Organic Chemistry Aka Carbon chemistry It is a major branch of chemistry It contains Hydrocarbons (C and H) Carbon forms chains involving severalcarbon atoms linked to each other in astraight line, circular pattern, or branchedpattern There are 3 major types: Alkanes, Alkenes,and AlkynesWhat is it?
Examples of Chains Straight line Branched Circle PatternedIf you learn through images…
SaturationSaturated Hydrocarbons thathave the maximumnumber of Hydrogenatoms possible in thechain. Alkanes are saturatedUnsaturated Hydrocarbons thathave a lower numberof Hydrogen atomsthen the maximumnumber of that chain Alkenes and Alkynesare unsaturatedA N D
AlkanesAlkanes are straight chainedhydrocarbons that only containsingle bonds.Single bonds are when atomsshare only 2 electrons together.When drawing hydrocarbonchains, a single bond is shownwith a single, straight line. Likethis C – C .The general formula forHydrogen atoms to Carbonatoms is:NamingTo Name an Alkane youneed to know the newprefixes.The prefix you use dependson the number of Carbonatoms present in thehydrocarbon.Cn H2n+21 = meth2 = eth3 = prop4 = but5 = pent6 = hex7 = hept8 = oct9 = non10 = decFollow theprefixeswith „ane‟
Example of NamingA.123455 = PentSingle bonds = AlkanePentane8 = OctSingle bonds = AlkaneOctane
Naming Branched Chains1) Find the longest, continuous carbon chain and name.2) Count the number of Carbon atoms up to the positionof the branch. Count from the side that produces thelowest number.3) Name the branch using prefixes for the number ofCarbon atoms on the branch and a new ending of„yl‟ instead of „ane‟.4) Put all the information into this formula :step2 -step3 step1The prefixes and „ane‟ ending of the compound‟s name areused when naming any type of patterned chain. But, if thehydrocarbon chain has a branch or circle pattern there is moreyou have to add to it.There are 4 steps you can take to name a branched chain…
Example of Naming Branched ChainsB. Step 1:Step 2:Step 3:Step 4:Longest chain is 4 carbon atoms. So itis Butane.The branch is on the second chain,so the number is 2.The branch has one Carbon atomso its Meth + yl. Methyl.Put in the Formula :__ ______________2 3 12 - MethylbutaneAnswer =
Naming Branched ChainsC.Sometimes you get hydrocarbonchains that have multiple branches. Like ThisTo name this the steps are the same,but with some changes.When picking the number that thebranch is on, start with the branchesthat have the same name first. Thenyou write both numbers togetherwith a comma in-between them.(ex. 3,4-Butane)Then for step 3, if there are two ofthe same branches, you have toadd „di‟ at the beginning toindicate that there is two. (3,3-Diethyl)Now, if the two branches aren‟tthe same (ex. Methyl and ethyl)you write them in alphabeticalorder (ex. 2-Ethyl-3-Methyl).This one for example..Step 1: propaneStep 2: 2,2Step 3: Di + meth + yl = DimethylStep 4: 2,2 - dimethylpropane
Name Theses Compounds1 = meth2 = eth3 = prop4 = but5 = pent6 = hex7 = hept8 = oct9 = non10 = decAs a reminder…1. 2.3. 4.|– C –|– C –| | | | |– C – C – C – C – C –| | | | |– C –|* When naming, only the carbon atoms matter .Forconvince sake a dash = a Hydrogen atom. Also for number2, ignore the Hydrogen atoms because it just another wayof drawing it.Click for answers…
Answers to Naming Alkanes1. Ethane2. 2,3-Dimethylhexane3. 2-Methylhexane4. 3-Ethyl-3-Methylpentane
Questions on DrawingDraw the structural, line, condensed, and molecular diagrams for each1) Butane2) 3-Ethylpentane3) 3,3-Dimethylpentane4) 2-Methyl-3-Ethylpentane1 = meth2 = eth3 = prop4 = but5 = pent6 = hex7 = hept8 = oct9 = non10 = decOne more time…Click for answers…
Answers For Drawing AlkanesStructural Line Condensed MolecularCH3CH2CH2CH3 C4H10CH3CH2C3H6CH2CH3 C7H16CH3CH2C3H6CH2CH3 C7H16CH3C2H4C3H6CH2CH3 C8H18
Structural Isomers Organic Compoundsthat have the samemolecular formula but adifferent arrangement ofatoms Some compounds don‟thave structural isomers Having a differentstructural formula givesthe compounddifferent chemical andphysical properties. Even if both isomershave the samemolecular formula,their propertieschange.Pentane
Do They Have Isomers?1. Propane 2. Hextaneor not?Indicate whether they have Isomers or not, and how many. Ifthey do, draw them.Click for answers…No Isomers Yes. Five.
CycloalkanesCycloalkanes are hydrocarbonchains which connect in a circle.They create the 3rd and final typeof structural pattern for CarbonCompounds.To name these, all you have todo is put „cyclo‟ in front of theoriginal name of the carbons.When you have branches onthem, start counting from thebottom right of the circle.The general formula for Hydrogenatoms to Carbon atoms is:Cn H2n4 carbon atoms= ButaneConnected in acircle = „cyclo‟Cyclobutane5 carbon atoms= pentaneConnected in acircle = „cyclo‟The branch is onthe 3rd C = 3Branch has one C = Methyl3-Methylcyclopentane
Practise Questions For CycloAlkanesName Draw (structural, line, condensed, and molecular)1.2.1. 2-Ethyl-3-Methylcyclohexane2. 1-Butyl-3,3-DimethylcyclopentaneClick for answers…
Answers of AlkanesStructural Line Condensed Molecular1CH2CH2C3H5C2H3H2CH2C C9H182C4H7CH2C3H4H2CH2C C10H201. Cyclohexane2. 7,9-Diethyl-3,5-Dimethylcyclononane
2= di6=hexa10=deca3= tri7=hepta4=tetra8=octa5=penta9=nonaAlkyl HalidesAlkyl Halides are Hydrocarbonchains with Halogens attached tothem. This includes F, Cl, Br, and I.You name these the same way youwould name the branches butinstead of using a prefix and „yl‟ending, each halogen has its ownname.F =FluoroCl =ChloroBr =BromoI =IodoThis is the HaloGroupIf there are more then one of thesame kind of Halogen, the prefixesyou use are:If Halo and Alkyl are on the samehydrocarbon chain, it still goes inalphabetical order.1 C= Methane3 Cl = TrichloroTrichloromethne3 C= PropaneBranch= 2-methylHalo= 2-Iodo2-Iodo-2-methypropane5 points= cyclopentaneBr= 2-bromo2-Bromocyclopentane
Questions on Alkyl HalidesName Draw (structural, line, condensed, and molecular)1. 1-Chlorobutane2. 3,3-Difluorocyclohexane3. 2-Bromo-2-methylpropane2= di6=hexa10=deca3= tri7=hepta4=tetra8=octa5=penta9=nonaAs a reminder…Click for answers…
Answers of Alkyl HalidesStructural Line Condensed Molecular1CH3CH2CH2Cl C3H7Cl2CH2CH2CF2CH2H2CH2CH2C C6H10F23CH3C2H3BrCH3 C4H9Br1) 2-chlorocyclohexane2) Chloromethane3) Tetrachloromethane
Why Are Alkanes Important? Alkanes Wax (candles) Nylon (toothbrushes, Parachutes) Plastics/Polymers(in everything) Gasoline (gas for cars) Petrochemicals (tar, roofing) Cycloalkanes Asphalt (roads) Petroleum Jelly (cosmetics,medical purposes) Heavy oil (used for vehicles) Halo Groups Teflon (cooking equipment,beauty produces) Silicone polymers (electrical steel)What are Alkanes used for in real life
AlkenesAlkenes are organiccompounds that contain acarbon-carbon double bond.A double bond is when atomsshare 4 electrons. Whendrawing hydrocarbon chains,double bonds are shown withtwo parallel lines. Like this C = C.The General Formula forhydrogen atoms to carbonatoms is:Cn H2nNamingTo name Alkenes you usethe same prefixes as theAlkane but you change theending. Instead of using the„ane‟ ending for Alkanesyou put „ene‟.Unlike the single bondedAlkanes, you have toindicate where the doublebond is, in the name. Youput the number of whichbond the double bond is onfirst, a dash, and then theparent compound name.
Examples of Naming Alkenes1 2 Ethaneene7 points = heptaneCl on 4th carbon = 4-chloroDouble bond on 4th carbon = 4-heptene4-chloro-4-heptane6 points = hexaneIn circle = „cyclo‟Double bond on 3rd Carbon = 3 - hexene3-cyclohexene
Questions on AlkenesName Draw (structural, line, condensed, and molecular)1. 1-propene2. 1-iodo-1-flouro-2,2-diflouro-1-ethene3. 1-MethylcyclopenteneClick for answers…
Answers on AlkenesStructural Line Condensed Molecular1CH2CHCH3 C3H62CIFCF2 C2IF33CHC2H3CH2H2CH2C C6H101. Cyclohexene2. 2,3-dimethy-butene3. 4,5-bromo-4-cycooctene
AlkynesAlkynes are organiccompounds that contain acarbon-carbon triple bond.A triple bond is when atomsshare 6 electrons. Whendrawing hydrocarbon chains, atriple bond is shown by threeparallel lines. Like this C ≡ C .The General Formula forhydrogen atoms to carbonatoms is:Cn H2n-2NamingTo name Alkynes you usethe same prefixes asAlkanes and Alkenes, butagain you must change theendings.Instead of ending with „ane‟or „ene‟, you put „yne‟.Like Alkenes, you have toindicate where the triplebond is on the hydrocarbonchain. You write thenumber, a dash, then theparent compound namejust like Alkenes.
Examples on Naming AlkynesThere are 3 Carbon atoms = PropHas a triple bond = ynePropyneThere are 2 Carbon atoms = EthHas a triple bond = yneBromine on 2nd Carbon = 2-bromo2-bromoethyne8 points = octHas triple bond on 4th carbon = 4, yneIn a circle= cyclo4-cyclooctyne
Questions on AlkynesName Draw (structural, line, condensed, and molecular)Click for answers…1. Propyne2. 1-bromo-2-flouro-1-ethyne3. cycloheptyne1.2.3.
Answers on AlkynesStructural Line Condensed Molecular1CHCCH3 C3H42BrCCF C2BrF3CCH2CH2CH2HC2CH2CC C7H101. Ethyne2. 4,6-chloro-5-methyl-1-heptyne3. 3-butyl-4,5-methyl-1-cyclohexyne
Alcohols: FunctionalGroupsAlcohols are organic compounds thatcontain an OH group.A functional group, if you‟re wondering, is agroup of atoms in a molecule that givesthat molecule the ability to react in aspecific way or it gives it special traits.The OH in alcohols is drawn the same asthe halo group; as if the OH is coming off ofthe carbon.To name alcohols, you must1. Name the hydrocarbon without the OH2. See which carbon the OH is attached to3. Number from the side of thehydrocarbon which will result in thesmallest number for the OH4. Now take that number and place it infront of the name of the hydrocarbon(the parent hydrocarbon)5. Change the ending from “e” to “ol”To name Alcohols,2. 2-the OH is on thesecond C1. Pentane-there are 5 C’swhich makes itPentane2. 1-the OH is on 1-the Br is on 3- the H3C is on 23. 3- Bromo, 2Methylpentanol-you change the “e”to an “ol” because ithas the OH present3. 2- Ethanol-since theending is “ane”you change it to“ol”1. Ethane-there are 2 C’swhich makes itEthane(if there ismore thanjust OH, youlist them inalphabeticalorder)
Questions on Alcohols1. 3- Propanol2. 4-methyl- 3-hexenol1.2.Name Draw (structural, line, condensed, and molecular)Click for answers…
Structural Line Condensed Molecular1CH3CH2CH2OH C3H8O2CH2CH2CH2OC2H4H2CH2C C7OH13Answers for Alcohols1. 2-ethanol2. 2-cyclohexenol
Aldehydes Ketone Ethers Amines Amides Carboxylic AcidsOther Functional GroupsThere are many different kinds offunctional groups and here are just afew that you should identify. Aldehydes Contains a C=O group on the end of thehydrocarbon chain. Ketone Contains a C=O group in a positionOTHER THAN the end of the hydrocarbonchain. Ethers Contains an oxygen that joins twohydrocarbons Amines Contains NH3 Amides Contains CONH2 Carboxylic Acids Contains COOH
Picking Them Out Of A Crowd1. 22.214.171.124.6.Click for answers…Which Functional Group is which