Live communication using interactive technologies for young learners: a French-German EFL tandem task

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EuroCALL 2013 presentation; Evora, Portugal; 11/09/13

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Live communication using interactive technologies for young learners: a French-German EFL tandem task

  1. 1. Live communication using interactive technologies for young learners: a French-German EFL tandem task Shona Whyte Université Nice Sophia Antipolis Euline Cutrim Schmid University of Education Schwäbisch- Gmünd
  2. 2. • live video communication • young learners of English as a lingua franca • IWB for interactional support Whyte & Cutrim Schmid (forthcoming) Live communication using interactive technologies for young learners: a French- German EFL tandem task EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  3. 3. projector touch sensitive screen computer EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  4. 4. • SMART board • Notebook software • Bridgit plug-in • video link + screensharing Video communication video insert IWB page EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  5. 5. IWB-supported video communication with young learners • rationale • background literature • French-German tandem project • discussion • further research EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  6. 6. IWB research • increased motivation • faster pace • digital hub advantages Cutrim Schmid & Whyte, 2012 drawbacks o easily integrated into any pedagogical approach (e.g., teacher- fronted) o need for ongoing teacher support EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  7. 7. http://itilt.eu EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  8. 8. 7 countries 6 languages website with video examples of IWB- supported classroom practice with additional materials Dutch English French Spanish Turkish Welsh Belgium France Germany Netherlands Spain Turkey UK primary secondary university vocational 4 sectors 44 teachers, 81 films, 267 clips EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  9. 9. Iimited interactional opportunities • one learner at IWB in front of whole class • technical rather than pedagogical interactivity • pedagogical exercises rather than tasks iTILT: Alexander, Beauchamp, Cutrim Schmid, Hillier, van Hazebrouck & Whyte EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  10. 10. new research question How can we support teachers in exploiting IWB affordances with more impact on classroom interaction? • authentic communicative situation • synchronous oral communication • task-based approach • visual support for listening and speaking • pair/small group learner-learner interaction “The Sneaky Way” De Bot, 2007 EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  11. 11. VC = video communication 1. videoconferencing: special equipment for video link (e.g., PolyCom) 2. video calling or video chat: desktop software or internet browser (e.g., Skype, Google hangout) 3. web conferencing (e.g., Adobe Connect) EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  12. 12. VC pedagogy TEACHING OBJECTIVE TEACHING/LEARNING ACTIVITIES ROLE IN TEACHING PROGRAMME access to remote expertise instructional presentation familiarisation session class to class exchange whole-class activities substitution for face-to-face teaching learner-to- learner interaction task-based teaching enhancement of face-to-face teaching EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  13. 13. VC pedagogy TEACHING OBJECTIVE ACTIVITIES ROLE IN TEACHING PROGRAMME access to remote expertise Macrory et al: TELLP instructional presentation Pritchard et al: MustLearnIt familiarisation session Whyte class to class exchange Favaro; Gruson; Macrory et al whole-class activities Gruson; Pritchard et al; Whyte substitution for face- to-face teaching Macrory et al; Pritchard et al; Whyte learner-to-learner interaction Favaro; Le Bian task-based teaching Develotte et al; Gruson; Macrory et al enhancement of face- to-face teaching Comber et al; Jauregi et al; O’Dowd EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  14. 14. VC research • technical problems with sound/image quality • practical difficulties establishing exchange • familiarisation and whole-class sessions less effective than integrated enhancement programmes • predominance of “practised routines” and “teacher mediation” EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  15. 15. present study extreme test of IWB and VC affordances ● young beginner EFL learners ● English as a lingua franca ● whole-class familiarisation session EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  16. 16. action research design EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  17. 17. Participants: Teachers French teacher German Teacher Generalist primary school teacher Generalist primary school teacher 20 years of classroom experience 5 years of classroom experience Technologically fluent (experienced IWB user) Level of IWB technology expertise relatively low Previous experience with VC First experience with VC Bilingual (French-Spanish) with special motivation for FL teaching Recent pre-service training in FL teaching (communicative and task based approaches) EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  18. 18. Participants: Learners French learners German Learners 25 pupils - aged 8-9 – third of five years of formal primary schooling 25 pupils - aged 7-8 – second of four years of formal primary schooling. One single 90 minute-session of English per week (first year of EFL) Two 45-minute sessions of English per week (second year of EFL) General pattern of EFL activities: ● whole class teacher-led presentation, ● carousel activities, individual listening exercises, worksheets, ● short closing plenary session Varied EFL activities: ● lessons taught in English ● storytelling, ● singing, ● role plays, games, ● arts and crafts. Used IWB regularly in all subjects Beginner users of IWBs Previous experience with VC exchange (one Skype session) No previous experience with VC EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  19. 19. VC Sessions: Classroom Organization German set up: In the German class the VC sessions were run as a whole-class activity with rotating individual activity at the IWB or camera observed by the other learners. French set up: In France the VC activity was one of three separate carousel activities, observed only by the small group at the interactive display (session 1) or IWB (session 2). EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  20. 20. ID Card: First Session Aim: Learners introduce themselves. Their interaction is supported by a prepared IWB file with learners’ names and photos. 90-minute VC activity: Each set of learners introduced themselves in turn while a learner in the remote class dragged and dropped image and text elements on the IWB page to construct and identity card for each speaker. Follow-up session: learners pooled their knowledge to identify the pupils in a large photograph of the whole exchange class. EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  21. 21. ID Card Session: First Exchange Isabelle (FR) talks to Sophia (DE) EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  22. 22. ID Card Session: First Exchange French learner Isabelle introduces herself to German learner Sophia. The exchange takes two minutes and Isabelle takes nine turns. For six of these turns she’s prompted verbally in French or through gesture by the teacher. She speaks loudly and fluently, with some pauses between a few chunks. Isabelle’s participation is largely structured by the teacher, who supplied the missing opening and closing routines. However, the learner also takes her cue from Sophia, checking her camera feed and her actions at the IWB. EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  23. 23. ID Card Session: First Exchange German learner Sophia explicitly requests help (what do I do) in the beginning, and like Isabelle, is guided throughout the exchange by gesture and verbally. Both adults repeat the English utterances, and ratify her actions (very good, super) on three occasions. . Sophia also takes the initiative when she selects and positions Isabelle’s photographs before attending the following information. In end there is no closing salutation from the German learner (who is too far from the camera and microphone to make this feasible). EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  24. 24. Funny Animals: Second Session Aim: Learners describe the “funny animals” they had drawn in a previous lesson. Their interaction is supported by a prepared IWB file with body parts (head, body and legs) of ten different animals. 90-minute VC activity Learners described their “funny animals”, while a learner in the remote class dragged and dropped the correct body/animal combinations to the IWB page to construct the correct funny animal. Learners then showed their drawings via the Webcam so that the remote class could check if their IWB picture was correct. Follow-up session in Germany: learners carried out the same activity with their peers. EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  25. 25. Funny Animal Session: 8th Exchange Silvester (DE) talks to Louise (FR) EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  26. 26. Funny Animal Session: 8th Exchange This sequence is part of a longer exchange in which Silvester (a German pupil) is describing his funny animal. The sequence shown in the video takes 01:40 minutes and Silvester takes 8 turns. Silvester speaks loudly and fluently and has to repeat his sentences several times to the French pupils, who interact directly with him by using confirmation checks (e.g. Is this correct?), to which he replies: “yes” or “no”. Silvester’s participation is only structured by the teacher in the end when she asks him to show his drawing. In the other parts of the exchange he interacted confidently and independently with with the remote class. EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  27. 27. Funny Animal Session: 8th Exchange The French pupils worked in pairs: in the first part of this exchange, Charlotte is at the IWB. Now it is Louise’s turn. The French teacher is close behind (out of shot). Although the classroom is quiet, the sound quality is poor and the pupils have difficulty understanding Silvester. The French teacher scaffolds their contributions by suggesting compensatory strategies in French (trial and error, confirmation checks) and repeating Silvester’s utterances. The French pupils are thus less independent than Silvester, but take initiatives to help each other and to create a pleasing animal shape using IWB tools for resizing. They are pleased to check their result against Silvester’s drawing. EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  28. 28. Discussion: interaction • Teachers tried to allow the pupils to interact directly with the remote class to foster pupil-pupil interaction without teacher intervention. • In the second session the pupils were provided with less language support on the IWB page (only pictures). As a result, they had to draw more on their syntactical and lexical knowledge to create utterances on the spot. • The French pupils had practiced with animals and body parts that did not exactly match the final materials. As a result, they invented new animals on the spot using the images on the IWB page. EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  29. 29. Discussion: participant feedback • Learners were enthusiastic, (over)confident about own communication skills, interested in intercultural aspects • Teachers appreciated VC and IWB software affordances, but highlighted technical and practical difficulties • Teachers expressed desire to foster interactivity and learner autonomy, although their activity design and classroom behaviour was sometimes in contradiction with this goal EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013 Intention to continue project with more integrated, open, small-group activities over school year (cf O’Dowd, 2010)
  30. 30. Limit teacher mediation? I can supervise both ends because I’m only there for supervision purposes. If the communication breaks down because they can’t understand each other, I have to chip in and help, but I don’t actually say: “Now you speak … now you speak,”they do it on their own. Comber et al, 2004: Le Bian, 2007 EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  31. 31. Alexander, J. (2013). The IWB in EFL, the IWB for EFL: using the IWB to teach EFL in French educational settings. (Unpublished master's thesis). Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France. Comber, C., T. Lawson, J. Gage, A. Cullum-Hanshaw, and T. Allen. (2004). Report for schools of the DfES videoconferencing in the classroom project. University of Leicester, University of Cambridge. Cutrim Schmid, E. & Whyte, S. (2012). Interactive Whiteboards in School Settings: Teacher Responses to Socio-constructivist Hegemonies.  Language Learning and Technology 16 (2), 65-86.  De Bot, K. (2007). Language teaching in a changing world. The Modern Language Journal, 91(2), 274-276. Develotte, C., Guichon, N., and Kern, R. (2007) «Allo Berkeley? Ici Lyon... Vous nous voyez bien? Etude d'un dispositif d’enseignement- apprentissage en ligne synchrone franco-américain à travers les discours de ses usagers. ALSIC, 11 (2), 129-156. Favaro, L. (2012). Web-Videoconferencing, a Tool to Motivate Primary School Children Learning a Foreign Language: Two Case Studies. EL. LE Educazione linguistica. Language education, 1(2). http:// edizionicf.unive.it/index.php/ELLE/article/view/249/220 Favaro L. (2011). «Videoconferencing as a Tool to Provide an Authentic Foreign Language Environment for Primary School Children: Are We Ready for It?», in Rata G. (ed.), Academic Days in Timisoara: Language Education Today, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Gruson, B. (2011). Analyse comparative d'une situation de communication orale en classe ordinaire et lors d'une séance en visioconférence. Distances et savoirs, 8(3), 395-423. Gruson, B., & Barnes, F. (2012a). Case study investigation of CMC with young language learners. Journal of e- Learning and Knowledge Society, 8(3). References EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  32. 32. Gruson, B., & Barnes, F. (2012b). What is the impact of video conferencing on the teaching and learning of a foreign language in primary education? Eurocall Review, 20(1). http://www.eurocall-languages.org/review/ 20/papers_20/15_gruson.pdf Hillier, E., Beauchamp, G., & Whyte, S. (2013). A study of self-efficacy in the use of interactive whiteboards across educational settings: a European perspective from the iTILT project. Educational Futures, 5 (2) Jauregi, K., & Bañados, E. (2008). Virtual interaction through video-web communication: A step towards enriching and internationalizing language learning programs. ReCALL, 20(2), 183-207. Le Bian, P. (2007) Compte-rendu et analyses d’échanges linguistiques entre des écoliers brestois et des écoliers anglais grâce à un système de visioconférence. [Summary and analysis of language exchanges between Brest and English pupils via videoconferencing] http://sanquer. brestecoles.net/images/ dossiervisiosite3b Macedo-Rouet, M. (2009). La visioconférence dans l'enseignement. [Videoconferencing in teaching] Distances et savoirs, 7(1), 65-91. Macrory, G. 2010. Technology-enhanced language learning pedagogy (TELLP) 134244-2007-UK-COMENIUS- CMP. Final report to EACEA. http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/llp/projects/public_parts/documents/comenius/acc_mes_final_report_2007/ com_mp_134244_tellp.pdf Macrory, G., Chrétien, L., & Ortega-Martín, J. L. (2012). Technologically enhanced language learning in primary schools in England, France and Spain: developing linguistic competence in a technologically enhanced classroom environment. Education 3-13, 40(4), 433-444. Macrory, G., Chrétien, L., & Ortega, J. (undated). Technology-enhanced language learning pedagogy (TELLP): a project report and handbook for teachers http://www.tellp.org/docs/project_outcomes/TELLP%20Book.pdf EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  33. 33. O’Dowd, R. (2010). Online foreign language interaction: Moving from the periphery to the core of foreign language education?. Language Teaching,44(3), 368-380. http://www3.unileon.es/personal/wwdfmrod/ LTJ.pdf Pritchard, A., Hunt, M., & Barnes, A. (2010). Case study investigation of a videoconferencing experiment in primary schools, teaching modern foreign languages. Language Learning Journal, 38(2), 209-220. Whyte, S. (2011). Learning to teach with videoconferencing in primary foreign language classrooms. ReCALL 23(3): 271–293. Whyte, S., & Alexander, J. (2013). Learning to Use Interactive Technologies for Language Teaching: Video Diaries for Teacher Support in the iTILT Project. Atelier didactique, SAES, Dijon, 18 May. Whyte, S., Beauchamp, G., & Hillier, E. (2012). Perceptions of the IWB for second language teaching and learning: the iTILT project. In L. Bradley & S. Thouësny (Eds.), CALL: Using, Learning, Knowing, EUROCALL Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 22-25 August 2012, Proceedings (pp. 320-6). © Research-publishing.net Dublin. Whyte, S., & Cutrim Schmid, E. (forthcoming). A task-based approach to video communication with the IWB: a French-German primary EFL class exchange. In Cutrim Schmid, E., & Whyte, S. (Eds.). Interactive whiteboards and language teacher professional development. Advances in Digital Language Learning and Teaching (Series editors: Michael Thomas, Mark Warschauer & Mark Peterson). Continuum. Whyte, S., Cutrim Schmid, E., & van Hazebrouck, S. (2011). Designing IWB Resources for Language Teaching: the iTILT Project. International Conference on ICT for Language Learning, 4th Edition. Simonelli Editore.  Whyte, S., Cutrim Schmid, E., van Hazebrouck, S., & Oberhofer, M. (2013). Open educational resources for CALL teacher education: the iTILT interactive whiteboard project.  Computer Assisted Language Learning. EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013
  34. 34. Live communication using interactive technologies for young learners: a French- German EFL tandem task Shona Whyte whyte@unice.fr http://efl.unice.fr @whyshona Euline Cutrim Schmid euline.cutrim.schmid@ph-gmuend.de http://www.sjschmid.de/euline/ EuroCALL Evora, Portugal 11 September 2013

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