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Interaction and Developmental sequences


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SLA lecture on the role of input and interaction in interlanguage development, and on developmental sequences

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Interaction and Developmental sequences

  1. 1. Learning theory and SLA ● Interlanguage, input, interaction ● Learner errors, learner varieties
  2. 2. Interlanguage Selinker, 1972 Learner language is not just ● Incorrect, L1-influenced language ● Random errors in language output Learner language is systematic ● Learner errors have an internal logic ● Different learners go through the same stages
  3. 3. 1. Input hypothesis ● Krashen's Monitor Model – Acquisition versus learning – Natural order hypothesis – Comprehensible input at i + 1 is the necessary and sufficient condition for learning – Monitoring is limited – Affective filter prevents learning under stress
  4. 4. 2. Interaction ● Interaction hypothesis – Susan Gass ● Output hypothesis – Merrill Swain
  5. 5. SLA research SLA research Developmental sequences
  6. 6. DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCES The acquisition of morphemes or syntactic constructions appears in stages ● which are not taught ● which occur in all learners.
  7. 7. Cross-linguistic study: acquisition of the past ● Bardovi-Harlig compared • untutored and tutored learners ● and found that all the learners passed through the same stages.
  8. 8. UNTUTORED (natural, TUTORED (classroom ‘street’ learners of learners of French, English, German) English) 1. no explicit reference • no tense/aspect 1. no reference morphology • scaffolding, chronological order 2. adverbials 2, 3 adverbials, 3. emergence of verbal morphology verbal morphology 4. increasingly systematic use 4. systematic 5. very systematic (80%) 6. reverse order reports 7. pluperfect
  9. 9. 2 conclusions: a) instruction can alter the rate but not the route of acquisition b) instructed learners may progress further than untutored learners
  10. 10. Developmental sequences ● a series of versions of the language ● gradual progress towards targetlike production ● formally correct ● used appropriately
  11. 11. Before reaching the target, learners pass through incorrect stages which still indicate progress 1a Yesterday I tell John something 1b Yesterday I telled John something 1b is better, because the past is marked.
  12. 12. Error-free production is not necessarily the best measure of progress 2a John is talking to the man. The man is his brother. 2b The man who John is talking to him is his brother. 2b indicates more complex language