ DolphinsSnubfin’ Dolphins -- OrcaellaOrcaella  2 species (Irrawaddy and Aus snubfin dolphins)2 species (Irrawaddy and Aus snubfin dolphins)  Found only in N Australia and E AsiaFound only in N Australia and E Asia  Very coastal in natureVery coastal in nature  Highly flexible neck (unusual for a cetacean)Highly flexible neck (unusual for a cetacean)
  15. 15. Killer whaleKiller whale -- OrcinusOrcinus  Single speciesSingle species  But wait a minute… taxonomy about to explodeBut wait a minute… taxonomy about to explode  Highly diverse, largely based around local preyHighly diverse, largely based around local prey specializationspecialization  Found virtually everywhere there is water connected toFound virtually everywhere there is water connected to the oceans (most cosmopolitan marine mammal)the oceans (most cosmopolitan marine mammal)
  16. 16. Pilot whalesPilot whales -- GlobicephalaGlobicephala  2 species (short- and long-finned)2 species (short- and long-finned)  One is antitropical and one is tropical/warm temperateOne is antitropical and one is tropical/warm temperate  Unique body shape with globose head and dorsal finUnique body shape with globose head and dorsal fin near the headnear the head  Most famous ‘mass strander’Most famous ‘mass strander’
  17. 17. False killer whaleFalse killer whale -- PseudorcaPseudorca  Single speciesSingle species  Worldwide dist (not found in high latitudes)Worldwide dist (not found in high latitudes)  Occasionally preys on other marine mammals (mostlyOccasionally preys on other marine mammals (mostly dolphins)dolphins)  Hawaiian island-associated population recently listed asHawaiian island-associated population recently listed as Endangered on US ESLEndangered on US ESL
  18. 18. Pygmy and melon-headedPygmy and melon-headed whaleswhales -- FeresaFeresa//PeponocephalaPeponocephala  2 species2 species  Tropical, oceanic speciesTropical, oceanic species  Very similar in external appearance, so much confusionVery similar in external appearance, so much confusion  FeresaFeresa occur in small groups andoccur in small groups and PeponocephalaPeponocephala inin large oneslarge ones
  19. 19. Estuarine dolphinsEstuarine dolphins -- SotaliaSotalia  2 species (tucuxi and Guiana dolphins)2 species (tucuxi and Guiana dolphins)  Recently split (tucuxi in Amazon River andRecently split (tucuxi in Amazon River and Guiana dolphin in coastal waters of S AmericaGuiana dolphin in coastal waters of S America [and Orinoco?])[and Orinoco?])  Look a bit like little bottlenose dolphinsLook a bit like little bottlenose dolphins
  20. 20. Humpback dolphinsHumpback dolphins -- SousaSousa  2 species currently (I-P and Atlantic)2 species currently (I-P and Atlantic)  Taxonomy is confused - probably at least 4 speciesTaxonomy is confused - probably at least 4 species  Found throughout the rim of the Indian Ocean and WFound throughout the rim of the Indian Ocean and W Pacific, and off W AfricaPacific, and off W Africa  Only reasonably well studied in S Africa and ChineseOnly reasonably well studied in S Africa and Chinese waterswaters
  21. 21. Rough-toothed dolphinRough-toothed dolphin -- StenoSteno  Single speciesSingle species  Pantropical distributionPantropical distribution  ‘‘Reptilean’ appearance, and sloping melonReptilean’ appearance, and sloping melon  Probaby very deep diversProbaby very deep divers  Appear to be highly intelligent and creativeAppear to be highly intelligent and creative
  22. 22. ‘‘Plowshare-headed’ dolphinsPlowshare-headed’ dolphins -- LagenorhynchusLagenorhynchus  6 species (cold temperate waters - antitropical)6 species (cold temperate waters - antitropical)  Best known are Pacific WS and dusky dolphinsBest known are Pacific WS and dusky dolphins  All have very short beaks and robust bodiesAll have very short beaks and robust bodies  Probably going to be split in the futureProbably going to be split in the future  Most species not very well studiedMost species not very well studied
  23. 23. Bottlenose dolphins -Bottlenose dolphins - TursiopsTursiops  2 species (worldwide)2 species (worldwide)  But there are probably other species as wellBut there are probably other species as well  The best-known dolphin in the worldThe best-known dolphin in the world  Highly diverse with many local adaptationsHighly diverse with many local adaptations  Most common dolphin species in captivity and on TV/inMost common dolphin species in captivity and on TV/in moviesmovies
  24. 24. Risso’s dolphinRisso’s dolphin -- GrampusGrampus  Single speciesSingle species  Found in most areas, but prefer continental slope areaFound in most areas, but prefer continental slope area  Adults are covered in scratches, scrapes, and scarsAdults are covered in scratches, scrapes, and scars  Easily identifiable, but very few ecological studies haveEasily identifiable, but very few ecological studies have been donebeen done
  25. 25. ‘‘Stenellids’Stenellids’ -- StenellaStenella  5 species (mostly tropical)5 species (mostly tropical)  Another heterogeneous grouping?Another heterogeneous grouping?  Spinner dolphins probably best-known species of genusSpinner dolphins probably best-known species of genus  Millions of dolphins of this genus killed in ETP tunaMillions of dolphins of this genus killed in ETP tuna fishery since 1960sfishery since 1960s
  26. 26. Common dolphinsCommon dolphins -- DelphinusDelphinus  2 species (short- and long-beaked)2 species (short- and long-beaked)  Taxonomy split in 1994Taxonomy split in 1994  Mostly temperate, although they do occur in tropicsMostly temperate, although they do occur in tropics  Not necessarily all that common in many areas of theNot necessarily all that common in many areas of the world, esp. equatorial areasworld, esp. equatorial areas
  27. 27. Fraser’s dolphinFraser’s dolphin -- LagenodelphisLagenodelphis  Single speciesSingle species  Recently discovered (1956) - external appearance onlyRecently discovered (1956) - external appearance only described in 1973described in 1973  Short beak, and very small appendagesShort beak, and very small appendages  Still very poorly-known speciesStill very poorly-known species
  28. 28. Right whale dolphinsRight whale dolphins--LissodelphisLissodelphis  2 species (N and S)2 species (N and S)  Occur in cold temperate watersOccur in cold temperate waters  Unique appearance (eel-like and no dorsal fin)Unique appearance (eel-like and no dorsal fin)  Very poorly-known speciesVery poorly-known species  One of Tom’s absolute favoritesOne of Tom’s absolute favorites
  29. 29. S HemisphereS Hemisphere dolphins -dolphins - CephalorhynchusCephalorhynchus  4 species (all coastal, restricted ranges)4 species (all coastal, restricted ranges)  Smallest of the dolphinsSmallest of the dolphins  Short beak, and robust bodiesShort beak, and robust bodies  Several species/populations threatened (e.g., Hector’s,Several species/populations threatened (e.g., Hector’s, Maui’s, Chilean, etc.)Maui’s, Chilean, etc.)
  30. 30. PorpoisesPorpoises  7 species (mostly in colder waters)7 species (mostly in colder waters)  Tend to be shy and elusiveTend to be shy and elusive  Small and not as social as dolphinsSmall and not as social as dolphins  Suffer universal problems with gillnetsSuffer universal problems with gillnets
  31. 31. ‘‘Common’ porpoisesCommon’ porpoises -- PhocoenaPhocoena  4 species (2 NH and 2 SH)4 species (2 NH and 2 SH)  Mostly relatively coastalMostly relatively coastal  Harbor porpoise is the best-known porpoise speciesHarbor porpoise is the best-known porpoise species  Spectacled porpoise is the least…Spectacled porpoise is the least…  Vaquita is the most endangered cetaceanVaquita is the most endangered cetacean
  32. 32. Dall’s porpoiseDall’s porpoise -- PhocoenoidesPhocoenoides  Single speciesSingle species  N Pacific endemicN Pacific endemic  Largest porpoise speciesLargest porpoise species  Previously caught in N Pacific driftnet fisheriesPreviously caught in N Pacific driftnet fisheries  Fast and energetic bowridersFast and energetic bowriders
  33. 33. Finless porpoisesFinless porpoises -- NeophocaenaNeophocaena  2 species2 species  Indo-Pacific and narrow-ridged - recently splitIndo-Pacific and narrow-ridged - recently split  Only found in Asian/Indian Ocean watersOnly found in Asian/Indian Ocean waters  Almost completely unstudied in most areas of rangeAlmost completely unstudied in most areas of range  Lots of local adaptation and many different populationsLots of local adaptation and many different populations
  34. 34. River DolphinsRiver Dolphins  3 living species (tropical/temperate regions)3 living species (tropical/temperate regions)  4th species (baiji) was declared extinct in 20064th species (baiji) was declared extinct in 2006  Represent several ancient lineages (not related)Represent several ancient lineages (not related)  All have long beaks and lumpy bodiesAll have long beaks and lumpy bodies
  35. 35. South Asian River dolphin -South Asian River dolphin - PlatanistaPlatanista  Single species (but used to be two)Single species (but used to be two)  Occur in Ganges/Brahmaputra and Indus basinsOccur in Ganges/Brahmaputra and Indus basins  Very bizarre appearance (teeth protrude in oldVery bizarre appearance (teeth protrude in old individuals)individuals)  Indus bhulan threatened with extinctionIndus bhulan threatened with extinction
  36. 36. BotoBoto - Inia- Inia  Single speciesSingle species  South America (Amazon River)South America (Amazon River)  Taxonomy currently being revisedTaxonomy currently being revised  Forest dolphin, they can actually swim among treesForest dolphin, they can actually swim among trees  Only dolphin with differentiated teeth (molar-like teeth)Only dolphin with differentiated teeth (molar-like teeth)
  37. 37. Franciscana -Franciscana - PontoporiaPontoporia  Single speciesSingle species  Found along E coast of S AmericaFound along E coast of S America  Only ‘river dolphin’ that does not live in riversOnly ‘river dolphin’ that does not live in rivers  Heavy gillnet mortality and some populations threatenedHeavy gillnet mortality and some populations threatened  Subject of many recent studiesSubject of many recent studies
  38. 38. ConclusionsConclusions  Wow… there sure are a heck of a lot of speciesWow… there sure are a heck of a lot of species of small cetaceans!!of small cetaceans!!  The delphinids have become a taxonomic ‘trashThe delphinids have become a taxonomic ‘trash basket’ - lots of diverse species lumpedbasket’ - lots of diverse species lumped together.together.  Most of the World’s most endangered cetaceanMost of the World’s most endangered cetacean species are small cetaceans, NOT great whales.species are small cetaceans, NOT great whales.  Many species and populations are trouble, oftenMany species and populations are trouble, often in large part due to lack of knowledge/interest.in large part due to lack of knowledge/interest.  We need to focus much more attention on theseWe need to focus much more attention on these animals to avoid serious losses of cetaceananimals to avoid serious losses of cetacean biodiversity…biodiversity…
  39. 39. Bye bye……
  40. 40. Let’s not say good bye, just see you later……

×